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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

554 



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§3 Sc ientific Library & 

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16—53001-1 



THE 

AMERICAN 

ournal of Pharmacy 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PH I LADELPH i A ' COttEGE • OF PHARMACY, 

i 

- » i F.DIu'EDjB.Y'-, 

,;. HENRY KRAEMEK. ' ' 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR 1903. 

HENRY N. RITTENHOUSE, JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER, RICHARD V. MATTISON, 

WALLACE PROCTER, JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME 75 



% PHILADELPHIA 

1903. 

81728 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, 1903. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 
FOR THE UNIFICATION OF THE FORMULAE OF 
POTENT MEDICAMENTS. 

(HELD AT BRUSSELS, SEPTEMBER 1 5 -20, 1902.) 

By Frederick B. Power. 

A comparatively short period of time has elapsed since Dr. 
Frederick Hoffmann, of Berlin, contributed to this Journal (July-Sep- 
tember, 1 901) a very complete and interesting series of papers, en- 
titled, " The International Pharmaceutical Congresses," which afford 
a comprehensive history of these organizations from the time of their 
inception — at the meeting of a French pharmaceutical society held 
at Strasburg, in 1864 — to the Congress at Paris in 1900, which was 
the ninth of those inaugurated during the intervening years. In his 
presentation of the subject, Dr. Hoffmann has reviewed in a thor- 
ough and systematic manner the motives and guiding principles of 
these congresses and the scope of their deliberations. He has also 
clearly shown that, as hitherto constituted, they had failed to 
accomplish the purpose intended, and had been unproductive of 
any very definite or substantial results. 1 

In view of these facts, and, to a certain extent, as supplementary 
to the above-mentioned papers, it has seemed desirable that a some- 
what complete account should be recorded of the Conference 

1 Compare also the report of Professor Remington on the International 
Pharmaceutical Congress held at Brussels in 1897 (Proc. Amer. Phar. Assoc., 
1898, pp. 103- [08. ) 

[Editor's Note. — A group photograph of the delegates to the International 
Conference was made to accompany this article, but the copies were delayed 
en route from England, and will be inserted in a later issue.] 

(1) 



2 



International Conference. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1903. 



recently held at Brussels, which was designated by the title forming 
the subject of this communication. 

It will be observed, as the title implies, that this Conference was 
quite distinct in its character from the various pharmaceutical con- 
gresses that have preceded it, although it was a development of 
them. It was international not only in name, but in fact, as will 
be seen by the countries represented, the delegates from which 
were appointed by their respective governments. Its chief and 
most important distinction, however, was its restriction to the con- 
sideration of plans for securing international uniformity in strength 
of potent medicines only. As a result of this limitation of its scope, 
it is believed to have satisfactorily accomplished its task, and to 
have achieved a measure of success which was not possible with 
that wider range of discussion — involving such diverse topics as 
pharmaceutical education and titles, the regulation of the practice 
of pharmacy, and particularly the compilation of a complete inter- 
national pharmacopoeia — which had characterized and rendered inef- 
fective all preceding pharmaceutical congresses. 

The initiative for convening the recent Conference at Brussels 
proceeded from the Paris Congress in 1 900, and was based upon a 
proposition offered by Professor Tschirch, of Berne, which, as finally 
adopted, was as follows : 

" To have a comparative table prepared showing the differences 
in strength of medicaments bearing the same name in different 
pharmacopoeias. To have this table distributed to the pharmaco- 
poeia commissions, to the academies of medicine and the pharma- 
ceutical colleges and associations of the various countries, with the 
request to take this matter into due. consideration at their next 
pharmacopoeia revision, and to adopt, so far as possible, a uniform 
standard of strength, and where differences still remain, to call 
attention to such in footnotes. 

" To ask the Belgian Government to arrange with other govern- 
ments a Conference in Brussels, and to ask all the delegates ap- 
pointed to such a Conference to have their proposals ready to lay 
before the meeting whenever this may be called." 

In accordance with this recommendation, and with a proposition 
emanating from the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium, the 
delegates appointed by the respective governments met in Brussels 
on September 15, 1902. The sessions were held in apartments 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1 90S. i 



International Conference. 



3 



which were placed at the disposal of the Conference by the Belgian 
Government, and were in close proximity to the group of fine public 
buildings situated in the Rue de la Loi. The proceedings of the 
Conference were initiated by an address by Baron van der Bruggen, 
Minister of Agriculture and Hygiene, who, on behalf of the Belgian 
Government, extended a most cordial welcome to the delegates. 
This was responded to by Professor Gariel, of Paris, who, in the 
name of the delegates, nominated, as President of the Conference, 
Dr. A. Devaux, Inspector-General of the Belgian Department of 
Public Health and Hygiene. Mr. Van Hulst, of the Department of 
Public Health, was appointed Secretary, and Messrs. Heptia and 
Sterck served as Assistant Secretaries. 

The various countries participating in the Conference were repre- 
sented by the following delegates: 

Austria- Hungary — Prof. August Vogl, Austria ; Dr. Louis Toth, 
Hungary. 

Belgium — Dr. A. Devaux, Prof. G. Bruylants, Prof. J. B. Depaire, 
Prof. A. Jorissen, Prof. J. F. Heymans, Prof. F. Ranwez, Mr. L. Van 
Hulst. 

Bulgaria — Mr. Alexander Iv. Naidenovitch. 
Denmark— Mr. H. J. M oiler. 

France — Prof. Gariel, Prof. Bourquelot, Mr. Yvon. 

Germany — Prof. Binz, Prof. E. Schmidt, Dr. Rost. 

Great Britain — Dr. Donald MacAlister. 

Government of India — Lieut.-Col. J. Reid. 

Italy — Senator Emmanuel Paterno di Sessa. 

Luxemburg (Grand Duchy) — Dr. Fonck, Mr. Gusenburger. 

The Netherlands— -Prof. B. J. Stokvis, Dr. Van Itallie, Dr. Greshoff. 

Norway — Prof. Poulsson. 

Russia — Prof. W. A. Tikhomirow. 

Sweden— Prof. S. John. 

Switzerland— -Prof. Alex. Tschirch, Mr. C. Buhrer. 

United States of America — Dr. H. C. Wood, Dr. F. B. Power. 

The only absent delegates were : Prof. G. Pouchet, France ; Prof. 
A. Damberghes, Greece ; Dr. F. Schmid, Switzerland, and Count 
de Tovar, Portugal. 

The proceedings of the first day consisted of a detailed explana- 
tion by the President of the objects of the Conference, which was 
followed by the submission of certain definite rules by which the 



4 



International Conference. 



f Am. Jour. Pharcn. 
(. January. 1903. 



delegates were to be guided in their work ;' all of which were 
adopted. 

The ensuing four days were occupied with a discussion of details 
relating to a list of potent medicaments which had been submitted 
to the delegates in the form of a preliminary draft, and for which it 
was proposed that a uniform standard of strength or precise defini- 
tion of character should be decided upon. In the course of these 
proceedings some special propositions were presented for considera- 
tion by a few of the delegates. These were submitted in a previ- 
ously elaborated and printed form by the delegations from the Nether- 
lands, Switzerland and Greece, and comprised a considerable num- 
ber of detailed suggestions. The delegate from Denmark, Mr. H. 
J. Moller, likewise submitted special propositions for the unification 
of the formulae of tinctures and medicinal wines, and for the adop- 
tion of the normal drop counter of the French Codex of 1884. 

It would naturally be impracticable in this place to attempt a 
detailed account of the various propositions submitted to the Confer- 
ence, and the discussions thereon, which are contained in the official 
report of the proceedings. The latter, forming a volume of 156 
quarto pages, in the French language, was published and distrib- 
uted, with remarkable promptitude, about four weeks after the close 
of the Conference. With consideration, however, of the consider, 
able number of those who may be interested in this subject, but to 
whom the official report may not be available, it would seem desir- 
able to record the final recommendations of the Conference, as 
adopted at the closing session. These were as follows : 

ARTICLE I. 

It is proposed that the medicaments here enumerated should 
receive the following Latin designations, and that they should be 
prepared in accordance with the directions placed opposite their 
names. 

Name of Medicament. Directioiis for preparation. 

Aconitum Napellus, L. 

Aconiti tuber seu Tuber Acou- f 0nl ^ the tuber of the current year to be 
m j employed, in a dry state. In preparing 

^ the powder no residue should be left, 
f To be prepared by percolation with alcohol 

. . • of 70 per cent, by volume. This tincture 

Aconiti tinctura seu Tinctura , ^ , , . , 

\coniti standardized to 0^025 per cent, of 

total alkaloids by a method to be hereafter 
L determined. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1903. j 



International Conference. 



5 



Name of Medicament. Directions for Preparation. 
Atropa Belladonna, L. 

^ ,, , c « v f Only the drv leaf to be employed. In pre- 

Belladonnse folium seu Folium J J . - ^ J ^ 

Belladonna 1 P ann § the powder no residue should be 

^ left. 

Belladonnse tinctura seu Tine- f To be prepared of io per cent, strength by 
tura Belladonnae. ^ percolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 

f A solid extract, containing about 10 per 

Belladonnse extractum seu Ex- j cent, of water, to be prepared by means of 

tractum Belladonnae. j 70 per cent, alcohol. The alkaloidal 

strength will be subsequently defined. 

Colchicum autumnale, L. 

Colchici semen seu Semen Col- f ^ u q -, , , , -, 

< The seed only, not the corm, to be employed, 
chici. I 

Colchici tinctura seu Tinctura f To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 

Colchici. I eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Digitalis purpurea, L. 

Digitalis folium seu Folium f The leaf of the second year to be employed. 

Digitalis 1 ^ n P re P ar i n & tne powder no residue should 
g 1 ' 1 be left. 

Digitalis tinctura seu Tinctura r To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 

Digitalis. \ eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 
Uragoga Ipecacuanha, BailL 

f The powder to be prepared from the bark of 

Ipecacuanhse radix seu Radix the root, and the ligneous portion rejected. 

Ipecacuanhse. j The powder should contain 2 per cent, of 

1 alkaloids. 

Ipecacuanhse tinctura seu Tine- f To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 

tura Ipecacuanhse. I eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Ipecacuanha, sirupus seu ^r- / prepare with 10 per cent of the tincture. 

upus Ipecacuanhse. <- 
Hyoscyamus niger, L. 

Hyoscyami folium seu Folium ( , c , , u , -, 

J < The leaf only to be employed. 
Hyoscyami. <- 

Hyoscyami tinctura seu Tinctura j To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 

Hyoscyami. t eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Hvoscvami extractum seu Ex- f A solid extract, containing about 10 per cent, 

tractum Hyoscyami. 1 of water ' to be P re P ared by means of 70 

^ per cent, alcohol. 

Strychnos Nux yomica, L. 

Strychni semen seu Semen f , , , . - „ • ., ., 

_r , . . i Should contain 2 -5 per cent, of alkaloids. 
Strychni seu Nux vomica. C 



Strychni seu Nux vomica 
Strychni tinctura seu Tinctura 
Strychni ; Nucis vomicae tinc- 
tura seu Tinctura Nucis vomi- 
cae. 

Strychni extractum seu Ex- f 

tractum Strychni; Nucis vomi- I To be prepared by means of 70 per cent, 
cae extractum seu Extractum j alcohol Alkaloidal strength 16 per cent. 
Nucis vomicae. - I 



To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 
colation with 70 per cent, alcohol. Alka* 
loidal strength 0*25 per cent. 



6 



International Conference. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( January, 1903. 



Name of Medicament. Directions for Preparation. 

Opii pulvis seu Pulvis Opii. { The P owder to be dried at 6o ° C " and to 

contain 10 per cent, of morphine. 

Opii extractum seu Extractum f , , , , . . c , . 

v { Should contain 20 per cent, of morphine. 

Opii. I v 

!To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 
colation with 70 per cent, alcohol. Should 
contain i per cent, of morphine. 

Opii tinctura crocata seu Tine- r 

tura Opii crocata seu Lauda- -j Should contain 1 per cent, of morphine. 

num Sydenhami. ^ 

Opii et Ipecacuanhae pulvis com- r 

., ... . ■{ Should contain 10 per cent, of Pulvis Opii. 

positus seu Pulvis Doveri. (_ F F 

Opii tinctura benzoica , i eu Tine- r 

tura Opii benzoica. { Strength in morphine 05 per cent. 

{To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 
eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol; the 
seed not to be deprived of fat. 

Sclerotium clavicepitis purpuras 
Tut. seu Clavicepitis purpuras 
Tut. sclerotium. 

Secale cornutum seu Ergotum f Ergot not more than one-year old, and to be 
secale. I kept in its entire state. 



Secalis cornuti extractum seu 



Extractum Secalis cornuti ; j p rep are an aqueous extract, and take up the 
Ergoti extractum seu Extrac- j i atter w ith 60 per cent, alcohol, 
turn Ergoti. L 
Secalis cornuti extractum fluid- f 
um seu Extractum fluidum I 

Secalis cornuti ; Ergoti ex- Of 100 per cent, strength. 

tractum fluidum seu Extrac- j 

turn fluidum Ergoti. [_ ' 

Acidum hydrocyanicum dilu- r 

^ nm I Of 2 per cent, strength. 

Laurocerasi aqua seu Aqua Lau- r — . _ 

-< To contain o'lb per cent. HCN. 
rocerasi. t r 

Amygdalae amarae aqua seu j ^ Q contain o'lo per cent. HCN. 

Aqua Amygdalae amarae. t 
Phenoli solutio seu Aqua phe I f 2 per cent, strength. 

nolata. ^ 
Arsenas sodii seu Sodii arsenas; r The crystallized saltj containing 36-85 per 
Arsenicicum natrium seu Na- cent of arsenic acid 
trium arsenicicum. v. 
Arsenicalis Liquor Fowled seu r 

Liquor arsenicalis Fowleri seu -J To contain 1 per cent, of arsenious acid. 
Kalii arsenicosi liquor. i. 
Ferri iodidi sirupus seu Sirupus r Tq cQntaiu g pef ceut of anhydrous ferrous 
iodeti ferrosi seu Sirupus ferri - iodide 



iodati. 



Am. J oi r. Pharm.) 
Jannar y, 1903. J 



hit er national Conference. 



7 



Name of Medicament. Directions for Preparation . 

Cantharidis tinctura seu Tine- f To be made of io per cent, strength by per- 
tura Cantharidis. I eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Iodi tinctura sen Tinctura Iodi. { ° f 10 P er cent stren S th > P re P ared with 95 

L per cent, alcohol. 

Lobelias tinctura seu Tinctura f To be made of 10 per cent, strength by per- 

Ivobelise. ^ eolation with 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Cocainum hydrochloricum. The anhydrous salt. 

Hydrargyri unguentutn seu Un- f Qf ^ per cent strength 

gueutum Hydrargyri. <- 

Antimoniale vinum sea Vinum r 

antimoniale; Stibiatum vinum \ To contain 0*40 per cent, of tartar emetic. 

seu Vinum stibiatum. v 

ARTICLE II. 

In future the following principles should be observed : 

(a) A potent medicament should not be prepared in the form of a 
medicinal wine. 

(b) Tinctures of potent drugs should be made of io per cent, 
strength, and by percolation. 

(c) Fluid extracts of potent drugs should be of 100 per cent, 
strength. 

ARTICLE III. 

It would be expedient to adopt a normal drop counter, of which 
the external diameter of the dropping tube should be exactly 3 
millimetres. In other words, at a temperature of 15 C, and with 
distilled water, 20 drops should be equivalent to 1 gramme. 

It was decided that the proposals of the Conference, as above 
detailed, should be reported by the delegates as soon as possible to 
their several governmental authorities, with the recommendation 
that they be adopted at the next revision of their respective Phar- 
macopoeias. The final protocol, having been unanimously approved, 
was signed on September 20, 1902, by all the delegates from the 
countries represented who were present at the closing session, with 
the exception of those from Germany. The delegates from the 
latter country had previously announced that, although their gov- 
ernment was entirely in sympathy with the work of the Conference, 
their instructions did not authorize them to sign the protocol. The 
signatories were as follows : 

Austria- Hungary : 

Austtia — Dr. Augusto Vogl. 
Hungary — Dr. Louis de Toth. 



3 



International Conference. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January. 1903. 



Belgium — Alf. Devaux, J. B. Depaire, G. Bruylants, A. Jorissen, 
F. J. Heymans, Fernand Ranwez, L. Van Hulst. 
Bulgaria — Al. I. Naidenovitch. 
Denmark — H. J. Moller. 

France — C. M. Gariel, Em. Bourquelot, P. Yvon. 

Great Britain — Donald MacAlister. 

British India — Jas. Reid. 

Italy — Emmanuel Paterno di Sessa. 

Luxemburg — Dr. Fonck, H. Gusenburger. 

The Netherlands — B. J. Stokvis, L. van Itallie, M. GreshofL 

Norway — E. Poulsson. 

Russia — W. A. Tikhomirow. 

Sweden — Severin Jolin. 

Switzerland — A. Tschirch, C. Buhrer. 

United States of America — Frederick B. Power. 1 

It was somewhat to be regretted that the delegates representing 
the United States and Great Britain should have received from their 
respective governments the official intimation of their appointment 
but a few weeks before the opening of the Conference, as sufficient 
time was thus not available to enable them to formulate and present, 
in advance of the meeting, a more comprehensive expression of their 
views respecting the various subjects to be brought forward for dis- 
cussion. 

One of the subjects in this connection which had suggested itself 
to the writer as worthy of careful consideration was the desirability 
of adopting the well-defined active principles of certain drugs — 
alkaloids, glucosides, etc., in the place of their so-called galenical 
preparations. Such a proposal should naturally be consistent with 
existing knowledge respecting the physiological action of the drugs 
and that of the active principles that have thus far been isolated 
from them, and would thus have some well-recognized and positive 
limitations. The fact was therefore not overlooked that some 
valuable medicinal drugs are not represented, and cannot be replaced, 
by a single active constituent, even though the latter may be most 
useful in itself. This is notably the case with opium, which will 

*Dr. K. C. Wood, who also represented the United States as a delegate, and 
took an active part in the deliberations of the Conference, was unable to be 
present at the closing session on account of arrangements for his homeward 
journey. 



Am. Jour. Pharru.) 
January; 1903. / 



International Conference. 



9 



probably always have a place in the pharmacopoeias, quite inde- 
pendently of the extended use of morphine. A similar condition 
exists with regard to rhubarb and a number of other drugs, which 
cannot as yet be replaced by any known constituent of them. 
There are, however, instances where such conditions do not exist, 
and where in the interests of medical science — to which pharmacy 
should always be contributory — pure and well-defined chemical 
substances may, with advantage, replace the crude drugs and the 
variable and sometimes worthless preparations, such as tinctures, 
extracts, etc., which are made therefrom. 

The preliminary list of medicaments submitted to the Conference 
included, for example, tincture of jaborandi, but when the question 
of uniformity of strength was considered it was wisely decided to 
expunge it altogether. This step was taken in view of the fact 
that not only are the jaborandi leaves occurring in commerce 
extremely variable in alkaloidal content, but it is believed to be 
generally conceded that their therapeutic activity is fully represented 
by the alkaloid pilocarpine. 

Cannabis Indica and its preparations were likewise unanimously 
excluded on account of their unstable and variable character and 
consequent uncertainty of action. It is unfortunate that this factor 
of instability should attend the originally active preparations of 
cannabis or its resin, such as cannabinol, and thus preclude the 
use of an otherwise valuable drug. The other drugs or prepara- 
tions contained in the preliminary list, the recognition of which by 
the conference was not considered desirable, were the following : 
Colocynth (on account of not being sufficiently potent), stramonium, 
squill, Pearson's solution, syrup of chloral, syrup of codeine, syrup of 
morphine, phosphorated oil, digitalin and aconitine. 

Gelsemium was proposed for adoption by the Dutch delegation, 
but was opposed by the majority of the continental delegates on 
the plea of not being sufficiently used. With consideration, how- 
ever, of the potency of the drug, the fact that the tincture is recog- 
nized by both the United States and British Pharmacopoeias, and 
that the preparations of these two widely used standards differ to 
the extent of 50 per cent, in strength, its exclusion would hardly 
seem justifiable. 

Among other proposals of the Hutch delegation, the following 
principle was enunciated: 



10 



International Conference. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm 
I January, 1903. 



" With regard to active principles, alkaloids, glucosides, etc., the 
Dutch delegates propose to absolutely discountenance them for 
international usage so long as they cannot be obtained in a crystal- 
line state and chemically pure." 

Notwithstanding the proviso contained in this declaration, a 
strong protest was raised by the same delegation against the adop- 
tion of aconitine, which was based on the argument that the sub- 
stances occurring under this name in commerce are variable in 
character, and that, being so extremely potent in a pure state, the 
use of the alkaloid was exceedingly dangerous and in some cases 
had been attended with fatal results. In the opinion of the writer 
the reasons advanced for the rejection of this substance are pre- 
cisely those which, for the public safety, should have made its 
recognition by an international conference not only desirable, but 
even imperative. The British Pharmacopoeia of 1898 has adopted 
a pure, crystalline aconitine, and the characters of this are believed 
to be so well defined that, if they were accepted- as a standard, no 
difficulty whatever would be experienced either in the uniformity of 
its production or in its proper identification. It is, moreover, a 
question whether a permanent solution of such a pure, crystalline 
aconitine or one of its salts, of a strength corresponding approxi- 
mately to a tincture ot the drug and of international uniformity, 
would not only be safer but therapeutically more satisfactory than 
the galenical preparations of aconite at present in use. Inasmuch 
as the opinion was expressed by one of the delegates and supported 
by some others, that aconitine could not be properly defined, not- 
withstanding the precise melting point of the alkaloid and some ot 
its salts as well as other characters, as stated in the British Phar- 
macopoeia, it was decided by the votes of a majority of the delegates 
that the use of this substance should not be sanctioned by the Con- 
ference, and that the strength of pharmacopoeial preparations of 
aconite should be based upon the determination of a fixed percent- 
age of total alkaloid. 1 

It has been gratifying to the writer to know that his views on 



1 The committee appointed to decide upon the proportion of alkaloids that 
should be contained in aconite and belladonna and their preparations, consists 
of : Professors Schmidt, Tschirch, Bourquelot, Jorissen and Mr. Yvon. It is of 
interest to note in this connection that some of the large and progressive phar- 
maceutical manufacturers do not regard aconite as capable of accurate chemi- 



Am. Jour. Pharn . ) 
January, 1903. J 



International Conference. 



the subjects above referred to, although considered more from a 
chemical standpoint, are quite in accordance with those recently 
expressed by two eminent medical men, one in England and the 
other in Germany. 

Professor Cash, of Owen's College, Manchester, in an article 
entitled : " On the pharmacological action and therapeutical em- 
ployment of pseudaconitine and japaconitine " {British Medical 
Journal, October, 1902, p. 1243), remarks as follows : 

" Used inwardly, pseudaconitine and japaconitine, given in the 
proportions indicated, may be employed for moderating circulatory 
activity in some febrile states, lor the relief of pain, and for other 
purposes which have been answered by the exhibition of aconitine. 

may be added that solutions of the alkaloids zvould be very preferable 
for employment to preparations of the plants wh eh yield them, for in 
the latter the main alkaloids not only vary in proportion, but are often 
associated with other principles which have a someivhat neutralizing or 
qualifying effect! 1 

Prof. Oscar Liebreich, of Berlin, in an article entitled: " On the 
therapeutic value of cantharidin " {British Medical Journal, October, 
1902, p. 1231), says : 

"Tincture of cantharides, even if prepared with the greatest care, 
cannot be regarded as anything but most uncertain in composition, 
and this is due to the fact that the active principle in cantharides 
varies between 0-3 and o-6 per cent. Moreover, I consider that, 
broadly speaking, a tincture is not a suitable fotm for administering 
exceedingly powerful drugs such as cantharides. It was not until 
Robiquet succeeded in preparing the active principle of cantharides 
in a crystalline form that the therapeutic employment of this drug 
could be considered afresh." 

It was not to be expected that at such a conference the decisions 
should be always in accordance with the views of individual dele- 
gates or in all respects unanimous, but, when the diversity of 
nations represented is considered, it must be said that the proceed- 
ings were characterized by a remarkable degree of harmony, and by 
a willingness on the part of every one to make such concessions as 
were possible in conforming with the wishes of the majority. 

cal standardization, and therefore depend entirely upon physiological tests. 
The determination of iolal alkaloid, as has been proposed, can certainly afford 
but a very imperfect indication of the value or therapeutic activity of aconite, 
in the form in which the drug is generally available. 



12 



International Conference, 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1903. 



In order to secure the permanency which is essential for the suc- 
cessful continuance and further development of the work of the 
Conference, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" The Conference expresses the desire that the Belgian Govern- 
ment should establish in Brussels a permanent bureau, and that the 
government of each country represented should designate a corre- 
spondent, preferably a member of its Pharmacopoeia Committee, 
with whom the secretary might correspond directly for purposes of 
information and intercommunication, and thus contribute to the 
attainment of general pharmacopceial uniformity. This permanent 
institution might be styled the Secretariat international pour V unifi- 
cation des pharmacopees" 

In connection with this account of the more serious work of the 
Conference, it is deemed proper, as it is presumably not without 
interest, to refer to the extremely cordial reception extended by the 
members of the Belgian committee, to their generous hospitality, 
and to their thoughtfulness in every arrangement that could render 
the visit of the delegates a pleasant one. Excursions were made to 
Ghent and Louvain, where the universities and other places of inter- 
est were visited ; to the Royal Chateau at Laeken, with which are 
connected large conservatories containing magnificent palms and 
other tropical plants ; and to the Congo Museum in the pretty 
village of Tervueren. By no means least in interest was a visit to 
the Solvay Institute, which, in addition to the laboratories for bio- 
logical and bacteriological work, contains a room designed as a 
memorial of the distinguished Belgian chemist, Stas. In it are con- 
tained his library, note-books, and the medals awarded him, together 
with many extremely valuable and interesting pieces of apparatus 
and specimens illustrative of his work, especially in connection with 
the determination of atomic weights. A banquet had been arranged 
tor the closing day of the Conference, but was abandoned in conse- 
quence of the lamented death of the Queen of the Belgians on the 
preceding evening. 

No better expression of the sentiments of the delegates could be 
given than is contained in the closing words of the address delivered 
on their behalf to the organizers and committee of the conference 
by Professor Binz, of Bonn : 

" Et ainsi nous nous trouvons devant cette belle fin qui couronne 
les premieres assises de notre conference. Je resume les remer- 



A jaiiMyfim m '} Inter national Standards. 13 

dements que les delegues etrangers doivent aux collegues beiges en 
leur disant ; au revoir pour continuer l'ceuvre utile que nous venons 
de commencer, au revoir sous la meme presidence et le meme secre- 
tariat ; au revoir dans la ville natale d'Andre Vesale, sous V augurium 
de ses manes augustes. Quod felix faustumque summum numen esse 
Meat." 

The hope so felicitously expressed can, alas, not be fully realized, 
for but a week after the close of the Conference the sad news was 
chronicled of the death of one of the most active ot the delegates — 
Professor Stokvis, of the University of Amsterdam. His genial 
temperament, nobility of character, and rare scholarly attainments 
inspired all who knew him with a feeling of sincere regard. 

Notwithstanding the mutations that time must bring before 
another International Conference of this character may be con- 
vened, it is believed that the results thus far attained will afford 
such a measure of encouragement as to ensure a continuance of the 
work, and thus lead eventually to a more complete realization of its 
ideals. 

London, December, 1902. 



INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS. 

By M. I. Wixbert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

For more than thirty-five years a proposed International Pharma- 
copoeia has attracted the attention of leading men in the medical 
and pharmaceutical professions of the civilized world. 

The history of the various International Congresses and that of 
the accompanying attempts that were made to formulate an accept- 
able International Pharmacopoeia has been ably recorded in several 
of the leading pharmaceutical journals. A very exhaustive and 
interesting account, by Frederick Hoffman, now of Berlin, Germany, 
will be found in the volume of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
for 1901. 

The reason why these earlier attempts at securing uniformity were 
failures is no doubt to be found in the fact that the leading spirits, 
in the International Congresses, essayed to do too much. The 
original idea, and the ©ne that was clung to tenaciously for a number 
of years, was to formulate an authoritative work that would include 



International Standards. 



[ Am. Jour. Fharni. 
I Januarj-, 1903. 



all classes of drugs and preparations and be capable of displacing 
the various national Pharmacopoeias. It was expected to be in fact, 
as well as in theory, a Pharmacopoeia for all nations. 

Not until the meeting of the Seventh International Congress, 
held at Chicago, in 1893, was it proposed that the International 
Pharmacopoeia be restricted to one including only the more potent 
remedies. This more practical idea, though heartily endorsed by 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, never materialized, and 
at the Ninth International Congress, Paris, 1 900, the committee 
having this project in hand evidently made no report. There had, 
however, been considerable comment and discussion on the project, 
among others, at the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, Baltimore, 1898. 

At the International Medical Congress, Moscow, 1898, Professor 
Tschirch, of Berne, Switzerland, proposed that a conference of 
official delegates be convened, at the invitation of one of the Euro- 
pean Governments, with a view of establishing some international 
standards that would be acceptable to all concerned. In the same 
year Professor Rommelaere communicated to the Royal Academy of 
Medicine of Belgium some views on the same subject. This com- 
munication, after considerable discussion, was referred to a committee 
to formulate some plan by which the desired result could be brought 
about. This committee in its report acknowledged the impractica- 
bility of substituting an international for the various national Phar- 
macopoeias, but at the same time called attention to the possibilities 
of danger that are to be found in the wide variation in strength of 
the more potent remedies. This element of danger the committee 
proposed to obviate, by a mutual agreement, among the various 
authorities, to unite on uniform strengths and methods of preparing 
the more active preparations. 

At the first meeting of the Ninth International Congress, Prof. 
A. Tschirch, of Berne, Switzerland, proposed that instead of an 
International Pharmacopoeia, an international conference be con- 
vened to discuss and propose a system of international standards 
for adoption in the various national Pharmacopoeias. 

This proposition, after some debate, was referred to a special 
committee to report at a subsequent meeting. At the fourth session, 
this committee reported a plan for outlining the work of such an 
international conference, and to give it an authoritative or official 



Am. .Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1903. J 



International Standards. 



*5 



standing, it was proposed to ask the Belgian Government to invite 
other governments to send delegates to a proposed conference in 
Brussels, these delegates to discuss and, if possible, to agree on 
a system of uniform standards for the more potent remedies. The 
report was accepted, and the resolutions embodying the request for- 
warded to the proper authorities of the Belgian Government. 

The Belgian Government, acting on the recommendation of this 
Ninth International Congress, sent invitations to the governments 
most interested, and in return received uniformly favorable replies, 
accepting the invitation to send official delegates to an international 
conference. 

This conference assembled at Brussels, September 15, 1902, and 
was composed of official representatives of eighteen different coun- 
tries. The proceedings have been referred to quite extensively in 
the various pharmaceutical journals, so that it will not be necessary 
to recapitulate them here. 

The final agreement has been commented on quite favorably by 
the pharmaceutical journals of England, Germany, France, Austria, 
Switzerland and Belgium. As these are the countries where the 
most progressive work in the medical line is being done, it would 
appear as though this late conference were destined to leave some 
tangible results as a direct outcome of its deliberations. 

That these recommendations are not above possible criticism must 
be admitted. That some of them will not meet with general 
approval is to be feared. How far and how they should be recog- 
nized in this country is the subject that should interest us greatly 
at the present time. With the eighth decennial revision of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia probably in press, suggested changes 
at the eleventh hour must have more than the idle fancy or whim 
of an individual to give them weight or importance. 

Let us inquire first as to the authority of the Pharmacopoeial 
Revision Committee to recognize recommendations of this kind. The 
answer is definitely and positively stated in the list of instructions 
given the committee by the Pharmacopoeial Revision Convention. 
Under the heading " Purity and Strength of Pharmacopoeial Arti- 
cles," we find the following: "Regarding the strength of diluted 
acids, tinctures and galenical preparations in general, it is recom- 
mended that the conwnittee keep in view the desirability of at least 
a gradual approach, upon mutual concessions, towards uniformity 



i6 



International Standards. 



[Am. Jour. Pbarni. 
1 January, 1903. 



with similar preparations of other Pharmacopoeias, particularly in 
the case of potent remedies which are in general use among civilized 
nations." 

This would appear to answer the question without the peradven- 
ture of a doubt. It even makes it imperative on the committee to 
take cognizance of any definite offer for securing greater uniformity 
in the strength of galenical preparations, and particularly of such 
as are to be classed under potent remedies. 

The next question that suggests itself is as to the advantages to 
be derived by a more general adoption of these proposed inter- 
national standards. The need of greater uniformity will be recog- 
nized when we reflect on the rapidity with which medical literature 
is spread from one country to another. This will appeal to us more 
readily if we look through one of the more popular weekly medical 
journals and note the number of abstracts from all quarters of the 
globe. Medical journals in Europe, on the other hand, quote exten- 
sively from the medical literature of this country, and it is not at 
all uncommon to find that an abstract from an American journal 
reappears in another, actually credited to a foreign source. With 
this liberal interchange of views and experiences, particularly in 
view of the usual practice of confounding the source of origin, it 
would appear that similar standards would be imperatively necessary. 

This, in our own case at least, is the more apparent when we 
reflect that the average physician in this country has little or no 
knowledge of the contents of pur Pharmacopoeia, or how its prepa- 
rations differ in strength from those in use in other countries. 

The wide variation in the strength of some of these preparations 
is illustrated in the accompanying table, giving the proposed inter- 
national standard and the present strength in sixteen of the larger 
independent States. A few words in explanation of this accompany- 
ing table: The necessary data was taken from the latest (1902) 
edition of the "Universal Pharmacopbe," by Bruno Hirsch, and 
includes not only the most recent editions of the various national 
Pharmacopoeias, but also the older supplement to the German and 
the supplement to the Dutch Pharmacopoeia. This explains the 
reason why this table includes several preparations not found in the 
body of these respective national standards. 

Let us consider the proposition of the International Conference 
more in detail. Of the general recommendations that will probably 



A.m. Jour. Phartu. I 
January, 1903. / 



International Standards. 



not find favor in this country is the recommendation that both 
liquids, as well as solids, be weighed. The next is the recommenda- 
tion that the potent tinctures be made with dilute alcohol, the 
strength of which is placed at 70 per cent, by volume. The objec- 
tion to this recommendation will probably be the excessive high 
cost of alcohol, due to the high internal-revenue tax. 

The actual strength, or rather the proportionate strength, of the 
different galenical preparations should meet with general favor. 
Let us review, for instance, the tinctures included in this list of 
potent remedies. The general proposition places the strength of 
the potent tinctures at uniformly 10 per cent. The advantage of 
this is that the resulting tincture can readily be made to represent 
the soluble extractive of the respective drug, while at the same time 
it bears a definite, uniform and easily remembered relation to the 
drug, so that a physician, knowing the dose of the drug, can readily 
calculate the corresponding dose of the tincture. The variability of 
our own U.S.P. tinctures is well illustrated by this table. A com- 
parative study of these figures would appear to indicate that no 
concerted attempt had ever been made to arrange these preparations 
according to any fixed rule, either as to drug content or dose of 
finished product. 

Tincture of opium is calculated on the permissible minimum con- 
tent of morphine. This accounts for the abnormal figure given for 
the U.S.P. preparation (13 per cent.). Some of the other figures 
are of course only approximate — U.S.P. tincture of nux vomica and 
B.P. tincture of belladonna, for example, for which the respective 
Pharmacopoeias give alkaloidal strengths. 

The point we wish to call particular attention to is the wide varia- 
tion in the strengths of these various tinctures. A very little 
thought on the possible results of a misunderstanding or a mistake 
will readily convince any one of the necessity of more general con- 
formity to some one standard strength. 

The wisdom of the selection made by the Brussels Conference 
must also be conceded, when we realize that more than 55 per cent, 
of the tinctures included in the above list conform to the standard 
of strength adopted by the International Conference. 

As to the necessary changes in our own Pharmacopoeia, there are 
but two preparations' in which there could be any objection to the 
proposed change, on the plea that a change might prove dangerous. 



1 8 International Standards. {^;SryS rm * 

These two exceptions are tincture of canthandes and tincture ot 
strophantus — two preparations but little known and certainly not 
very popular in this country at the present time. 

The next item on the accompanying table, syrup of ipecac, is 
possibly open to the criticism of not coming within the strict defini- 
tion of a potent remedy. There is, however, some force in the 
argument that at the present time there is decidedly too much vari- 
ation in the strength of this particular syrup. This latter argument 
would certainly apply to the next item — syrup of iodide of iron. 
This varies all the way from the weak preparation of the Greek 
Pharmacopoeia to the 10 per cent, strength of our own national 
standard. Some regulation as to the strength of this preparation 
would appear to be advantageous, in view of its widely extended 
use. In the case of the U.S.P. preparation it would necessitate the 
reduction ot the strength one-half, thus doubling the dose. The 
preparation itself would probably be more acceptable — certainly 
more stable than the present U.S.P. syrup. 

The proposed strength for diluted hydrocyanic acid will meet with 
general favor in this country, as it practically corresponds in strength 
with that official in the U.S.P. at the present time. 

As to mercurial ointment, it may probably meet with the same 
objection as the syrup of ipecac. As a matter of fact, a 30 per cent, 
ointment would probably be more generally popular than is the 
50 per cent, ointment official at the present time. 

The remaining three items are practically identical in strength 
with those now official in the U.S.P. The possible exception is 
Dover's Powder. This would be from 20 to 35 per cent, weaker in 
morphine strength, using the proposed international strength of 
powdered opium as a basis of comparison. 

Altogether, the proposed standards for galenical preparations 
are in line with the general trend for more uniform formulas, as is 
evidenced in the later editions of the various European Pharmaco- 
poeias. 

The feeling of the leading men on the Continent of Europe was 
voiced by the veteran M. Binz, who, at the close of the sessions of 
the conference, in a speech thanking the Belgian Government, con- 
gratulated the Belgian delegation for so directing the proceedings, 
and presenting a program that was generally acceptable and will 
be immediately realizable. 



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Tincture of aconite ...... 

" l(" belladonna . . . 
" " cantharides . . . 
" colchicum seed 

" " hyoscyamus . . . 

" " nux vomica . . 

" " opiu:;; 

" " " camphorated 
" " strophantuus . . 

Hydrocyanic acid dilute . . . 
Ointment of mercury .... 
Solution of potassium arsenitc 
Wine of antimony 

Powder of ipecac and opium ) 
per cent, of opium . . . . j 



20 Tinctures of Potent Remedies. {^i^fSE?*' 

Among the views of the pharmaceutical press it may be permis- 
sible to quote an extract from the Schiveizerische Wochenschrift, 1902, 
page 510, in which the editor says: "The twentieth of September, 
the day on which the agreement was signed, will be a memorable 
one in the annals of pharmacy — it marks the advent of a new era, 
the attainment of attempts covering nearly fifty years." 

As stated above, the comments on the action of this International 
Conference have been uniformly favorable ; in our own country, 
however, there appears to be a lack of appreciation for the import- 
ance of this particular move, and unless we are to be again accused 
of being backward and ultraconservative, it will be necessary for 
the American pharmacist to indicate in a decisive and positive way 
his appreciation of the necessity of adopting the recommendations 
of the Brussels Conference, in a general way, it not wholly and 
according to the exact letter of the agreement. Let the watchword 
be to " follow the spirit of the recommendations," even if it does 
not appear feasible to accept the exact wording of the protocol. 

REFERENCES EOR HISTORY OR COMMENT. 

(1) American Journal of Pharmacy, 19CH, p. 315 et seq. 

(2) Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1893, p. 56. 

(3) Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1898, p. 103. 

(4) Schweizerische Wochenschrift fur Chemie und Pharmacie, 1902, pp. 405, 
449 and 497. 

(5) Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 1902, p. 353. 

(6) fournal de Pharmacie de la Societe de Pharmacie d'Anvers, 1902, p. 380. 

(7) Pharmaceutische Post, Vienna, 1902, p. 629. 

(8) Pharmaceutische Zeitung, Berlin, 1902, p. 832. 



THE PROPOSED INTERNATIONAL STANDARD 
TINCTURES OF POTENT REMEDIES. 

By M. I. Wii^BERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The menstruum that is to be used for making the proposed inter- 
national standard tinctures is, in many cases, so different from that 
directed in the U.S.P. for similar preparations, that it was thought 
desirable to make a number of experiments to see what, if any, 
advantage might be derived from following implicitly the directions 
of the Brussels Conference. 

It is well known that the tendency, in this country at least, has 



A jamm?y P i903 m '} Tinctures of Potent Remedies. 21 

always been to use as weak a menstruum as is possible to exhaust 
the drug, and still have an elegant and stable preparation. 

The advantage that must be admitted in favor of the proposed 
international standard menstruum is, that it would be uniform in 
strength for all tinctures of active drugs that are made by percolation. 
In addition to this, the keeping qualities of the preparations them- 
selves would be enhanced on account of the increase in alcohol con- 
tent, and also because a menstruum of comparatively strong alcohol 
does not extract as much inert and useless material as one contain- 
ing more water. In addition to this, the strength of these various 
preparations is of such a nature that it is comparatively easy to 
exhaust the different drugs by percolation with the directed men- 
struum. 

Before reviewing the different preparations before us, it may be of 
interest to call attention to several general points that occurred to 
us while making the following samples. It is well known that air- 
dry drugs contain a variable amount of water, and that this can in 
turn be displaced by prolonged drying at a comparatively high 
temperature. To get at an approximate idea of the net loss of ex- 
tractive, a sample of each drug was dried in a steam-box at a uni- 
form temperature of 6o° C, until, after two hours interval, there 
was no perceptible difference in weight. The same procedure was 
later adopted with the exhausted drug. The gross loss is, therefore, 
the difference in weight between the air-dry drug and the residue 
dried to constant weight, while the net loss is the estimated dif- 
ference between the air-dry drug minus the per cent, loss on drying, 
and the residue dried to constant weight. 

The difference in the amount of contained water is also of inter- 
est. Several experiments were made with each of the different 
drugs, and the averages only are given. In looking over the results 
given below it will be found that the highest loss was in the case of 
aconite root, while the lowest was in powdered opium. Several 
samples of powdered opium that were examined did not vary more 
than I per cent of their weight, even on exposure to the heat of the 
drying oven for considerable length of time. It will readily be seen, 
however, how important a factor this contained moisture might be. 
In subsequent discussions of the international commission this 
feature will, no doubt„ be given proper attention and provisions 
made for eliminating possible sources of error. 



22 



Tinctures of Potent Remedies. 



S Am. .lour. Pharrm. 
1 January, 1903. 



One other feature that a review of the obtained results will reveal 
is that of estimating the drug content from the measure of the result- 
ing preparation; these proposed international tinctures will average 
about 9 per cent. With the single exception of tincture of ipecac, 
the resulting preparations are elegant in appearance, quite perma- 
nent, and do not offer any particular difficulties in the methods of 
procedure. 

With these preliminary explanatory remarks we may proceed to 
a more detailed examination of the various preparations before us. 

Tincture of Aconite. — This preparation has been the source of con- 
siderable comment in various directions ; nevertheless, it must be 
admitted to be the most desirable preparation of a particularly 
active and useful drug. As is well known, our own U.S. P. tincture 
of aconite is much more potent than any of the similar preparations 
official in other pharmacopoeias. Ground or coarsely powdered 
aconite root lost, on drying, an average of 8 per cent of its weight ; 
IOO grammes of the air-dry root lost, on percolation with the re- 
quired 70 per cent, alcoholic menstruum, and subsequent drying in 
the manner described above, 40 grammes. Allowing 8 per cent, 
for the contained moisture, this would give us a net loss of 32 
grammes of extractive to the menstruum. One thousand grammes 
of the tincture measured 1,104 c.c, while 1 litre of the same 
weighed 906 grammes, at 25 C. In this particular instance there 
is no difference in the composition of the menstruum, the present 
U.S.P. directing 70 per cent, of alcohol as a menstruum. There 
would, however, be a considerable difference in the average dose of 
the resulting preparations. The U.S.P. tincture of aconite is usually 
given in doses varying from 0-03 to 0-20 c.c, while the proposed 
international standard preparation could be given in doses of from 
O-IO to 0-70 c.c, giving a much more tractable variation and quan- 
tities that will be more in harmony with the doses of other potent 
tinctures. 

Tincture of Belladonna. — Belladonna leaves, coarsely powdered, 
lost on drying 4 per cent, of their weight ; IOO grammes of the air-dry 
drug lost a total of 32-5 grammes to the menstruum of 70 per cent, 
alcohol, with subsequent drying, or a net loss of 28- 5 grammes. 
One thousand grammes of the tincture measured 1,106 c.c, while 
1 litre weighed 904 grammes, at 25 C. In appearance this 
proposed international tincture does not differ materially from 



Am. Jour. Pharm. l 
January, 1903. J 



Tinctures of Potent Remedies. 



23 



that now official in the U.S. P.; there is, however, a marked differ- 
ence in the alcoholic strength of the prescribed menstruum, the 
present pharmacopoeia directing U.S. P. dilute alcohol, while the 
international standard directs dilute alcohol containing 70 per cent, 
of alcohol. The dose would be about one-third more, or instead of 
being from 0-06 to 0-05, would be from O-IO to 0-70, practically the 
same as that for international standard tincture of aconite. This 
correlation of doses is one of the strongest arguments in favor of 
adopting these proposed international standards, the relations 
existing between the drug and the resulting preparations being 
uniform and easily remembered. 

Tincture of Cantharides. — This is one of the preparations to which 
objections might be raised, on the plea that the resulting tincture 
would be much stronger than that official in the U.S. P. In answer 
to this it might be said, however, that the preparation is but sel- 
dom used, not being very popular with the medical practitioners of 
this country. Ground cantharides lost 3 per cent, on drying, while 
the air-dried, powdered drug lost a total of 27-5 grammes to the pre- 
scribed menstruum, or a net loss of 24-5 grammes for each IOO. 
One thousand grammes of the tincture measured 1,092 c.c, while I 
litre, at 25 C, weighed 900 grammes. The average dose of 
the U.S.P. preparation is from 0-20 to roo c.c, while that of the 
international standard preparation would be from O-IO to 0-50, or 
nearly the same as that of tincture of aconite or tincture of bella- 
donna. 

Tincture of Colchicum Seed. — Colchicum seed was accepted in 
preference to the root, on account of the greater content of the 
active alkaloid, and also because the seeds are more reliable and 
more uniformly active than the root. The ground seeds lost on 
drying 4 per cent, of their weight. The total loss of weight after 
percolating with the required menstruum was 24-3 grammes for 
IOO grammes, or a net loss of 20 3 grammes of extractive. The 
difference in the alcohol content of the menstruum is from 60 per 
cent, directed by the U.S.P. , 1890, to 70 per cent, directed by the 
International Conference. One thousand grammes measured 1,104 
c.c. and 1 litre weighed, at 25 C, 901 grammes. The dose of the 
international standard tincture would be about one-third greater, 
or about from i-oo to^-oo c.c. instead of from o*6o to 4-00 as directed 
for the U.S.P. preparation. 



24 



Tinctures of Potent Remedies. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1903. 



Tincture of Digitalis.— There is nothing distinctive about this 
preparation with the possible exception of marked increase in the 
alcohol strength of the required menstruum, the U.S.P. directing a 
50 per cent, dilute alcohol, while the international standard formula 
requires a 70 per cent, alcohol. Digitalis leaves lost on drying 5 
per cent, of their total weight. The menstruum, followed by drying 
the residue, extracted a total of 44 grammes, or a net loss of ex- 
tractive of 39 grammes to each 100 of the drug. One thousand 
grammes of the resulting tincture measured 1,107 c - c -> while 1 litre 
weighed 905 grammes, at 25 C. The average dose of the inter- 
national tincture would be from 0-30 to 2-00, instead of from 20 
to 1-50 c.c, for the present U.S.P. preparation. 

lincture of Hyoscyamus. — This is another preparation that differs 
little in appearance from the present U.S.P. tincture, though about 
one-third weaker in drug content. The powdered leaves lost 6 per 
cent, on drying. The gross loss oi extractive was 37-5 grammes, 
and the net loss 31-5 grammes for each 100 of air-dry drug. One 
thousand grammes of the tincture measured 1,102 c.c, while 1 litre, 
at 25 C, weighed 902 grammes. The average dose would be from 
I-OO to 4-00 c.c. instead of from 60 to 3-00 as given for the present 
U.S.P. tincture. 

Tincture of Iodine. — This is another preparation that would be 
slightly increased in strength. This increase would be of compara- 
tively little importance, however, as the tincture is seldom given 
internally. It is well known that all tinctures of iodine ' change 
more or less rapidly, the rate of decomposition apparently depend- 
ing on the temperature at which the preparation is kept rather than 
on the chemic effect of any actinic rays of light. This being 
acknowledged, this preparation should be directed to be prepared 
extemporaneously, or at least it should be made in small quantities. 
For this, a small circulatory apparatus of glass can be extemporized, 
by means of which the preparation can readily be made in from a 
half to one hour without shaking, or any further trouble than pour- 
ing the alcohol into a wide-mouthed bottle, and putting the iodine 
into a test tube perforated at the lower end, so as to allow free cir- 
culation of the solvent. By means of such a circulatory apparatus 
a 10-per cent, tincture is as readily made as one containing but 7 or 
even 5 parts in a 100. One thousand grammes of the international 
tincture of iodine measure 1,160 c.c, while 1 litre at 25 C, weighs 



Am. Jour. Pham3.| 
January, 1903. J 



Tinctures of Potent Remedies. 



25 



880 grammes, the solvent in this case being 95 per cent, alcohol, 
the same as that directed by the U.S. P. 

Tincture of Ipecac. — This would be a new preparation to American 
physicians and one that would probably meet with considerable 
opposition. It was apparently introduced into the Proceedings of 
the International Conference with the object of having a preparation 
from which a uniform syrup of ipecac might be made. This latter, 
however, is so much weaker than our own syrup, that it is an open 
question whether or not it could possibly come under the appella- 
tion of a potent remedy. One other feature of this proposed 
tincture of ipecac is that it is to be made from the bark of the root 
of Rio ipecac, discarding the ligneous cord entirely. This latter 
direction, it will probably be found, will not be readily complied 
with, as there is considerable difficulty in separating the fragments 
of wood from the bark, even when the comminution is done in an 
iron mortar. To try this more fully, 120 grammes of ipecac root 
were comminuted in an iron mortar until 90 grammes of a mod- 
erately fine powder had been obtained. The residue, weighing nearly 
30 grammes, still contained an appreciable quantity of the bark of 
the root, but the ligneous cord had been so broken that any further 
attempt at separating the bark would certainly have introduced a 
very considerable quantity of the woody fibre. It will readily be 
seen how extremely impracticable it would be to attempt to sepa- 
rate the bark from the wood in cases where the powdering is done by 
steam-driven machinery. In physical properties the resulting tinc- 
ture did not differ materially from one made directly from powdered 
ipecac, as usually prepared for percolation. The powdered root lost 
4 per cent, of its weight on drying, the total loss of 100 grammes 
was 28 grammes or a net loss, allowing for the contained water, of 
24 grammes. One thousand grammes of the resulting tincture 
measured 1,108 c.c, while 1 litre, at 25 C, weighed 900 grammes. 

Tincture of Lobelia. — This is another preparation that differs little 
in general properties from the official U.S.P. preparation. There is 
of course a reduction of 50 per cent, in the drug content, and an 
increase in the strength of the menstruum, the present U.S.P. 
directing a 50 per cent, alcohol to exhaust the drug, while the 
international standard would require a 70 per cent, alcohol. Lobelia 
lost 4 per cent, of its^weight on drying, while 100 grammes of the 
air-dry drug gave a gross loss of 28 6 or a net loss of 24-6 grammes 



26 



Tinctures of Potent Remedies. 



( Aru. Jour. I'harm 
i January, 1903. 



of extractive. One thousand grammes measured 1,106 c.c. and I 
litre, at 25 ° C, weighed 903 grammes. The average dose would 
be about double that of the present tincture, so that instead of 
giving from 0-30 to roo c.c. we could give from 50 to 2-00 c.c. 

Tincture of Nux Vomica. — It is well known that the present U.S. P. 
directs that this tincture be made from a solid extract, and has 
standardized the same to correspond to about 0*30 per cent, of total 
alkaloids. This is admittedly a rather roundabout way of accomplish, 
ing a simple feat, and has resulted in the rather peculiar complica- 
tion that this preparation differs probably more than any other one 
in appearance and other physical properties. 

The international standard tincture of nux vomica is to be made 
from a drug containing 2-5 per cent, of total alkaloids. This quality 
of nux vomica is readily obtained and a very acceptable preparation, 
completely representing the active qualities of the drug, is easily 
made by following the directions and using the menstruum indi- 
cated for the international standard preparation. Nux vomica lost 
7 per cent, on drying to constant weight, while after exhausting 
with 70 per cent, alcohol and drying, it was found to have lost 23-5 
per cent, or a net loss of 165 grammes for each 100 of the drug 
employed. One thousand grammes of the tincture measured 1,108-5 
c.c, and I litre weighed 896 grammes at 25 C. The average dose 
of the international standard preparation would be from 0-50 to 200 
c.c. instead of 0-40 to 1-50 c.c, as at present. 

Tincture of Opium. — The International Conference adopted a 
powdered opium with a morphine content of 10 per cent. This 
would make an average difference of about one-third in the U.S. P. 
preparations of opium. The proposed tincture of opium is stan- 
dardized to contain 1 per cent, of morphine. This change would 
increase the average dose of this tincture to from 0-50 to 2*oo c.c. for 
the international tincture, instead of from 40 to 1-50 for the pres- 
ent U.S. P. preparation. Powdered opium appears to contain but 
little extraneous moisture, the average, even on long-continued heat- 
ing, being but 2 per cent., the drug losing a total of 68 per cent, to 
the prescribed menstruum of 70 per cent, alcohol, or a net extrac- 
tive of 66 per cent.; 1,000 grammes of the international standard, 
standardized tincture measured 1,108 c.c, while I litre of the same 
at 25 C. weighed 908 grammes. 

Tincture of Strophantus. — This preparation, like that of canthar- 



Am. Jour. Phartri. | 
January. 1903. j 



Theocin. 



27 



ides, would be practically doubled in strength. This is, however, 
also like that of cantharides, not of serious moment, as it is not 
very popular, and not extensively used, probably due largely to 
the fact that little really first class seed finds its way to this market. 
In the matter of dosage, the increase in the drug-strength would 
bring this preparation in the class with aconite, belladonna and can- 
tharides. The average dose would be from o-io to 50 instead of 
from o 20 to o 80 c.c. as given for the present U.S. P. tincture. A 
good quality of the ground drug lost 4 per cent, on drying, while 
after exhaustion with 70 per cent, alcohol and subsequent drying it 
was found that IOO grammes had lost a total of 32 grammes, or a 
net loss of 28 grammes of extractive; 1,000 grammes of the tincture 
measured 1,108 cc, while 1 litre, at 25 C, weighed 896 grammes. 
The resulting tincture, without any previous preparation of the 
seed, is of a golden yellow color and appears to be quite stable, 
remaining clear and transparent. 

Altogether it may be said that the proposed international stan- 
dard preparations are readily made, and give uniformly satisfactory 
preparations. With the possible exception of the tincture of ipecac, 
they should receive the consideration and recommendation of 
members of the medical as well as pharmaceutical profession, so 
as to have them properly presented before the members of the 
United States Pharmacopceial Revision Committee for their consid- 
eration and adoption. 



THEOCIN, THE FIRST VEGETABLE ALKALOID MANU- 
FACTURED ON A LARGE SCALE BY SIMPLE SYN- 
THESIS. 1 

By Dr. Hugo Schweitzer, New York City. 

In 1888 Kossel found in the extract of tea- leaves a new alkaloid 
isomeric with theobromine, to which he gave the name of theophyl- 
line. It was present in such exceedingly small quantities, however, 
that it could not be tested even for its pharmacological properties. 
But when E. Fischer succeeded in synthesizing the bodies belonging 
to the purin class, it became possible to study theophylline from a 
therapeutic standpoint. It was found that it was the most power- 

x Read before the New York Section of the American Chemical Society, 
December 5, 1902. 



28 



Theocin. 



Am. Jour. Pliarni. 
January, 1903. 



ful diuretic of this class of vegetable alkaloids. - By the synthesis of 
Fischer somewhat larger quantities could be prepared, but at a 
tremendous expense. It was the endeavor of chemists interested 
in this branch of chemistry to find a way of preparing this valuable 
remedy so that it could be used commercially. 

I am exceedingly pleased to state that such a synthesis was at 
last discovered in the laboratories of the Farbenfabriken of Elber- 
feld. The new synthesis is based upon Wilhelm Traube's research, 
published in the Berichte der Chemisch. Gesellsch. y Vol. 33, p. 3053, 
1900. The modifications of this process enable the Farbenfabriken 
to produce in about twelve reactions the alkaloid, which is named 
by them theocin, on a larger scale, and at a price which makes its 
introduction into medicine feasible. 

Although some vegetable bases and alkaloids had been previ- 
ously produced — thus Ladenburg prepared coniin, Hantzsch trigo- 
nelline and Willstaetter cocain — yet a complete synthesis like that 
of theocin has not hitherto been accomplished on a commercial 
scale. 

This synthesis must, therefore, be considered as one of the most 
remarkable achievements of organic chemistry, both from the tech- 
nical and scientific point of view, and can justly be compared with 
the synthesis of indigo. 

There were several reactions known which led to the formation of 
indigo, but none was economical ; it was the Badische Anilin and 
Soda Fabrik which first discovered a process for the manufacture of 
this vegetable product by synthesis. The same is true of theocin: 
there was the ''Fischer," the " Traube " reaction ; there w r as the 
"Fischer and Ach" modification of the "Fischer" synthesis, yet 
none of these reactions could be carried out on a commercial basis. 
The Farbenfabriken process is the first one by which this vegetable 
alkaloid can be manufactured on a large scale. 

The value of the synthesis of theocin will be seen from the fact 
that while the natural product cost #93 an ounce, the price of the 
synthetic preparation is S2.30. 

In regard to its physical and chemical characters the following 
may be said : Theocin appears in the form of beautiful colorless 
needles, having a melting point of 268 C. It is difficultly soluble 
in cold water and alcohol, but more readily in warm water ; insol- 
uble in ether. It is, however, much more soluble in cold water than 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
January. 1903. / 



Theocin, 



theobromine, dissolving in the proportion of I to 179 parts as com- 
pared with 1 to 1,600. Theocin forms salts, of which the ammo- 
nium and potassium salts dissolve readily, while the sodium salt is 
only slightly soluble. 

You may ask why theophylline was rechristened " theocin." The 
product is intended to be used in medicine, and for this reason it 
was given the new name to distinguish it from the natural product. 
There are to-day any number of physicians who still think that 
synthetic products do not possess the same medicinal properties as 
the natural bodies ; for example, even the purest synthetic salicylic 
acid is by many considered inferior to salicylic acid made from oil of 
wintergreen, which latter also commands a vastly higher price. 
You know that hosts of people think that beet sugar is not as sweet 
as cane sugar. To avoid misunderstandings, therefore, synthetic 
theophylline has been named " theocine." 

As you are aware, the only members of the purin group that 
have been employed in medicine are caffeine and theobromine. 
Caffeine is used as a heart stimulant and diuretic, and as a remedy 
for headaches; theobromine chiefly as a diuretic. Both of them act 
directly upon the kidney, but theobromine is more powerful in its 
action, and is devoid of the exciting effect of caffeine upon the 
nervous system and its stimulating influence upon the heart. Owing 
to the fact, however, that it frequently causes stomach disturbances 
it is chiefly prescribed in the form of its double salts — diuretin and 
agurin. 

According to the clinical experiments of Prof. O. Minkowski, of 
Cologne (Therapie der Gegenwart), theocin approximates more 
closely in its action to theobromine than to caffeine. It is practi- 
cally devoid of any effect upon the heart or circulation, and exerts 
a much more decided diuretic action than theobromine. Under its 
administration the pulse and blood pressure were not affected, and 
no irritation of the kidneys was noted, which is, of course, a very 
important point in the class of cases in which it is indicated. Pro- 
fessor Minkowski tested theocin in various conditions of dropsy due 
to affections of the heart, liver and kidneys, and found that in most 
instances the daily quantity of urine under its use ranged from 3,000 
to 5,000 c.c. In one instance the increase was remarkable — from 
1,300 c.c. to 7,600 c^c. in the twenty-four hours; and in connection 
with this there was a complete disappearance of the dropsy during 



30 Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. \ A ™iS™yf5£. m * 

that period, although previously it had not yielded to other remedies. 
In fact, his experience showed that theocin was of particular value 
in cases in which there were extensive dropsical effusions. Exami- 
nations of the urine by Professor Dreser showed that not only the 
quantity of the fluid but also of the solid constituents was augmented. 

From a medical point of view, therefore, the discovery of a cheap 
means of preparing theophylline is of great interest, since it places 
at the disposal of the medical profession a new diuretic of greater 
efficiency than those in previous use, and thus contributes to a more 
successful treatment of various conditions in which dropsy is a 
prominent symptom. 

It may also interest you to know that synthetic theobromine will 
shortly be introduced into medicine. 



THE PRESENCK OF ARSENIC IN CHEMICALS. 

By lyYMAN F. KEBlyKR. 

The immediate reason for this investigation was the unfortunate 
wholesale poisoning in Manchester, England, about two years ago. 
At first it was thought this poisoning was due to the alcohol 
imbibed by the excessive drinking of beer; but investigation 
showed that the poisoning was probably not due to the alcohol, but 
rather to the arsenic contained in the beer. That is, the poisoning, 
instead of being alcoholic neuritis, was arsenical neuritis, or perhaps 
a mixture of both ; the source of the arsenic being arsenical 
glucose, which was used in the manufacture of the beer; the glucose 
in turn being prepared by the intervention of arsenical sulphuric 
acid. 

When this fact became known, nothing was more natural than 
that other products, in the preparation of which sulphuric acid is 
employed, should be investigattd. The chemical and medicinal 
remedy, which is used in such large quantities by the laity, is 
sodium phosphate. This product was carefully examined, both 
abroad 1 and in this country, 2 and found to contain more or less 
arsenic. One sample of the imported material was found by the 
author to contain I milligramme of arsenous oxide in 5 grammes of 



1 1900, Chemist and Druggist, 58 » 1034. 

2 1900, American Druggist, 37, 103. 



A janu^y P i h 4 rm "; Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. 31 

the chemical — an amount which certainly might cause alarming 
symptoms when taken ad libitum. 

In 1775 Scheele 1 made the important discovery that arsenic united 
with hydrogen to form a foetid gas was decomposed by heat. 
Proust 2 observed that this same gas was disengaged when arsenical 
tin was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and arsenic was deposited 
when the inflamed gas was brought against a cold surface. Tromms- 
dorf 3 next announced that arsenical hydrogen was evolved when 
arsenical tin was treated with dilute sulphuric acid, and if this gas 
was passed through a sufficiently long tube, arsenic was deposited 
on its walls. Arsenical hydrogen was further studied by Davy, Gay- 
Lussac, Gehlen, Stromeyer, Thenard ; and Serrullas in 1821 pro- 
posed to utilize the above reaction for a toxicological test. 

In 1836 Marsh 4 published his celebrated memoir, entitled "Ac- 
count of a Method of Separating Small Quantities of Arsenic from 
Substances with which it may be Mixed." He elaborated and sim- 
plified the apparatus, generated hydrogen by means 01 dilute sul- 
phuric acid and zinc, inflamed the escaping gas, and deposited the 
arsenic in the form of metal, which afterward could be converted 
into arsenous oxide. This brief review amply shows that Marsh 
was not the discoverer ot the arsenic test, which is usually called by 
his name, but like many other useful processes and inventions, it 
seems to have been gradually evolved by the combined efforts of 
many minds. This, however, must be said : Marsh was the first 
to simplify and prominently bring forward the test very much 
improved, if not perfected. 

Little, probably, did these early investigators think that this 
method would be more thoroughly investigated than any other proc- 
ess in the realms of chemistry. 

Many other methods have been suggested from time to time, but 
not one of them as yet has been proved the superior or even the 
equal of Marsh's test modified in one form or another. 



1 1775, Memoires de Scheele, t. I, 170 : Om Arsenick och dess Syra; Kongl. 
Svenik. Vatenikops Academiens Handlingar : Ar. 1775, V. 36, 265. 

2 1798, Ann. de Chem. y 28, 213; 1800, Jour, de Phys. et Chem., 51, 173. 

3 1803, Nicholson's Journal, 6, 200; from Royal Academy of Sciences, Berlin, 
P- 370. 

4 1836, The Edinburgh New Philo. Journal, 21, 229; 1^37, Jour, de Pharm., 
23, 553; Ann. (Liebig), 23, p. 207, 



32 Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. { A j;nuar r y. P ioo.3. m ' 

The method next important to Marsh's is undoubtedly Reinsch's, 1 
in which metallic copper is employed to deposit the arsenic, which 
it is claimed forms a definite chemical compound with the copper 
Cu 5 As 2 . Fleitman's 2 method is practically a modification of Marsh's 
test, in which the hydrogen is generated by means ot an alkaline 
solution, acting on metallic aluminum or zinc. By BettendorfT's 3 
method, the arsenic is deposited as a metal, in a stannous chloride 
solution, upon metallic tin. Gutzeit 4 utilized the well-known reac- 
tions of arsine on paper moistened with a solution of mercuric chlo- 
ride, or acidulated silver nitrate. 

The last three methods are the ones employed by the U.S.P. to 
detect arsenic in the compounds recognized by it. The object in 
employing these methods was primarily because they were compar- 
atively simple and at the same time gave fairly accurate results- 
When it is a question of testing for the presence of arsenic in any 
compound, nothing short of the very best available method should 
be applied ; inasmuch as it so frequently happens with rapid meth- 
ods, they give inaccurate reactions and leave the worker in doubt. 
For example : Gutzeit's test is evidently superior in point of delicacy 
to even Marsh's or Reinsch's, but depending on the formation of a 
yellow compound, by the action ot arsine on mercuric chloride or 
acidulated silver-nitrate solution the results are ambiguous, because 
of the fact that very minute traces of hydrogen sulphide or phos- 
phine produce a stain similar to the one produced by arsenuretted 
hydrogen, and there is no means of distinguishing between them. 

It is the experience of chemists in general that the Marsh test 
modified by Berzelius, and the Reinsch method are the most reliable, 
some being in favor of one method and others in favor of the other. 
After considering the various methods in detail and making some 
experiments with the same, it was decided to compare BettendorfT's 
methods with the two above. 

Before attempting to apply the tests, it is important to ascertain 
whether the chemicals and every part of the apparatus to be em- 
ployed are relatively free from arsenic or other interfering agents- 
The word " relatively " is used because chemists realize that it is 

1 1842, /cwr. de Pharm., 2, 361. 
2 1851, Ann. (Liebig), 72, 126. 

3 1869, Ztsch. fur Chemie, 12, 492 ; Wittsteiri 's Vierteljahrschr., 1870, 430. 
* 1879, Pharm. Ztg., p. 263. 



A jOTUMyfwos." 1 '} Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. 33 

practically impossible to obtain many articles at present absolutely 
free from arsenic. 

There is always more or less trouble with the metallic zinc to be 
employed in the Marsh-Berzelius method. The Joint Arsenic Com- 
mittee of the Societies of Chemical Industry and Public Analysts 1 in 
connection with the preparation of standard mirrors, states : " It is 
important to note that some < pure ' zinc is, from a cause at present 
unknown, not sufficiently sensitive ; that is to say, the addition of 
minute quantities of arsenic produces no mirror." Various methods 
have been suggested for overcoming this difficulty ; for example^ 
platinum chloride is added; A. H. Allen 2 recommends that a trace 
of iron be always present ; W. Thompson 3 uses copper sulphate and 
says that nickel is better. 

O. Hehner 4 claims that platinum chloride makes the reaction less 
delicate. Headden and Sadler 5 get much lower results on the 
addition of copper sulphate or platinum chloride. Investigations 
are needed along this line. 

The zinc employed in this work was prepared electrolytically, and 
a careful test of the same showed that it was free from arsenic, but 
contained a minute trace ot iron, the latter probably coming from 
the vessels in which the zinc was molten for granulation. The influ- 
ence of iron on arsenic will be discussed under the iron compounds. 

O. Hehner 6 prepares arsenic-free zinc as follows: melt ordinary 
block zinc in a clay crucible, when quite fluid, add, for each pound 
of zinc, about 1 gramme of metallic sodium, and stir well with a 
glass rod. A black scum forms immediately. Remove scum from 
time to time as formed by means of a china spoon or crucible cover 
held in tongs. When the metallic sodium appears to be oxidized, 
add more sodium, again stir vigorously and remove scum formed. 
The above operation takes about ten minutes. Now pour the 
molten zinc into a second clean clay crucible and treat with metallic 
sodium as above ; finally allow the molten metal to cool consider- 
ably, then granulate in the usual way. 



1 1902, Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind. y 21, 95. 

2 1902, Jour. Soc. Chem fnd., 21, 94. 

3 1902, British Food Jour., 4, 193 ; Chem. News, 86, 179. 

4 1901, Jour. Soc. Chem. fnd., 20, 194. 

5 1885, Am. Chem. Jouy., 7, 338. 

B 1902, Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 21, 675. 



34 Presence of Arsentc in Chemicals. { A January fim™ 

It is not so very difficult to obtain sulphuric acid comparatively 
free from arsenic ; but the first sample secured contained quite an 
appreciable quantity of the arsenic ; a second sample proved to be 
very good. For testing the acid, 30 c.c. were diluted to 150 c.c. and 
poured through the separatory funnel, a little at a time, so that the 
evolution of gas could be regulated. 

There appeared within fifteen minutes alter the hydrogen current 
became uniform a very faint yellowish-brown spot in the constric- 
tion of the tube. This did not increase even after one hour of con- 
tinuous evolution of the gas. The spot was probably due to a mix- 
ture of sulphur and arsenic. Inasmuch as only 12 c.c. of the 
sulphuric acid were employed for each subsequent operation, and 
the apparatus was tested in each case for thirty minutes before 
introducing the material to be tested, this small coloration could be 
entirely neglected. As a matter of fact, 12 c.c. of the concentrated 
sulphuric acid, diluted, did not produce a coloration sufficient to be 
seen with the naked eye. 

No hydrochloric acid could be obtained that was free from arsenic. 
It was, however, prepared by distilling the purest obtainable article 
with ferrous chloride, rejecting the first tenth that came over. This 
procedure gave an acid which was free from arsenic when tested 
thoroughly with the three methods used. 

The tin and copper foils, as well as the calcium chloride, were 
examined and found to be free from arsenic. 

The Marsh-Berzelius apparatus consisted of a 200 c.c. Erlenmeyer 
flask, provided with a double perforated rubber stopple, carrying a 
50 c.c. separatory funnel and exit tube, which was connected with 
a straight, bulbed, calcium-chloride tube, the latter being nearly 
filled with pure anhydrous calcium chloride. At the end of the cal- 
cium-chloride tube, toward the Marsh tube, there was placed a wad 
of cotton so as to prevent a flashing back of the flame into the 
apparatus, and thus avoid explosions. The separatory funnel was 
employed because the amounts to be used could be carefully regu- 
lated and the danger of introducing air was eliminated. 

The hard glass Marsh tubes (free from arsenic, lead and anti- 
mony) were drawn out with two constrictions of the conventional 
diameter, and the far end was also drawn out fine and fused so as 
to leave only a small orifice. This precaution prevented any further 
fusion of the glass by the burning hydrogen. 



Am. Jour. Fnarir. 
January. 1903. 



Presence of Arse?iic tn Chemicals. 



35 



About 25 grammes of zinc and 60 c.c. (1 to 5) of sulphuric acid 
were used for each operation. That is, the apparatus was thor- 
oughly cleaned each time a new test was made. 

BettendorfT's reagent was made by dissolving pure tin foil in con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid; the tin was added until the solution was 
thoroughly saturated. In applying this reagent, all solutions were 
highly acidulated with hydrochloric acid. 

Reinsch's method was applied in the usual way, no special precau- 
tions being necessary, except when organic matter was present or 
other interfering agents were indicated. 

A careful comparison of these methods with known material gave 
the following results : 



Mg of As 4 O e 

1. — i" 



-o*5 



3-— ° 2 5 



4-— 0T25 



Grains of As 4 O e . 



1 '6= 



1 129 



.0-0154 



1/260 =OCO' 



Marsh-Berzelius. 
Color black 
immediately. 



Color black 
immediately. 



Color black 
immediately. 



1/520 =0*00192 Color lighter 
black in two 
minutes than 
No. 3. 



Reinsch's. 
Foil black al- 
most instantly. 
Crystals many 
and large. 

Foil black al- 
most instantly. 
Crystals many 
and large. 

Foil dark gray. 
Crystals large 
and. many. 



Foil dark gray. 
Crystals large 
and many. 



Bettendorff's. 
C o n s i d erably 
less gave a de- 
cided reaction. 



C onsiderably 
less gave a de- 
cided reaction. 



Tin-foil and so- 
lution colored 
within two 
minutes. Bad 
in fifteen min- 
utes. 

Not so intense 
a coloration as 
No. 3. 



5. — 0*0625 1/1037 -=0*00096 Color lighter Foil much col- Solution and 

black in five ored, crystals tin show color- 
minutes than plain. ation within fif- 
No. 3. teen minutes. 



-0*03125 1/2074 =0*00048 Color lighter 
than No. 5; 
time, seven 
minutes. 



Foil 
dar! 

color. Crystals 
plain. 



assumes 
purple 



Color did not 
show up within 
fifteen minutes. 
After twenty- 
five minutes, 
slight colora- 
tion of tin-foil. 



)'0i562 1/4149 



:o*ooQ24 Color lighter 
than No. 6; 
time ten min- 
utes. 



Foil slightly 
colored purple. 
Crystals plain. 



After an hour 
there seemed to 
be a slight col- 
oration. 



36 



Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I January. 1903. 



8. — 0-00781 1/8298 =0-00012 Stain quite Foil but little Results nega- 

marked in colored. Crys- tive. 

one-half tals plain. 

hour. 

9. — 0*00390 1/16596=0 "00006 Stainless Foil very Results nega- 

marked than slightly col- tive. 
No. 8. ored. Very few 

crystals. 

10. — 0-00195 1/33333=0*00003 Stain faint in Slight stain. Results nega- 

o n e - h a 1 f No crystals. tive. 
hour. 

11. — 0-00129 1/50000=0*00002 Stain very Slight stain. Results nega- 

faint in one tive. 
hour. 

These figures are only approximately equivalent. 

According to the above results the limit of the BettendorfT test 
is about 1 -30 milligramme or 1-2000 of a grain of arsenous oxide 
per cubic centimetre of solution or gramme of material. The limit 
of the Reinsch's method is reached at about 1-260 of a milli- 
gramme or I- 1 7000 of a grain of arsenous oxide in 1 c.c. of solution 
or 1 gramme of material. The limit of the Marsh-Berzelius test 
is reached at about 1-512 of a milligramme or 1-33333 of a grain 
of arsenous acid per cubic centimeter of solution or gramme of 
material. 

It is claimed by some observers that the i-iooo of a milligramme 
per cubic centimetre of liquid gives positive indications, but some 
of the more conservative are of the opinion that 1-10 of a milli- 
gramme per cubic centimetre of fluid is about the limit. The evi- 
dence of the presence of 1-512 of a milligramme of arsenous oxide 
per gramme of material obtained by the writer is not at all positive, 
and he is of the opinion that considerably more must be present 
before the chemist can make a positive statement; i-io of a milli- 
gramme is, however, a little too conservative, because with this 
amount the tube becomes almost black throughout the constriction. 

It was decided to make standard tubes or mirrors for the Marsh- 
Berzelius test * by depositing the metallic arsenic in the tubes 
and using them for comparison in deciding as to how much arsenic 
a given substance contained. This was decided on, because it was 
soon found, after a little work was done, that it was practically 
impossible to weigh the small quantities of arsenic generally 
obtained. The figures given above represent the amount of arsenous 
oxide contained in one or more cubic centimetres of solution of known 



A ^anuary F i903 m '} Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. 37 

strength. The solutions were consecutively so diluted that the 
writer was in a position to know just how much arsenic was added 
in each operation, and carried to such an attenuation that only the 
minutest coloration was developed in the reactions. 

On comparing the above results with those obtained by other 
observers, it can be readily seen that the Marsh-Berzelius test did 
not appear to be as delicate as frequently represented. The writer 
thinks, however, that this is chiefly due to the fact that, with few 
exceptions, experimenters have given the degree of dilution of the 
solution without mentioning the quantity employed. The point 
made by the late Dr. Wormley 1 in this connection is well worth 
repeating. He says : " Thus, it has been stated that the method 
(Marsh) will yield satisfactory deposits when the solution contains 
only 1 -2,000,000th of its weight of arsenic. This is true, but it 
requires about 1,000 grains of such a solution to furnish these 
results; the absolute quantity of oxide present would, therefore, be 
about i-2000th of a grain." 

In preparing the standard tubes, it is desirable to make two or 
more so as to be certain that the tubes are alike and uniformity 
exists in the operation. It is possible that the standard tubes of 
one worker will vary slightly from those of another, but this will 
not materially affect results if details are observed. The tubes must 
be prepared from the same zinc and reagents subsequently to be 
employed for the work. 

How long the tubes will be reliable, time only can tell. Those in 
the writer's possession, made over a year ago and carefully sealed, 
show by comparison with new tubes not to have changed in the 
least. 

After making a careful study of the above three methods, both as 
to reliability and ease of execution, it was decided to employ the 
Marsh-Berzelius method throughout. This process is frequently 
decided against as being too difficult of operation. Such an objec- 
tion is probably justified, but it is the writer's experience that when 
pure reagents are at hand, and the apparatus is once set up, the 
results are obtained with less attention and trouble than by any 
other method. 

It is always wise to make two mirrors — one for comparison with 



1 1885, " Microchemistrv of Poisons," 2d Ed., p. 285. 



38 Presence of Arsenic in Chemicals. {^'J^^m^' 

the standard and the other for the production of octahedral crystals 
of arsenous oxide. This precaution is essential to eliminate the 
possible presence of such disturbing impurities as antimony, mer- 
cury and selenium. 

When comparatively large deposits of antimony are heated, the 
resulting sublimate may contain octahedral crystals. 1 

Selenium and tellurium have been discussed by A. E. Berry 2 and 
O. Rosenheim. 3 Tellurium probably has no influence on the Marsh- 
Berzelius test, but there seems to be much uncertainty at present 
about the influence exerted by the selenium. The disturbing influ- 
ence of this element can be eliminated, like the sulphur compounds, 
by placing a wad of cotton, moistened with lead acetate, in the fore- 
part of the calcium-chloride tube. 

The arsenical deposit occurs from I to 2 centimetres back of the 
flame, which is so placed that the greater portion of the mirror is 
in the constriction of the tube. When the deposit is small, a fine 
brownish mirror results, but large deposits are arranged in three 
rings. The ring toward the flame is brown and semi-transparent. 
The middle portion is dense and almost black, while the outer por- 
tion is grayish and diffusing. 

The character and formation of the mirrors are influenced by cer- 
tain elements like antimony, mercury and selenium. 

As above stated, the hydrogen was allowed to evolve slowly and 
pass through the apparatus for thirty minutes before the substance 
to be tested was introduced. The flame during this time was placed 
just before the outer constriction; and if any arsenic could possibly 
have been present in any portion of the zinc, sulphuric acid, etc., it 
would have been revealed by this precaution. The test, however, 
was invariably negative. The flame was then placed just before the 
inner constriction and the substance, or solution of the substance to 
be tested, introduced into the flask, little by little, through the sepa- 
ratory funnel. It is generally necessary to add the substance to be 
tested slowly, because the presence of arsenic seems to augment the 
reaction very materially. In most cases where arsenic was present* 
it was revealed in from five to eight minutes, and all seemed to have 
been evolved in from fifteen to twenty minutes. The test, however, 

1 Wormley, 1877, Am. Jour. Med. Science, 74, 399. 
2 1901, Jour. Soc. Chem. hid., 20, 322. 
a 1901, Chem. News, 83, 280. 



January P i903 m '} Pharmaceutical and Chemical Notes. 39 

was uniformly continued for thirty minutes. In a few doubtful cases 
the hydrogen was permitted to be generated for one hour. It was 
considered that a longer time than this was absolutely unnecessary, 
inasmuch as chemists realize that if large enough quantities are 
taken, and the reaction allowed to continue sufficiently long, a trace 
ot arsenic can be obtained from almost all substances. — Read at the 
A.Ph.A. meeting, September, 1902. 



PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL NOTES. 
By Clement B. Lowe. 

I have some matters of interest to bring before this meeting this 
afternoon which I hope will be of some practical value. 

The first is a blank form which I have had printed for keeping a 
record of prescription renewals. It largely explains itself. At the 
close of the day's business the column entitled, " Renewal No.," 
which has been left blank, is filled in by the numbering machine, 
At the end of the year the prescription number represents the exact 
number of prescriptions compounded during the year. This plan of 
keeping account of renewals helps us greatly in keeping our numer- 
ous charge accounts straight, and also in renewing prescriptions. 



PEIyHAM PHARMACY. 





Prescription 










No. 


Renewal No. 


Number. 


Date. 


Doctor. 


Price. 


1. 












2. 













Whenever I attend a pharmaceutical meeting I try to bring away 
from it something of value, be it small or great. Acting upon the 
suggestion of Mr. Ruhl, of Manheim, as presented at the Pennsylva- 
nia Pharmaceutical Meeting-, I show you a three-cornered file, and 
the deft manner in which, by means of it, a cork can be extracted 
from a bottle. Owing to its shape, it has the disadvantage of being 
hard to pick up. Another suggestion which I show you is the cap 
of a castor-oil can, whjch has had a round hole cut in it and a tin 
tube soldered to it, so that the oil can be poured out without spill- 
ing a drop. This cap will fit all cans of the same make. 



40 Pharmaceutical and Chemical Notes. { A X^aryS. 111, 

I also exhibit a wine of coca leaf (30 grains to the fluid ounce) in 
which the menstruum is muscatelle wine, this making a more agree- 
able preparation than claret wine. 

A neat and quick way (first suggested by Professor White) for 
determining whether a change has taken place in bichloride of mer- 
cury gauze, by which it may have been partly changed into the 
mild chloride (calomel), is to pour limewater upon a small piece. If 
a black color is produced, the change has taken place. 

In our investigations we sometimes jump at conclusions. Last 
winter, whenever I used a certain mortar and pestle (the latter of 
which had a hard rubber handle) for triturating, especially calomel 
and sugar, a peculiar crackling sound seemed to be produced, like 
that of the u electricity of friction " made by drawing a hard rubber 
comb through the hair, etc. I repeated the experiment a number of 
times; each time the sound was produced, the rubber handle appar- 
ently acting as a non-conductor, just about the time that I thought 
I had made a discovery, I found that the pestle was hollow, and 
the peculiar noise was caused by some of the cement that had 
loosened its hold. 

We recently had in the store a prescription calling for sodium 
salicylate dissolved in peppermint water. My manager took a 
graduate from the rack and dissolved the powder in the liquid by 
stirring with a glass rod. At once a slight amber color was pro- 
duced, and as he was not favorable to this brand of sodium sali- 
cylate, he said, " It must be contaminated with iron." I could not 
think this to be the case, as it was the product of a well-known 
house of excellent reputation. I put the prescription up myself in 
a graduate that I knew was absolutely clean and I obtained a color- 
less solution. Afterwards I mixed a little tincture chloride of iron 
with syrup in a graduate, then washed it (as a boy would perhaps 
ordinarily wash it) by rinsing it four times under the hot-water 
spigot, and then put up the prescription as in the first place, getting 
a colored solution. 

Moral: (1) Don't be too quick in condemning chemicals made by 
a well-known house. (2) Be sure your prescription utensils are 
absolutely clean. 

I was recently asked the question by one of my students, Why 
calomel was not converted into corrosive sublimate in the stomach 
by the aid of the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice ? As the 



A ja t f«?ary, P i903 m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 41 

question is one of some interest, I also answer it here. In the first 
place, the percentage of HC1 in the gastric juice is small, only 2 
per cent.; in the second place, the temperature of the stomach is 
only 100° F.; in the third place, the food does not remain in the 
stomach subject to the action of the gastric juice more than two 
or three hours. In the experiment of Rutherford and Vignal 5 
grains of calomel were subjected to the action of the normal gastric 
juice for seventeen hours at a temperature of ioo° F. and not more 
than of a grain of corrosive sublimate was produced. What 
does take place is probably the formation in the stomach of a com- 
plex albuminate of mercury, sodium and chlorine, or if it reaches 
the duodenum unchanged, which probably is the case, it is decom- 
posed and the gray oxide is precipitated. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

HORSE-CHESTNUTS AS FOOD. 

Dr. Loves, of Hanover, presented at a recent meeting of German 
Naturalists and Physicians a paper on this topic. He said that if 
the ground seed be macerated in alcohol, the bitter principles are 
extracted, and the residue, a white, tasteless powder, is of high 
nutritive value. The analysis of the seed gives 8 per cent, proteid, 
7 per cent, fat, 77 per cent, nitrogen-free extract and 2-6 per cent, 
ash. The nitrogen-free extract contains about 14 per cent, of cane 
sugar (in the unripe seeds invert-sugar is present) 13 per cent, of 
glucosides and o-2 per cent, of tannic acid. The ingredients that 
pass into the alcohol include certain phenolic bodies and a sub- 
stance resembling saponin. The process is covered by patent (now 
being operated), and it is also proposed to utilize the carbohydrates 
for the production of alcohol. It is said that 25 litres of alcohol 
can be obtained from 100 kilos of seeds, and that a plantation of 
trees will yield yearly 400 marks per hectare (about $40 per acre). 

Henry LeffisIann. 

errors in kjeldahl process. 

C. A. Mooers, chemist at the Tennessee Experiment Station 
[University of lennessee Record, May, 1902) gives figures to show 
that in that form of the Kjeldahl method, in which mercury is used 
in the digestion, some of the mercury is carried over in the subse- 



42 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { *■ j^uarVjoos. 111 ' 

quent distillation, even if the safety-bulb is used and an amalgam is 
formed on the block-tin tubes, which causes some of the ammonia 
to be retained. Mooers' figures show a loss in some cases of over 
I 5 per cent. He found it impracticable to bring the tubes into a 
satisfactory condition and replaced them with Jena-glass tubes which, 
after a year's use, have shown excellent results. He regards these 
glass tubes as cheaper and better than block-tin. Block-tin tubes 
can be used safely with the Gunning modification. 

Mooers also finds a source of error in following the official 
A.O.A..C. method for nitrates. He advises that the sample of fertil- 
izer, in which nitrates are to be determined, should be mixed with 
I or 2 c.c. of water, and the mixed acids (sulphuric and salicylic) 
not added until ten minutes later. H. L. 

ASSAY OF COMMERCIAL PEPSINS. 

A new method for the assay of commercial pepsins was given in 
the October " Bulletin of the Pathological and Bacteriological Lab- 
oratory ot the Delaware State Board of Health." It is essentially 
the U.S. P. method, excepting that the acid albumen produced by 
the hydrochloric acid in the pepsin mixture is precipitated by mak- 
ing slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate, leaving only the digested 
substances, albumoses and peptone in solution. 

The number of parts of egg albumen, which I part of the pepsin 
will convert into albumoses and peptone, is ascertained by compar- 
ing the nitrogen determination of prepared egg albumen with the 
digested product by the Kjeldahl method. The author's reason for 
using this method is that he does not consider a freshly coagulated 
and granulated egg albumen U.S. P. digested, when it is dissolved, 
but only when it is converted into those products which are absorbed 
into the system without further change, namely : albumoses and 
peptone, products of proteolytic action and not acid albumens. He 
further states that there is nothing uniform about the strengths of 
pepsins, either from different firms or the same firm. Appended 
are a few results obtained by this method of assay upon four of the 
best-known brands of pepsin, marked I : 3000 : 

Pepsin A 1 : 560 

Pepsin B 1 : 1052 

Pepsin C 1 : 1209 

Pepsin D . . . 1 : 1253 

W. S. Weakley. 



A January P i903 m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 43 

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD OF POTENT REMEDIES. 

Doubtless it would not be practicable to provide in the Pharma- 
copoeia that all tinctures should be prepared with a view to uni- 
formity of dose, desirable as such a provision would be as a means 
of relieving the practitioner of medicine of the task of remember- 
ing a lot of varying doses. Perhaps, however, there might be a 
nearer approach than has yet been made to a division of tinctures 
— and of other preparations, for that matter — into classes, the dose 
of each member of any particular class to be the same. At all 
events, the various official formularies of the world should show a 
closer approximation to uniformity in the strength of their prep- 
arations than is the case at present. Especially is this desirable in 
the case of very energetic drugs, in order that overdosing by mis- 
take may be avoided. 

A glaring example of the discrepancy in question was made the 
subject of a paper read at the recent annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association by Mr. M. I. Wilbert, of the German 
Hospital, Philadelphia. The example pointed out by Mr. Wilbert 
is that of the United States tincture of aconite, which contains 
35 per cent, of the drug, whereas that of France, Hungary and 
Portugal contains 20 per cent., that of Germany, Austria, Italy, 
Russia, Roumania, Holland and Switzerland 10 per cent., and that 
of Great Britain only 5 per cent. The American tincture of this 
very poisonous drug is, therefore, seven times as strong as the Brit- 
ish. It might easily happen, since English medical writings are 
much read in this country, that an inexperienced American physi- 
cian should prescribe of our own tincture the dose recommended by 
an English writer of the British preparation. His patient would 
then get seven times as much aconite at a dose as the writer relied 
on had intended. Little is known by the great mass of practition- 
ers in different countries of the discrepancies of the pharmacopoeias, 
and when one finds a certain number of drops of tincture of aconite 
recommended for a dose, he is very apt not to remember that the 
tincture which the author had in mind is a very different thing from 
the tincture that he himself is in the habit of prescribing. There 
is certainly danger in the existence of such a difference between the 
aconite tinctures of two nations speaking the same tongue. 

But our official formulary is improving in respect to this particu- 
lar preparation, for when aconite was first made official in the 



44 



Obituary. 



/Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
I January, 1903. 



United States, in 1850, the authorized tincture contained 50 per 
cent, of the drug, in i860 the strength was reduced to 40 per cent., 
and in 1890 it was still further reduced, being made what it is now. 
That a substantial additional reduction would not prove repugnant 
to the pharmacists seems probable from Mr. Wilbert's frank remark 
that " there are probably few pharmacists who would not be willing 
to double their stock of any preparation by the simple addition of 
alcohol and water." — Editorial in N. Y. Medical Journal, igo2. 



OBITUARY. 

DR. BRUNO HIRSCH. 

Dr. Bruno Hirsch, for many years a corresponding member of 
this college, and a pharmaceutical writer of international reputation, 
died at Dresden, Germany, on December 3, 1902. 

Dr. Hirsch was born at Gorlitz, Germany, on April 13, 1826, 
where, at the early age of fifteen, he was apprenticed to a local 
apothecary who with the drug and prescription business combined 
that of Colonial produce, better known to us as groceries. 

It was among such unpromising and, for the scientific develop- 
ment of a meagrely educated youth, uncongenial surroundings that 
young Hirsch spent the long years of his apprenticeship ; this, too, 
at a time when the duties ot an apprentice entailed an amount 
of drudgery little appreciated by the younger generation, to say 
nothing of the unduly long hours and the absolute as well as prompt 
obedience exacted by all the employees older than himself. 

It has often been stated that rough words and hard work have 
never materially injured a superior character, and so in this case, 
long hours and harsh treatment only proved a stimulus for extra 
efforts on the part of the apprentice, to demonstrate that he was 
worthy of something better. 

After completing his apprenticeship in Gorlitz, young Hirsch 
went to Berlin, where he acted as assistant in several pharmacies. 
In 1847 he matriculated at the University of Berlin, and in Novem- 
ber of the following year he successfully passed the required State 
examinations. 

His subsequent career as assistant in Berlin, as proprietor of a 
pharmacy in Grunberg and later in Frankfurt, a. M., was that of a 
student and careful observer. So that, when ill-health compelled 



Am. Jour. Pharro. \ 
January, 1903. J 



Obituary. 



45 



him to retire from the practice of pharmacy, in 1882, he had at his 
command an array of experiences and facts that proved the basis of 
many of his subsequent interesting and valuable contributions to 
pharmaceutical literature. 

From Frankfurt he went to Berlin, but later removed to Dresden 
so as to be with his only daughter, the wife of Dr. Alfred Schneider. 

While the last twenty years of his life formed the period of 
Hirsch's greatest literary activity, he had for many years been a 
liberal contributor to the contemporaneous literature of pharmacy, 
particularly through the pharmaceutical journals of his own country, 
and as early as 1847 the publication of a critical study, comparing 
the filth and sixth editions of the Prussian Pharmacopoeias, gave an 
indication of the natural trend of his studies and observations. 

It is along this particular line, the critical, comparative study of 
the development and contents of the various national pharmaco- 
poeias, that Dr. Hirsch has been particularly successful, and in which 
he was the acknowledged master. 

Hirsch published a number of commentary studies relating to the 
various editions of the Prussian and later the Imperial German 
Pharmacopoeia, and in 1891, in collaboration with his son-in-law, 
Dr. Schneider, published the first edition of the then Hirsch- 
Schneider commentary on the third edition of the German Phar- 
macopoeia. This book was immediately and deservedly popular, 
and has but recently been revised, the third edition being just from 
the press. 

The work that was most congenial to Hirsch, and the one that 
will no doubt result in the greatest good and the most lasting bene- 
fits, is the collation of the Universal Pharmacopbe. The first 
edition of this work was begun in 1884, and completed three years 
later, while the second edition, but lately completed, was the last 
work of this venerable pharmaceutical writer. In the preface to 
this second edition, dated end of June, 1902, Dr. Hirsch says, " May 
the last work of a man that has devoted his whole life to the inter- 
ests of pharmacy, and who is now standing at the close of his life, 
meet with kindly review and criticisms." 

This appeal was hardly needed, as the work referred to is not 
alone of gigantic proportions, but despite the physical sufferings of 
the author and the natural infirmities that accompany old age, the 
amount of collected material, as well as the method, and the gener- 



4 6 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1903. 



ally acknowledged accuracy of its presentation, will always remain a 
testimonial to the industry and capacity of this tireless worker. 

Some slight idea of the difficulties met with in a work of this 
kind may be had, when we remember that the twenty-two authori- 
tative books, quoted in the last edition of the Universal Pharma- 
copoe, required a working knowledge of no less than eleven 
different languages. The number of separate or distinct titles 
amounted to 4,450. 

That the efforts of Dr. Hirsch to improve the status of pharmacy 
and to increase the sum-total of our knowledge of drugs and medi- 
cines received recognition, is evident from the fact that he was made 
an honorary member of a number of pharmaceutical societies. 
Among them the German Pharmaceutical Association, Berlin, 
the Austrian Society of Apothecaries and our own Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy. 

Honors of this kind, however, cannot impress the true value of 
the work done by an individual. Time alone is the test that ulti- 
mately determines the real value of any one line of work or investi- 
gation. Irrespective of either of these measures of excellence, the 
published works of Dr. Hirsch are a heritage to us and to succeeding 
generations, and will, no doubt, prove to be an incentive for better 
work, in that they demonstrate how, despite adverse surroundings, 
and hampered by a lack of scientific as well as literary training, it is 
nevertheless possible to achieve acknowledged scientific standing 
and to do work of real value for the benefit of our own profession 
and the general good of the community at large. M. I. W. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular monthly pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, December 1 6th, Mr. W. L. 
Cliffe, a member of the Board of Trustees, acting as chairman. In 
calling the meeting to order, the chairman called attention to the 
importance of the meeting, as the main subject for discussion was 
one of international importance, and introduced Mr. M. I. Wilbert, 
who read two papers : one entitled, " International Standards " (see 
page 13), and the other u The Proposed International Standard 
Tinctures of Potent Remedies " (see page 20). 

Mr. Wilbert exhibited a complete line of tinctures which he had 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. \ 
January, 1903. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



47 



made from the powdered drugs, these having been supplied by Gilpin, 
Langdon & Co., according to the proposed international standard. 

In discussing the paper, Professor Remington stated that Secre- 
tary of State Hay had asked him to suggest the names of two 
American representatives to " The International Conference for the 
Unification of Potent Medicaments," and that he had given the 
names of Dr. H. C. Wood, Philadelphia, and Dr. F. B. Power, now 
residing in London. Professor Remington also stated that at the 
Seventh International Congress which met in Chicago, in 1 893, the 
American Pharmaceutical Association appropriated the sum of 
$1,000 for defraying a portion of the expenses of publishing an 
International Pharmacopoeia of Potent Remedies. He said that this 
offer was duly presented by him at the Eighth Congress which met 
at Brussels in 1898, but it was rejected on the ground that the Inter- 
national Pharmacopoeia should not be limited to potent remedies 
but include all remedies. Professor Remington referred to the 
present work on the revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and said 
that the work was being conducted along lines tending to simplicity 
and greater uniformity of tinctures as well as other medicaments. 

Professor Kraemer read short extracts from a paper communi- 
cated by Dr. Power on the recent International Conference (see 
page 1). Mr. William Mclntyre said that he had lived through 
three or four revisions of the U S. Pharmacopoeia and that men do 
not stop to inquire where new ideas develop, as this does not 
matter to the patient or druggist so long as they are beneficial. He 
then referred to tincture of aconite, and said that in his experience 
there is a tendency among, physicians to prescribe it in smaller 
doses. Mr. Mclntyre then offered the following resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, It is desirable, if possible, to secure international uniformity in 
the strength of preparations of potent remedies, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
assembled at this meeting, heartily indorse the spirit of the recommendations 
of the International Conference for the Unification of Potent Medicaments, 
held at Brussels, September 15-20, 1902, and be it 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be forwarded to the Chairman of 
the Committee of Prevision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of 
America and to the International Secretary for the Unification of the Pharma- 
copoeias. 

Mr. Harry Matusow read a paper on " Hypophosphorous Acid as 
a Means of Preserving Syrup of Ferrous Iodide." He considered 



48 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { A januarrf& rm ' 

the various methods which have been suggested to preserve this 
syrup, and said that so far as he had been able to ascertain, Prof. J. 
F. Judge, Cincinnati, was the first one to suggest the use of hypophos- 
phorous acid in the preparation of syrup of ferrous iodide, and that 
it seemed to be the only substance to hold undisputed ground as an 
effective preservative of this syrup. 

Professor Remington said that he did not agree with Mr. Matusow 
in his statement that the discoloration of the syrup is not due to cara- 
melization of the sugar ; he said that this does not always take place 
at once, and that in nearly all syrups that contain acid, caramelization 
is likely to take place. Mr. Wilbert said that it was better to make 
up smaller quantities of preparations of this kind and to make them 
oftener rather than use preservatives, however harmless they might 
seem. Mr. Mclntyre accorded with this view, and said that per- 
sonally he had a feeling against using preservatives either for foods 
or medicine, and that he made his syrups with rock-candy. Mr. 
Cliffe also advocated the use of rock-candy for the preparation of 
medicinal syrup. Professor Remington stated that the syrup of 
iodide of iron would keep better if the amount of sugar were 
increased about 10 per cent. He also alluded to the late Dr. Charles 
Rice's method for keeping large quantities of the syrup, and said 
that he employed a ten-gallon jug with a stop-cock near the bottom 
for drawing off the syrup, and that it was preserved from the air by 
the addition of 4 or 5 ounces of olive oil, which formed a layer 
over the top. 

Professor Kraemer spoke of the influence of micro-organisms in 
changing carbohydrates, and said that in certain instances which he 
had observed, soluble starch had been changed to the various 
dextrins and finally glucose in the course of a year through the 
action of certain fungi, and that in a number of medicinal syrups 
that had spoiled, the same organisms seemed to be the cause of the 
spoliation. On the other hand, syrups as well as a large number of 
other products, including hopped and unhopped wort, which had 
been properly sterilized and stoppered with absorbent cotton, had 
been kept for several years. 

Mr. Boring stated that he had had some trouble in making a clear 
preparation of tincture of nux vomica, and that he had found the 
use of a small quantity of hydrochloric acid to give a clear tincture. 
Mr. Cliffe said that this might indicate that the trouble was due to 



A January fi903 rm -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 49 

metallic impurities, the acid acting as a solvent for them. Mr. Bor- 
ing stated that recently he had been preparing this tincture from an 
extract prepared in vacuo and had not experienced any further 
trouble. Professor Remington stated that he thought if the pre- 
cipitate were filtered out it would be found to be inert. He also 
alluded to the fact that a 20 per cent, aqueous solution of acetic acid 
would exhaust the whole nux vomica seeds and leave them tasteless. 
Mr. Boring stated that some years ago Mr. Rother suggested the 
addition of a small quantity of sodium chloride to the menstruum 
for exhausting the seeds. 

Mr. Wilbert called attention to the special features of the follow- 
ing foreign pharmaceutical books : " Universal Pharmacopoe," by 
Dr. Bruno Hirsch ; " Handkommentar zum Arzneibuch fur das 
Deutsche Reich," by Schneider and Paul; "Anleitung zur Erkennung 
und Priifung aller im Arzneibuch fur das Deutsche Reich (Vierte 
Ausgabe) aufgenommenen Arzneimittel," by Dr. Biechle; and 
"Pharmaceutical Synonyms," reprinted from the British and 
Colonial Druggists' Diary. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

MINUTES OF THE QUARTERLY MEETING. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy was held December 29, 1902, in the Library, at 4 o'clock. 

In the absence of the President at the opening of the meeting the First Vice- 
President, William J. Jenks, took the chair. Twenty-one members were present. 
The minutes of the semi-annual meeting, held September 29th, were read and 
adopted. 

The President, Mr. Howard B. French, having arrived, now took the chair. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the regular meetings held Septem- 
ber 2d, October 7th and November 5th, and of the special meeting held Novem- 
ber 18th, were read by the Registrar and approved. 

Professor Lowe suggested extending an invitation to the members of the 
Third-year Class to attend the special lectures recently established. The Presi- 
dent also urged the members to attend and to invite their friends to be present. 

Announcement was made of the deaths of Jacob L. Smith (the oldest mem- 
ber of the College in point of membership), T. Morris Perot and George W. 
Kennedy (active members of the College) and of Dr. Bruno Hirsch, of Dresden, 
Germany, a corresponding member. 

Remarks on the character and services of these gentlemen were made by a 
number of the members, when, on motion, their names were reported to the 
Committee on Necrology, to prepare suitable memoirs for publication. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., Secretary. 



5o 



Notes and News. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1903. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Benjamin Horatio Paui,, editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal for thirty 
years, has resigned that position. Dr. Paul is not only well known as an 
editor but also for his labors in pharmaceutical chemistry. A large number of 
papers of a high order have come from his pen and that of A. J. Cownley, who 
has been associated with him for more than a quarter of a century. Dr. Paul 
was recently made an honorary member of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy in recognition of his splendid services to pharmacy. An interesting sketch 
of Dr. Paul's career is given in the Chemist and Druggist, 1902, pp. 1046 and 
1047. 

Edgar F. Smith, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania 
and well known for his wide researches in chemistry, ,has been elected President 
of the American Philosophical Society, which is distinguished as having been 
founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1743, and as having a membership including 
many of the most eminent men in science in this country, and abroad as well. 

The; Gordon Memorial Coei,EGE at Khartoum, which Lord Kitchener 
opened on Saturday last, is now ready for the chemical and bacteriological 
research laboratories presented by Mr. Henry S. Wellcome during his recent 
visit to the Soudan. The fixtures and appliances made in England have already 
been shipped, and the equipment for scientific work is, we understand, com- 
plete in every detail and will be equal to any similar laboratories in Europe. 
Dr. Andrew Balfour has been appointed director of the laboratories, and he will 
find the Soudan to present exceptional opportunities for the study of tropical 
diseases. Dr. Balfour and his staff will also assist the authorities in forensic 
investigations, besides giving attention to the study of cereals and textile fibres 
and to similar matters affecting the development of the agricultural and mineral 
resources of the country. — Lancet, November 75, igo2. 

The Drug Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, 
which has been established for the purpose of carrying on work connected with 
the investigation of drugs, is about ready to begin work, with Lyman F. Kebler 
as chief chemist. Mr. Kebler is a graduate of the University of Michigan and 
has received the degrees of B.S. and M.S. from that institution, and has been 
for some years past chief chemist to the Smith, Kline & French Company, 
Philadelphia. 

"Meehan's Monthly," a high-class journal devoted to general gardening 
and wild flowers, was discontinued with the December issue. This journal 
was established by the late Thomas Meehan, who was widely known for his 
original researches in botany, and who aimed in the conduct of this journal to 
create a love for the beauties of nature and to increase the interest in horticul- 
ture and landscape gardening. The publication was eminently successful as an 
exponent of the science and art of horticulture and general gardening, and it 
is unfortunate that journals of this character are unable to continue their work 
without the support of associations or special endowments. It is a matter of 
great regret that Meehan's Monthly, with its proud record, could not longer 
survive the spirit of its founder. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 

FEBRUARY, igoj. 



WHAT DRUGGISTS CAN DO TO ASSIST IN DETECTING 
CASES OF POISONING. 

By Henry I/e^fmann, A.M., M.D. 

Death from poisoning is much more common than the mortality- 
statistics indicate. This is due not only to the fact that many 
poisons produce symptoms that simulate disease, but also to the 
haste in which diagnosis is made and the rare opportunity to verify 
it by autopsy. It must, however, be borne in mind that it is to-day 
impossible, in the light of our present knowledge, to define precisely 
the boundary between poisoning and disease. All the great masters 
of medical jurisprudence and toxicology have labored to define the 
word poison, but none of the definitions will stand criticism, and 
some of them, like the Spencerian definitions of " life " and " evolu- 
tion," confuse rather than enlighten the average mind. Of late 
years, the activity of the authorities in the suppression of food- 
adulteration has developed a peculiar and unscientific view, and 
even secured judicial recognition of it, namely, that a given sub- 
stance is either a poison or not a poison, without reference to the 
question of dose. It would be apparent to any one familiar with the 
principles of pharmacology and therapeutics, that dose is one of the 
most important factors in determining the physiologic action of any 
substance. To pick out, arbitrarily, such materials as boric acid and 
sodium benzoate and denounce them as poisons in every propor- 
tion, and at the same time declare that saltpeter, acetic acid and 
vanillin are wholly suitable for addition to food, is one of the start- 
ling inconsistencies of certain dairy and food commissioners. 

It is not my intention to attempt to instruct druggists in the art 
of diagnosis or elaborate toxicologic analysis. Each of these is a 

(5i) 



52 Detecting Cases of Poisoning. 

science in itself, and skill in it is acquired only by long individual 
practice. My object is to call attention to some simple tests which 
are available as means of diagnosis ; to some wide-spread errors as 
to possible causes of disease and poisoning, and to some serious 
mistakes that are too often made by those who have to do with 
collecting or forwarding materials for toxicologic examination. 

I have just alluded to the difficulty of determining precisely 
the boundary between poisoning and disease, and this applies as 
much to the legal as to the purely medical phase of the question. 
In truth, under our present scientific light, we must classify a 
very large number of so-called diseases as poisoning. Most of the 
sudden choleraic seizures, so common in the warmer season — the 
picnic illnesses, from ice-cream and cream-puffs, for instance — are 
true irritant poisonings, due to materials produced by excessive 
microbic growth. Just here I must warn against a much over- 
worked word. A remark by Hobbes, the English philosopher, 
should be always in the mind of every scientific thinker : ".Words 
are wise men's counters ; they do but reckon by them, but they are 
the money of fools." I refer now to the word " ptomain." This 
word has a legitimate use, but it has been made to do heavy duty 
for concealing ignorance and for ornamenting the sensational articles 
of newspapers. 

In large cities of this country, intimate relations are often estab- 
lished between doctors and druggists, the latter performing some of 
the clinical tests so useful in diagnosis. For such work numerous 
valuable manuals are available, so that in addition to the recollec- 
tion of the instruction that the druggist has received in his college 
course, he can easily find a guide to the methods of these tests. I 
find, however, that toxicologic tests are usually overlooked. Some 
of them are as simple and as certain as the usual tests for albumin 
and sugar. Reinsch's test is one of these. It takes but a few min- 
utes, requires only common materials, and is a very satisfactory 
indication of the characteristic elements of three common poisons — 
arsenous oxid, tartar emetic and corrosive sublimate. I think, how- 
ever, it is as much in its negative as in its positive results that it 
should be considered. 

When poisoning is accompanied by marked corrosive action, as is 
produced by sulphuric acid, or when the poison has a distinct and 
well-known odor, as is the case with phenol or chloroform, the 



A Feb J rrrV P ?903 m -} Detecting Cases of Poisoning. 53 

chemical tests are not so important as a means of diagnosis, 
although, of course, they are the main points in the formal investi- 
gation, but when these characteristic actions or odors are wanting, 
chemical tests will often help. It is true that such tests are rarely 
prompt enough for immediate diagnosis, but they are useful for sug- 
gesting a line of action after the acute conditions have passed. Let 
us take, for example, the common irritant poisonings to which allu- 
sion has just been made. The symptoms developed by a stale cream- 
puff on an August afternoon may be so violent as to seem to 
threaten life and to suggest a very active drug. We know, indeed, 
now, that the effect is probably due to one or more organic bodies, 
products of the breaking down of proteid matters of microbes. The 
treatment will, as a rule, be addressed to the symptoms, and no 
attempt be made at direct antidotal remedies. In truth, I have for 
some years thought that the formal table of antidotes that is ap- 
pended to quiz compends, physicians' visiting lists and pocket for- 
mularies, has more of a literary than a practical value. A physician 
called to a case of violent vomiting and purging, of sudden onset, 
will rely on sedative or supportive remedies and will not consider 
whether freshly precipitated ferric hydroxid, old oil of turpentine, 
albumin or tannin should be given. When the symptoms are under 
control, and opportunity is obtained for some history of the case, 
the question of possible poisoning will come up. Now, the detec- 
tion of the so-called ptomains, or of the microbes that produce 
them, cannot be done by the druggist. It is a problem of the high- 
est difficulty and, if solved at all, it is only by the most expert and 
best-equipped specialists. Chemical tests come in here as methods 
of exclusion. In ordinary cases of acute poisoning, attended by 
marked irritation of the stomach, whether with or without severe 
burning pain, if you should be asked, by a doctor to test any sus- 
pected food or vomited matters, apply first Reinsch's test. The 
material usually requires no preparation. A slip of thin copper-foil 
about half a square inch in area is boiled in a test-tube or porcelain 
basin for about half a minute with, say, 10 c.c. of water and 1 c.c. of 
hydrochloric acid. The slip should remain bright, and will remain 
so if the chemicals are reasonably pure. After this preliminary test 
has been made satisfactory, some of the suspected material should 
be added and the boiling continued for half a minute or so. If the 
copper acquires a dark stain the presence of some foreign body is 



54 



Detecting Cases of Poisoning. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1903. 



indicated. Further tests are needed to identify this exactly, but I 
will not describe these. It is sufficient to indicate here that no food 
article, human tissue, secretion or excretion in normal condition will 
give with Reinsch's test a distinct stain on copper, and also that 
very small amounts of arsenous oxid, tartar emetic, corrosive subli- 
mate, calomel and bismuth subnitrate will be detected by it. It may 
seem a waste of time to discuss here this well-known test. In this 
audience will be many who know its value and its limitations, and 
have used it many times, but I know from a long experience with 
practical toxicologic work in Philadelphia that many doctors and 
druggists are not aware of the ease and wide usefulness of this test. 
I have in mind now a case in which a Philadelphia druggist was 
asked by a doctor to make a test of a sample of coffee which the 
latter supposed to have been the cause of poisoning. The druggist 
tested for arsenic by adding a solution of copper sulphate to the 
sample. A green precipitate was produced, and he decided at once 
that this was copper arsenite. A poor woman was arrested and 
detained overnight in the stationhouse. The sample was forwarded 
to me by the police authorities, and I had no difficulty in showing 
its entire freedom from metallic poisons, and the prisoner was dis- 
charged. A modification of this test was used by me in a case of 
poisoning by corrosive sublimate, to which I was suddenly called. 
I placed a drop of the solution (water from a tea-kettle, into which 
the corrosive sublimate had been dropped), on a gold coin, and held 
the blade of a knife so as to touch the coin and include the drop on 
the angle. A spot of amalgam was formed on the gold. 

I have noted, however, that certain drugs, which in ordinary doses 
are not regarded as poisons, may give positive effects with Reinsch's 
test, and these must always be borne in mind, especially as two of 
them, calomel and bismuth subnitrate, are very apt to be given in 
cases of irritation of stomach and bowels. I have never been able 
to see any particular use for the latter drug except to interfere with 
toxicologic examinations. We inherit it from our medieval predeces- 
sors along with a lot of other useless things — Roman numerals, the 
English system of weights and measures, blood purifiers and the 
subjunctive mood. 

The negative results with Reinsch's test are often of good value. 
By its means one is able to eliminate suspicion in many common 
cases. Upon no topic in toxicology is there more widespread mis- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1903. J 



Detecting Cases of Poisoning. 



understanding than the acute cases of food-poisoning in the warmer 
season. Apart from the newspaper exploitation of ptomains, we 
find that even intelligent people think that such cases are due to 
some metallic compounds. Reinsch's test will eliminate many of 
these. Copper is not infrequently suspected as a cause of poisoning 
in cream-puffs, and there is a sort of Santa-Claus legend that this 
agreeable but treacherous dessert is baked in copper pans. How 
such a practice could introduce enough copper to cause poisoning, 
even if it were in vogue, it is impossible to tell. Copper-salts are 
irritants, but when in quantity to cause poisoning would give such 
a disagreeable taste, and probably so noticeable a color to the mass 
as to warn any one of the danger. Of course, any properly educated 
druggist should be able to test for copper in common food-articles; 
but it must be borne in mind that minute amounts of this element 
are present in many tissues, and also that contamination may occur 
from the flame of the gas-burner. Hence, the finding of mere traces 
of copper will not prove anything from a toxicologic point of view. 
The reaction with potassium ferrocyanid or with a bright steel 
needle will be convenient methods of showing copper in objectionable 
amount. 

A very important part of the detection of poisoning and punish- 
ment of guilty parties is the proper collection and forwarding of 
specimens. In large cities the coroner's officers or the police author- 
ities generally take charge, but it is not at all unlikely that in an 
emergency some one will visit a nearby druggist and get a few jars 
for specimens. If you have a chance to give advice, do not lose the 
opportunity to get the different materials put into separate vessels. 
The ignorance and carelessness that I have encountered in this re- 
gard is astonishing. A distinguished pathologist once brought me 
materials from a postmortem of suspected poisoning, and he had 
put the liver in with contents of the stomach. Of course, it was then 
impossible to tell whether the material in the liver had been 
absorbed from the stomach before death or alter death — a point of 
greatest moment in such a case. Put each organ and material in a 
separate vessel ; use new bottles or jars and rinse them well with 
ordinary tap- water (this is better than distilled water, for the latter 
may contain small amounts of some compound derived from the 
distilling apparatus). J have had specimens sent to me in tomato 
cans and beer bottles: If it is deemed necessary to use a preserva- 



56 



Detecting Cases of Poisoning. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I February, 1903. 



tive, I think that formaldehyde is the best. A few drops of the 
common 40 per cent, solution placed in each jar will restrain decom- 
position sufficient for toxicologic purposes. A portion of the solu- 
tion from the same stock should accompany the specimens in order 
that the chemist may show that the preservative was not the source 
of the poison found. Alcohol is not so satisfactory in these cases, 
as a good deal of it is required, and it may dissolve some materials 
out of the tissues. 

It may be well to add a caution here to those who are not familiar 
with the methods of the law. " Every man should know a little of 
law," says Sir Edward Coke, and the author of the " Comic Black- 
stone," a humorous essay that appeared many years ago in Punch, 
says " the less the better." In the trial of cases of poisoning, the 
identity of the materials is of prime importance. Hence, all persons 
who have had the materials at any time in their possession are liable 
to be called as witnesses. It is therefore wise for a druggist not to 
allow himself to become a custodian of specimens, unless he is pre- 
pared to appear in court to testify to that fact. Moreover, jars con- 
taining specimens should be sealed, and it is well to remember that 
sealing is not accomplished by dabbing a lot of red wax over in 
different spots. Some marks should be impressed on the wax. The 
not uncommon expedient of using an ordinary coin for this purpose 
is a poor plan. Use something that is distinctive. Label each jar 
and, if possible, write in the glass a letter or number corresponding 
to a number in an identification list. 

It may also be worth while to call attention to some recent 
advances in the treatment of poisoning. Washing out the stomach 
with water freely has been shown to be . applicable in many cases. 
The addition of a small amount of potassium permanganate, a few 
grains to the fluid ounce, is advantageous in poisoning by phosphorus 
or morphin. The antidotal value of strong alcohol in phenol 
poisoning is undoubted, it can be used in the internal cases in the 
form of whis v ky ; in external cases still stronger. A few months 
ago, I accidentally spilled some concentrated hot phenol over the 
back of one hand ; the white skin formed at once. I quickly poured 
over my hand about a tablespoonful of strong alcohol. The skin 
returned at once to a normal color, and except a slight roughness 
for a few hours was unaffected. Phenol poisoning is now very 
common. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1903. 



} The Story of a Drug Store. 



57 



THE STORY OF A VERY OLD PHILADELPHIA DRUG 

STORE. 
By Evan Tyson Elus, Ph.G. 
There was a drug store in Philadelphia as early as 1729, that we 
know of, and this is the way it originated. Christopher Marshall, 
born in Mary Street, Dublin, November 6, 1709, was educated 
at a college in England. His parents were closely connected with 
the nobility there, through the families of Cussack, DeLacey, Gren- 
ville and Cowley. The father of Christopher Marshall died when 




Charges Marsha^i,, 
1724-1825. 

he was very young, and owing to the fact that he came to America 
without the consent of his mother, he was disowned by her and 
never afterward had any communication with his relatives. 

He had a classical education and was well versed in Latin and 
Greek. He took up chemistry and first established himself in busi- 
ness in Philadelphia, at Front and Chestnut Streets, in 1729, but at 



58 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X February, 1903. 



the time of his marriage to Sarah Thompson, in 1735, he bought 
the property afterwards known as No. 56, opposite Strawberry 
Street (the present number is 214) where his sons, as they became 
of age, were admitted as partners in the business (drugs, chemicals 
and paints), Christopher Marshall, Jr., being the first of the sons 
taken into partnership. Christopher Marshall, the founder, retired 
from trade in 1772, and was succeeded by his sons, the firm name 
being Christopher Marshall, Jr. and Charles Marshall. The father 
died in 1797. 

He was a remarkable man and character in his day, and filled 
many positions of honor and trust in our infant city. I have from 
his great-grandson, Charles Marshall, now of Germantown, to whom 
I am indebted for this family data, a list of over a dozen organiza- 
tions — civic, patriotic and benevolent — of which he was a member. 
Some, indeed, are in existence at this day, notably the Society for 
Alleviating the Miseries of the Public Prisons, and the Philadelphia 
Library. He took an active part in the events which led up to the 
declaration of our independence, for we find him a signer of the 
non-importation act of November 7, 1 765 ; a member of the Council 
of Safety, and one of the escorting party to John Nixon when he 
read the Declaration, July 8, 1776. He was also one of the original 
members of the Free Quakers, and to-day can be seen at Arch and 
Fifth Streets the tablet — 

By general subscription 
for the Free Quakers 
erected a.d. 1783, 
of the Empire 8. 

For the information of those not familiar with the history of the 
Friends, I would remark that the Free Quakers were an offshoot 
from the main body of comparatively a few who felt that they could 
not maintain the peaceful principles of the Society when it came to 
a war for our independence. Their active membership did not sur- 
vive that generation, though if birthright membership would count, 
as it does with Friends, and as they never disowned any, there 
would be perhaps 500 to-day. The diary of Christopher Marshall 
was written after he retired from the drug business, and is an inter- 
esting little book of the times, prized by antiquarians and now a 
rare work. 



A Feb J r rrV P ?9 a o3 m -} The Story of a Drug Store. 59 

It would appear that the business was profitable, for his descen- 
dant has Christopher Marshall's inventory of his possessions, show- 
ing real estate, ground rents and other evidences of wealth. I 
find from the oldest city directory attainable, that there were, in 
1785, twenty apothecaries in the town. They appear to have 
almost all been located on Market and Second Streets, east of 
Fourth Street. Townsend Speakman's store was next to the corner 
of Market and Second Streets. The Marshalls alone were on Chest- 
nut Street, and I cannot call to mind any one of the same name or 
any successor, except the Marshalls, or perhaps the Wetherills (who 
are not down in the directory as druggists), who were in business 
when I entered as apprentice in 1844. In the period from 1 775 to 
1785 the population of Philadelphia had increased to 40,000. 

The sons of Christopher Marshall carried on the business until 
1804, Charles having retired as an active member in 1801, and it 
would seem that they did not confine their energies to the " shop," 
for we are informed that they were in exports and imports, and 
were interested in iron furnaces at Deep Creek, and in Nanticoke 
forces, situated in Sussex, Worcester and Dorchester Counties, 
Maryland. A newspaper of the period informs the town that a 
choice assortment of fresh teas had been added to the stock. 

Charles Marshall was born 5th Mo., 8th, 1744, and received his 
pharmaceutical education in his father's establishment. He was 
well educated, before his apprenticeship, in the branches then taught, 
including Latin and Greek, and was possessed of a fine literary 
taste. 

A few years after his retirement from active business the estab- 
lishment with which his name had been associated for many years 
loaned the endorsement of the firm to a large amount, and involved 
all connected with it in bankruptcy. The silent partner, who was 
then in advanced life, was entirely ignorant of these proceedings ; 
but he met the shock with fortitude, and without hesitation gave up 
all his property for the benefit of his creditors, and changed his 
manner of living. It was at this juncture that his daughter Eliza- 
beth came to the rescue of the family and assumed the charge of 
the business. 

When the University of Pennsylvania assumed to issue diplomas 
to practitioners of pharmacy, and to prescribe the conditions of the 
grant, the pharmacists of Philadelphia felt it to be an infraction of 



6o 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



/ Am. Jour. Fiiaraa 
t. February, 1903. 



their rights, and established the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
in 1 82 1. It is proof of the appreciation of the character of Charles 
Marshall that, although he had been out of business for many years, 
he was unanimously chosen the first president. Though far ad- 
vanced in life, and unable to take an active part, he gave the College 
all his sympathy and support. 

The founding of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has given 
a status and character to both branches of the trade in Philadelphia, 
and extended an influence over the entire country, for the reason 
that its purpose clearly indicated that those who were instrumental 
in establishing it sought to place the occupation upon a higher 
plane and standard of requirement. 

Charles Marshall was well qualified to conduct the apothecary 
business as it was carried on at that time, for it was necessary then 
to be both botanist and chemist, not only to make the tinctures 
from drugs which had already been gathered and in store, but to go 
out into the wood, collect the plants, dry and powder them; and 
then make the preparations ; for there were no laboratories to supply 
finished products as there are now. 

The store had earned an enviable reputation through the exertion 
of its founder, the first Christopher Marshall, who carried on the 
business up to the time of the Revolution with credit and success, and 
all this was increased under the management of the son. Christopher 
Marshall furnished the medical outfits for the troops of Pennsylva- 
nia, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware and Virginia, as recorded in 
his account book now with the Historical Society. 

Charles Marshall died in 1825, at the age of eighty-one. He is 
described as 6 feet in stature, of slender mold, clear expression, 
heightened in his latter years by a profusion of white snowy hair. 
He was a consistent member of the Society of Friends and was 
retained after the failure, a thing unusual in those days, when mem- 
bers were disowned right and left for trivial offences ; so much so 
that an historian of the Society remarks that it is a wonder to him 
that there is any Society left. 

As I have mentioned, the daughter of Charles Marshall took 
charge of the business at the time of the failure of her father ; this 
was in 1 804. Elizabeth Marshall was a woman of singular good 
sense and varied attainments. The maiden pharmacist presided 
over the establishment with dignity and skill, aided of course at 



A rebr^/f9 a o r 8 m -} The Story of a Drug Store. 6 1 

first by her father, and under her judicious management there was 
restored to the family a liberal competence. In after years the able 
senior apprentices relieved her of most of the responsibilty. Many 
of the leading physicians and citizens, sympathizing with the calamity 
that had overtaken the family, and knowing the worth and integrity 
of the venerable Charles Marshall, lent their influence to promote 
her laudable endeavors. The gradual but sure extension of the 
business followed. The premises were enlarged to meet the increase; 
a laboratory, an ice-house and a warehouse were added, and from 
the ample stock many country doctors obtained their supplies of 
genuine drugs and medicines. The number of apprentices ranged 
from six to twelve. 

The building on Chestnut Street is described as being two stories 
high, with a gable roof projection, from which was suspended a 
large gilt ball, the sign by which the store was designated, as was 
the custom in those days. There was a garden back with other 
buildings, and also buildings on the east, fronting on Vidalls Court, 
which ran to Second Street as it is to-day. 

Elizabeth Marshall continued the business until 1825, when it was 
delivered over with the real estate to her apprentices, Charles Ellis 
and Isaac P. Morris. This excellent lady died in 1836, making 
Charles Ellis and Frederick Brown the trustees and executors of 
her estate for her remaining sister, Mary Ann Marshall, who 
survived both. I have a distinct recollection of Elizabeth Marshall 
as a lady of decided character, affable, courteous, well calculated to 
command respect, and possessed of excellent character. 

It was into this shop, with its dignified maiden pharmacist at the 
head, that Charles Ellis, my revered father, entered on his career. 
He was born at Muncy, Lycoming County, Pa., in the year 1800, 
and received a liberal education in an institution at Manhattanville, 
N. Y. At the age of seventeen he entered on his apprenticeship to 
Elizabeth Marshall. 

Our ancestor, Thomas Ellis, came over with William Penn. He 
was one of his three trusted counsellors, and held the highest posi- 
tion in the province and in the Society of Friends. He was emi„ 
nently a religious character, for the records of the meeting at the 
time of his death show the deep appreciation of his fellow members. 

It was not long before Charles Ellis, by dint of industry, perse- 
verance, and the exercise of those qualities which make the phar- 



62 The Story of a Drug Store. { A £&^?j^- 

macist honored, respected, and successful, was called upon, with his 
fellow apprentice, Frederick Brown, to take almost the entire charge 
of the business. Seldom has a drug store been favored with such a 
class of young men as apprentices. I call to mind the names of 
Dillwyn Parrish, after at Eighth and Arch, and President of the 
College of Pharmacy; Frederick Brown, at Fifth and Chestnut; 
Samuel P. Griffith, at Eighth and Chestnut, who as a great volunteer 
fireman lost his life ; Joseph Morris, afterward in a large wholesale 
business at Louisville, Ky. ; Isaac P. Morris, Mordecai Gordon* 
and Paschall Morris. 

The firm of Ellis & Morris did not last over five years. Isaac P. 
Morris then had an opportunity of engaging in the Morris family 
occupation, the iron industry, from which in a few years came the 
great I. P. Morris Works, at Richmond, now part of Cramp's 
immense yards and shops. 

In 1832 Charles Ellis associated with him his nephew, William 
Ellis, who had been an apprentice of Ellis & Morris, and like my 
father, was born at Muncy, Pa. The name of the firm was Charles 
Ellis & Co. 

In this year, 1832, there came along a Yankee, named Holmes, 
who placed granite fronts on Nos. 56 and 58 Chestnut Street, which 
at that time was thought something very fine. Some ol Holmes' fronts 
can still (1903) be seen at Nos. 200 and 204 Chestnut Street ; and 
this is what is said in Caspar Souder's Series on Chestnut Street, 
published in 1 858 : " No. 214 (old 56) was a handsome Pictou stone- 
fronted building, resting on iron columns at the first story. There 
is much of interest attached to this spot. The first building occu- 
pying this site was as I have described it, and was demolished in 
1832; then the first granite front ever put up in Philadelphia was 
erected there. This in turn became old-fashioned and the present 
handsome iron building supplanted it in 1857. Upon this spot stood 
the famous Marshall drug store, which for nearly a century had 
furnished half 4 the town with paregoric." 

A large four-story brick warehouse had been erected on the rear 
street (then Carter's Alley, now Ionic Street), and some of the 
garden was preserved until about 1 840, when the front and rear 
buildings were connected, first on the main floor only, but subse- 
quently on all the floors. 

Speaking ot Charles Ellis at the time of his commencement in 



Am. .Tour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1903. J 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



63 



business, Dr. Caspar Morris, in his "Tribute," says: " The faithful 
accuracy with which prescriptions were compounded, and the intelli- 
gent effort to secure drugs of the first quality, which had earned for 
the establishment its deserved eminence, were now, if possible, 
increased ; and the country physicians seeking their supplies from 
the stock, which commanded the confidence of their city brethren, a 
wholesale drug business grew up naturally, as the result of faithful 
attention to the retail branch. It is impossible to place too high 
an estimate on the influence exerted by Charles Ellis, not only on 
his own profession, but on the community at large. No one but 
the physician can appreciate the anxiety with which he investigates 
the nature of disease and prescribes the appropriate remedy. With 
prudent caution the symbols of the required dose and the directions 
for the proper combinations are placed upon the paper, but the effect 
produced depends on the quality of the articles employed, the care 
with which the quantities are measured or weighed, and the skill 
with which they are compounded. Life or death hangs in the bal- 
ance. The character of Charles Ellis on these points stood unques- 
tioned." 

About this period (i825-3o),it may be said that Philadelphia was 
the commercial centre of the drug trade, as of all other kinds of 
trade in the United States. The houses then established were 
importers to a very considerable extent. 

About old things and furniture : I can remember as a child a lot 
of mystical, urn-shaped jars on the top shelves marked " Confect.," 
" Theriac," " Confect. Damocratis,'' etc., as some of you no doubt 
saw at the recent (1902) American Pharmaceutical Meeting exhibi- 
tion ; but there never was such in my time, for old things were dis- 
carded as new ones came into play; and when we left Chestnut 
Street in 1857, we placed an entire new up-to-date outfit on the 
shelves, and no doubt gave the old to some one starting out. There 
was a solid marble mortar that remained, 25 to 30 gallons capacity, 
which was one of the most useful things around the laboratory. I 
never saw another like it. 

" The establishment at 56 Chestnut Street was renowned for the 
extent and integrity of its transactions," says Dr. Morris. " Num- 
bers of members of the College have received their pharmaceutical 
education within its walls ; some still survive, and may cherish 
pleasant and grateful recollections of the time spent in acquiring a 



6 4 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



/Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
X February, 1903. 



knowledge of their profession. The firm furnished the tickets and 
all the young men were required to attend the lectures of the College 
of Pharmacy." 

In 1844, the writer, having graduated at Haverford College, 
entered on his apprenticeship, and also having graduated in the 
College of Pharmacy in 1847, was, in 1850, given an interest in 
the business. The story of our house, as of any contemporary from 
now on, is more or less one of the drug business as it was then. We 
were emerging from the retail to the wholesale, though for years 
there was more or less of the former done, as there were old inhab- 
itants left, who could not ' believe that things were quite as good 
elsewhere as those found at Marshall's. 

About this time there came a man to us, who had a store in 
Kensington, but was 'not satisfied with the small exactions of the 
counter trade in his vicinity. What Zeitler's antecedents were I 
never knew. It was reported that he had at one time been associ- 
ated with a founder of one of the two large manufacturing chemists 
in Philadelphia, but he never would speak of it in any way, and 
it was inferred that there had been some difference between them ; 
but he came to us unsolicited, and wanted a very modest salary. 
We had, up to that time, made all the pharmaceutical preparations 
used in the business, and a tew, as fluid extract of sarsaparilla 
compound and buchu compound on a small manufacturer's scale. 
But Zeitler was a born chemist, and could turn out the most perfect 
salts, somehow, by an intuitive faculty, for he had a contempt for 
books. " The books," he used to say, " they know nothing," and 
some old fellow apprentice, who may see this, will smile at what we 
used to term the Q.S., or Zeitler's system; but he certainly was 
well informed in chemical reactions. The tinctures, syrups, oint- 
ments, etc., were always made in the store ; but those apprentices 
who desired it were given a term with Zeitler in the laboratory. 

Now, about this laboratory building : It was a detached building 
on Vidalls Court, to the east of the main store, with a history; for 
it had been in its day a hall where entertainments were held and 
lectures delivered. According to Souder (history of Chestnut Street), 
a Dr. Chouet had, in 1774, an anatomical museum in this building, 
which must have been something remarkable at that time, for he 
says that " Richard Penn, the proprietary Governor, with Dr. Rush, 
Messrs. Rittenhouse, Dickinson, Mifflin, and other prominent men 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1903. J 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



65 



of the day, walked up that (now narrow) alley to hear the introduc- 
tory lecture. The collection remained there until 1777, and now 
{1858) comprises a valuable part of the museum of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital." I have heard, in my time, from those who were there, 
of a popular course delivered by the first Dr. Parrish at a time when 
our citizens could enjoy a discourse on dry bones. It was the 
schoolroom in Dr. Mitchell's book, where Hugh Wynne received 
such a flogging at the hands of his master, David Dove, and the 
master in return such a scoring from Hugh Wynne's father. We 
fitted it up with a steam boiler in the cellar, jacketted copper pans, 
stills, a press, and in fact all the equipment of a pharmaceutical 
laboratory as known at that time. Numbers of open furnaces for 
divers operations were around, and there were drying-rooms on the 
second floor. 

And this was the entry of Charles Ellis & Co on the market as 
regular pharmaceutical manufacturing chemists, and our prepara- 
tions in after years obtained a wide reputation and sales all over 
the United States. Large quantities of medicinal solid extracts 
then much in use were turned out. I call to mind particularly, 
"Ext. Sarap. Comp.," and " Ext. Coloc. Comp." The list soon rilled 
a letter-sheet double column. 

Several things were attempted at Zeitler's suggestion, as morphia 
and even quinia, but the limited space did not seem to warrant our 
going into them. Spread adhesive plaster had always been a 
specialty with my father. I suppose it came down from the Mar- 
snails, for Samuel P. Griffiths had another machine at Eighth 
and Chestnut Streets, and that machine, after it had been in the 
possession of Samuel C. Sheppard and Rushton of New York, fell 
into the hands of Charles Shivers, who so perfected its work that 
the beautiful unrivaled spread plaster of Shivers is made to-day by 
his son. The original machine was a very primitive affair as I call 
it to mind in the 30's ; but after Isaac P. Morris was established at 
Richmond, there was constructed at his works a very elaborate one. 
No doubt Isaac gave some of his drug experience of the trials and 
difficulties of the original. I remember in my childhood the 
spreading as conducted in the open air, the cloth being pulled by 
hand clear down Vidalls Court to Second Street, all hands support- 
ing it with broom-handles, etc., and then it was cut into lengths of 
5 yards and taken into the store ; the whole spreading was not more 



66 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ February, 1903. 



than 60 or 75 yards. After the new machine was built and installed 
in the warehouse, the spread plaster was reeled on drums, and the 
spreading ran from 1,500 to 2,000 yards at one time. The plaster 
itself was made on the premises and pulled as candy is, to make it 
whiter. 

At this period there were comparatively few patent medicines — 
not one perhaps where there are 100 to-day; and it was also the 
habit with families to purchase drugs in their crude, or original 
state, and prepare from them the various compounds known as 
domestic remedies. As to patent medicines, the public, especially 
the rustic community, had most of their ailments satisfied with a lot 
of old English things, whose proprietary rights had run out or some- 
how they had become public property, and they apparently covered 
the ground. If any one of you think the modern quack audacious 
in advertising his wares, I would have you read the original Eng- 
lish wrappers that came with all these, and which some druggists 
adhered to ; but such was the immense sale, that our College deemed 
it proper to edit and publish for the trade a modest statement of 
what was claimed as compared with the original, for each remedy, 
and also gave formulae for their preparation. Here they are : God- 
frey's Cordial, Bateman's Drops, Dalby's Carminative, Harlem Oil 
(a vile concoction) ; and so large was the sale of such things that it 
constituted the greater portion of the business of many of the 
wholesale druggists of the 30's and 4o's, and their apprentices (as 
one who came to us after he had served two years said) knew noth- 
ing else than putting up these, supplemented with filling vials of 
laudanum, castor oil, etc. This apprentice became afterwards one 
of our very prominent citizens in all reform movements and died in 
1902. 

In 1850, Charles Zeitler left us; he would never ride, and the 
long walk to and fro was trying, with all his work, to one of his 
advanced years. He was also induced to manufacture things at his 
home by one, of our prominent chemists, and the last time I saw 
him, he had a lot of open furnaces and pans in a shed at his home 
on Frankford Road, where he was making lactates. He died many 
years ago. 

Our firm then obtained a lease on a large lot at Sixth and Morris 
Streets, where a stone building was erected, to which all the appa- 
ratus of the Vidall Court was moved, supplemented with a great 



A Febr uary P S3 m -} The Story of a Drug Store. 67 

deal more, including steam power to stir the extracts, also to grind 
and powder drugs ; and there the manufacture of pharmaceutical 
preparations was carried on on a large scale. The writer gave 
much of his personal attention to this department ; and we had also, 
from time to time, experienced pharmaceutical chemists as superin- 
tendents, Dr. Henry C. Archibald, Ph.G. (1867) holding this posi- 
tion from 1866 to 1873. 

The laboratory continued in this location until 1868. A number 
of articles were added to the list, such as blue mass, which I found 
could be made so as to keep its consistence in all climates, and that 
gave us quite a run in the South, the then great consumer of mer- 
curials. Citrate of magnesia was mostly made at the store, and it 
was incomprehensible to me that we had such a demand for it, as 
there was no mystery about its preparation ; some years as high as 
1,500 gross were turned out. In the 40's and 50's there was a 
branch of trade carried on in Philadelphia that has entirely disap- 
peared ; it was the dry-goods commission, a go-between from manu- 
facturer to the jobber, and it was a profitable business. 

These houses had mostly been located on Front Street, but all at 
once they took a notion to come into Chestnut Street, and values of 
property enhanced so much on Chestnut Street that we moved into 
Market Street, No. 724. The whole lot, including the old build- 
ings on Vidall Court, was then covered with a five-story structure 
as it is to-day ; and has been occupied by dry-goods people ever 
since, to this time, 1903. 

We continued at 724 Market until 1 863, when we made a division 
in our firm. My father, a brother-in-law, William M. Eilicott, Jr., 
who had come to us from Baltimore in 1 86 1, and myself, constituted 
the firm of Charles Ellis, Son & Co., and took the store at the north- 
east corner of Market and Seventh Streets, retaining the laboratory 
at Sixth and Morris, while the other member of the old firm, 
William Ellis, remained at 724 Market Street, retiring some years 
after. 

This was war-time, and trade was very active ; every old thing 
was salable in the way of drugs. As members of the Society of 
Friends we could not accept contracts for army supplies that were 
often offered us, much to the amazement of the army people, who 
could not understand ^Friends' principles; but after war had done 
its terrible work, we could give to the relief association for the 



68 The Story of a Drug Store. { A f^/M™' 

wounded, which we were glad to do. It was during this period that 
Professor Joseph P. Remington served his regular four years' appren- 
ticeship with us, graduating in 1866, and has, as we all know, 
attained since a world-wide reputation as a master in pharmacy, 
devoting his energies to his alma mater and to the literature of his 
profession. 

The building at Market and Tenth Streets was erected by my 
father expressly for our business, and soon after the laboratory was 
accommodated there in the extensive basements, which ran also 
under the pavements of the streets, while some branches were in the 
upper floors. 

An agreeable feature of our business was the very pleasant per- 
sonal relations we had with our customers and those with whom we 
had dealings. Our Boston friends, particularly, appreciated recip- 
rocal dealings, so that our preparations obtained quite a sale through 
New England. 

Charles Ellis virtually retired about this time, though no official 
notice was published until 1 871, when the firm retained the same 
name. In 1873 Wm. M. Ellicott, Jr., also withdrew and Wellington 
H. Boyle was associated, the firm being Charles Ellis' Son & Co. 

Of William M. Ellicott, Jr., our old apprentices and customers 
will call to mind his kind, pleasing manner and conscientious devo- 
tion to his duties, which were mostly confined to the counting-room. 
He died in 1884, three days after his wife's death, literally of a 
broken heart. 

Wellington H. Boyle was engaged with the old firm in the 40's 
down in Chestnut Street, first as an accountant ; but as his inter- 
course with our customers extended, it was found that his usefulness 
was in the front of the store, where he became proficient in every 
branch of the sales department. He was without doubt one of the 
most popular salesmen in the city drug trade of the day, and never 
had employers more efficient service or a man more devoted to 
their interests. His manner was pleasing and his whole deportment 
inspired justly the confidence of our customers. He was born in the 
north of Ireland, a Protestant, was convinced of the principles of the 
Society of Friends before he came to us, and was a life-long con- 
sistent member. He retired to his farm at Muncy, Pa., and died in 
1 891, at the age of 78. 

Charles Ellis died 5th Mo., 16th, 1874, aged 74 years and 4 



Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
February, 1903. 



} 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



6 9 



months. Dr. Morris in his " Tribute," before referred to, says this 
of him: "In 1 821 the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was founded, 
and from that date did Charles Ellis not only take interest, but 
actively labored for its advancement. During the first few years of 
its existence, when it was scarcely more than a name, he was always 
found at his post ready to do his part. Though one of the original 
sixty-eight members of the College, at the time of his death he left 



but three living, and now all have been gone some years since. It 
will be seen by a consultation of the minutes of the College that he 
was an active member of the College for over half a century, over 
forty years of which was spent in an official capacity. For fifteen 
years he was President of the College. The files of the Journal re- 
veal numbers of contributions from his pen, and he served for forty 
years as one of the % members of the Publishing Committee, the 
greater part of the time holding the position of treasurer. This 






Charges Eixis, 
1800-1874. 



70 



The Story of a Drug Store. 



c Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1903. 



office was one that was beset with difficulties, and during this long 
period of forty years his services were rendered gratuitously. The 
labor involved in keeping the accounts, distributing the Journal, 
making the collections, etc., was of no light character, an instance of 
long disinterested service rarely met with in the annals of journalism. 
In latter years Wellington H. Boyle assisted my father to a great 
extent. 

At the first inception of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
which was at a meeting held in New York in 1851 to obtain legis- 
lation that resulted in the enactment of Drug Inspection Law, 
Charles Ellis was one of the three from Philadelphia, William 
Procter and Alfred B. Taylor being the others. He was a life-long 
devoted member of the Association and president at the meeting 
held in Philadelphia in 1857. 

" In early life he was often solicited, by his fellow citizens and 
neighbors, to take part in the affairs of civic government ; but a 
sensitive nature like his shrank from political associations, and found 
more congenial employment in works of benevolence and charity. 
There is enumerated in the " Tribute" the meetings and resolutions 
of no less than twelve different corporations and associations, most 
of them of a benevolent order ; and thus mourned by all who knew 
him, and most intensely by those who best knew him, Charles Ellis 
closed his earthly career. He sought not human applause, but in 
the quiet, unostentatious, diligent performance of his daily duties 
acquired the esteem, respect and confidence of his friends, acquaint- 
ances and fellow citizens." 

In this, a necessarily limited retrospect of the history of a drug 
business, as it existed in Philadelphia from the middle of the eigh- 
teenth to the middle of the nineteenth century, there are recalled 
to the recollection of some who can distinctly remember, the 
decade periods from 1840 to i860, many interesting facts in this 
connection. The personalities of those who were most prominently 
identified with the earlier periods are still remembered by the few 
that still survive, and who are themselves declining in the vale of 
years. 

That which becomes memory only, ot individuals and events, has 
had thrown around it by the lapse of time a halo of interest which 
affords much pleasure and information ; and that this feeling should 
be, if possible, transmitted to and shared by such as now labor in 



Am. Jour. Pharra."! 
February, 1903. J 



Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 



the same department, is one of the chief objects of a faithfully 
recorded history. 

The house, with its original founder and his successors, was con- 
ducted in prosperity for 146 years, which would be a continued 
existence for four generations, in itself a remarkable history, show- 
ing evidence of an unchanging purpose. It terminated May 1, 1875. 

In presenting this, the " Story of an Old Philadelphia Drug 
House," I would remark that I had been asked repeatedly in latter 
years to compile something of our old drug house by former appren 
tices. 

As time went on — and I feel there is not much left of it for me — 
and no one else would be likely to do it, I have in a brief manner 
stated historical facts. 

Referring to the " Tribute" to my father to which allusion is made 
and some of the text used, my idea is to record, as Dr. Morris did 
in my father's case, matters for the information of those who might 
feel an interest, among my own family and contemporary druggists 
now living, and particularly for any old apprentices who can be 
reached ; for there is much of it that can only be appreciated by 
druggists. 

The "Tribute" referred to was compiled in 1875, by Dr. Caspar 
Morris, at the request of my father's widow, Mary L. Ellis, who 
wished the expressions ot the different organizations, together with 
a sketch of his life, placed in form for preservation, in order that his 
grandchildren (some of whom were not born at the time of his 
death) would know of the character and worth of my father. These 
were published and were all distributed in the family. It is now 
out of print. 

SYRUP OF FERROUS IODIDE. 
By Harry Matusow, Ph.G. 

The unstable character of syrup of ferrous iodide is well known. 
It has been a subject of investigation for many years, and a number 
of investigators have suggested various methods and formulas with 
the end in view of overcoming that difficulty. 

The use of hypophosphorous acid, which the writer wishes to sug- 
gest and advocate as a » means of permanently preserving the syrup 
of ferrous iodide, is not at all new ; and the writer's only excuse for 



72 



Syrup of F err oil s Iodide. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1903. 



bringing up the subject is a desire to relate his personal experience 
with it, and, if possible, have its excellent properties of preserving 
syrup of ferrous iodide made more widely known and its use 
adopted. 

Before entering upon a discussion of the merits of hypophospho- 
rous acid as a preservative of syrup of ferrous iodide, the writer 
wishes to state, that syrup of ferrous iodide, when carefully pre- 
pared and kept in small bottles completely filled, and stoppered 
with paraffined corks, will keep indefinitely, whether it be kept in 
the sunlight or in the dark. 

Some years ago, a quantity of syrup of ferrous iodide was pre- 
pared and transferred to I -ounce bottles, each of which was 
wrapped in newspaper and the whole packed in an empty cigar- 
box, which was then placed in the stairway leading to the cel- 
lar. When the last of the lot was used, which was then eight 
months old, it was in as good condition as when first made. 
This, no doubt, accounts for the contradictory results obtained by 
different experimenters with such preservatives as glucose, tartaric 
acid and citric acid. These substances will preserve the syrup, if 
the above-given conditions of keeping be observed ; but, if those 
conditions be observed, the use of glucose, tartaric acid and citric 
acid is superfluous ; if they be not observed, the use of these pre- 
servatives seems to be useless. Mr. W. H. Pile, in the " Proceedings 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association," for the year 1877, 
reports his experience with citric acid as follows : " I have made 
comparative trials with and without the addition of citric acid, and 
several times during the year, but from some unknown cause, or 
want of skill on my part, I have not yet succeeded in making a 
syrup unchangeable in appearance by the addition of citric acid, as 
recommended, unless the syrup thus prepared was kept in full vials 
and sealed ; but in this way no addition appears to be necessary." 

The sample of syrup of ferrous iodide here exhibited is the bal- 
ance of an 8-ounce lot of syrup prepared on the eighth day of 
August, this year; it is therefore over four months olds. The syrup 
was prepared according to the U. S. Pharmacopceial formula and 
directions, with the exception that I fluid dram of diluted hypophos- 
phorous acid (10 per cent.) was added to 8 fluid ounces of the finished 
syrup, and instead of storing it in small, well-stoppered and com- 
pletely filled bottles, as directed, the whole quantity was transferred 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February. 1903. I 



Syr up of Ferrous Iodide. 



73 



to an 8-ounce bottle and stoppered with an ordinary unprotected 
cork. Since the time of its preparation, the syrup has been fre- 
quently used and the bottle containing it repeatedly opened for the 
sake of experiment. 

The syrup was not exposed to direct sunlight ; it was simply 
placed aside where it would be least in the way — on the uppermost 
of a series of shelves, located on one side of a space about 3x3 
feet, between the store and the adjacent room in the rear. The 
result, as you see, is all that could be desired. 

The slight coloration which you notice in the syrup is undoubt- 
edly due to the action of the syrup upon the unprotected cork, and 
not to free iodine. A month ago the writer had occasion to carry 
this bottle of syrup in his pocket, when it was subjected to rather 
severe agitation ; on removing the bottle from the pocket it was 
found, to the writer's dismay, that it had assumed this shade of 
color. However, that was good warning, and the cork was at once 
replaced with one that was thoroughly paraffined. 

That no free iodine is present in the syrup is shown by the nega- 
tive results obtained on applying starch T.S. That the amount of 
hypophosphorous acid present in this sample does not interfere with 
the starch-iodine reaction is evidenced by the fact, that on adding a 
trace of iodine to the mixture of syrup and starch T.S. the charac- 
teristic blue color is at once displayed. To further prove that the 
amount of hypophosphorous acid present in this sample does not 
interfere with the starch-iodine reaction, some simple syrup was 
mixed with hypophosphorous acid in the proportion of 8 fluid 
ounces of the former to 1 fluid dram ot the latter ; enough of a 
weak solution of iodine in potassium iodide and water was then 
added to this mixture to impart to it a color corresponding to the 
one possessed by the sample of syrup of ferrous iodide here exhib- 
ited. Upon the addition of starch T.S. to this prepared mixture 
the presence of free iodine was immediately revealed. 

The first person on record, so far as the writer was able to 
find, to suggest the use of hypophosphorous acid in connection with 
syrup of ferrous iodide is Prof. J. F. Judge, of Cincinnati, O. In a 
paper read before the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy in 1876 
(Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1876, p. 158) Professor Judge recommended, 
as a result of his experiments, the use of hypophosphorous acid as a 
means of restoring discolored syrup of ferrous iodide, in preference 



74 



Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 



/Am. .lour. Pharm. 
\ February. 1903. 



to sodium hyposulphite (sodium thiosulphate), which, while effective 
in removing the free iodine, is objectionable on account of the 
precipitation of sulphur which takes place in the reaction, viz. : 
Na 2 S 2 3 + H 2 0-|-I 2 =Na 2 S0 4 -f 2HI + S. Professor Judge directs the 
addition of nails or wire to the syrup restored by means of hypo- 
phosphorous acid in order to neutralize the hydriodic acid formed. 

Nine years later, in 1885 (" Year-book of Pharmacy," 1885^.484) 
Mr. A. E. Robinson, F.C.S., at the British Pharmaceutical Confer- 
ence, held at Aberdeen, Scotland, presented a very interesting and 
able paper by the title of " Permanent Solution of Ferrous Iodide," 
in which he claims the discovery of hypophosphorous acid as a 
preservative of ferrous iodide, while, as stated above, the credit of 
discovery really belongs to our own countryman, Prof. J. F. Judge. 

Mr. Robinson, after a discussion of the various methods used at 
different times to preserve syrup of ferrous iodide, suggested the 
use of hypophosphorous acid as the most effective and desirable 
means to obtain that end. Mr. Robinson, however, believing, that 
on keeping, the decomposition of the syrup takes place with the 
formation of grape-sugar, suggested a formula for an aqueous solu- 
tion of ferrous iodide, preserved by means of hypophosphorous acid. 
The formula, suggested by Mr. Robinson, is as follows: 



Digest the iodine, iron wire and water, at a gentle heat, until com- 
bination is complete ; then filter into the hypophosphorous acid 
and add sufficient water to make 8 fluid ounces. 

Prof. J. M. Good, at a meeting of the Missouri Pharmaceutical 
Association, in 189 1, stated that syrup of ferrous iodide made from 
the National, Formulary solution of ferrous iodide, in which hypo- 
phosphorous acid is used, manifests no disposition to change. This 
cannot be said of the official syrup. 

Mr. E. A. Warren {Pharmaceutical Record, 1892) recommends the 
addition of 2 fluid drams of hypophosphorous acid to the pint of 
syrup of ferrous iodide. Mr. Warren filters the solution of ferrous 
iodide into the hypophosphorous acid. 



Take of 



Iodine 

Iron wire 

Distilled water 

Hypophosphorous acid (20 per cent.) 



1,804 g rs - 
2 ozs. 
6 fl. ozs. 
3 fl. drams. 



A Fe£Z\y^m7-\ $y ru P of Ferrous Iodide. 75 

Mr. A. Bradley, at a meeting of the North Carolina Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, in 1893, recommended the addition of three fluid 
drams of hypophosphorous acid, 10 per cent., to 1 pint of syrup of 
ferrous iodide. Mr. Bradley adds the hypophosphorous acid to the 
finished syrup. 

Mr. C. Levy (American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, 1894) 
recommended the addition of hypophosphorous acid to the solution of 
ferrous iodide to prevent oxidation, and which, he says, is not objec- 
tionable from a therapeutic point of view. Mr. Levy uses 8 grammes 
of 10 per cent, hypophosphorous acid to 750 grammes of a 20 per 
cent, solution of ferous iodide. 

The editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal (Pharm. Journal, March 
14, 1896) in a series of criticisms and suggestions respecting the 
syrups of the British Pharmacopoeia, suggested the addition of 40 
minims of hypophosphorous acid to 2 pounds and 10 ounces of the 
finished syrup, the hypophosphorous acid being added to the 
solution of ferrous iodide before adding the syrup. 

Dr. A. R. L. Dohme, in a report to the Maryland Pharmaceutical 
Association, in 1897, proposed a formula for syrup of ferrous iodide 
in which 5 c.c. of 50 per cent, hypophosphorous acid are used to 
preserve 1,000 c.c. of the syrup. 

In 1900, Mr. Haussmann (Am. Jour. Pharm., 1900, p. 216) pro- 
posed a modification of the formula suggested by Dr. Dohme, 
namely, reducing the quantity of sugar from 850 grammes to 600 
grammes and the substitution of 20 c.c. of the diluted hypophospho- 
rous acid of the U.S.P. (10 per cent.) for the 5 c.c. of the 50 per 
cent. acid. 

Mr. F. W. Haussmann (Am. Jour. Pharm., I90i,p. 17) claims that 
" the discoloration of the syrup of ferrous iodide on keeping is mainly 
due to caramelization of the sugar ; in exceptional cases only to the 
oxidation of the ferrous salt. In an examination of some fifteen 
discolored samples not one reacted for the presence of ferric com- 
pounds." The interesting question here is, if the discoloration is 
due to caramelization, why does not the discoloration take place 
immediately on preparing the syrup, as the caramelization would, 
no doubt, be caused by the heat employed in preparing the syrup 
and not by old age. The fact that Mr. Haussmann did not find any 
ferric salts in the samples of discolored syrup examined by him, 
would indicate, also, the absence of free iodine in those samples ; for 



7 6 



Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
I Febiuary,1903. 



how can we conceive of the formation of free iodine in syrup of fer- 
rous iodide without the simultaneous production of a ferric com- 
pound ? We know that the iodine in syrup of ferrous iodide is 
liberated according to the following reaction : 

2FeI 2 + 3 = Fe 2 O s + 2l 2 . 

Of course, there may be some intermediate compounds formed, but 
this no doubt is the final reaction. 

Every sample of discolored syrup of ferrous iodide that has come 
under the observation of the writer, he was able to restore to its 
original color. Now, it the discoloration were due to caramelization 
how can we account for this phenomenon ? The writer has also 
found ferric compounds present in every sample of syrup examinedt 
by applying potassium sulphocyanate T.S. and shaking with ether, 
when the characteristic deep-red color was taken up by the ethereal 
layer. In every case, the potassium sulphocyanate T.S. and the ether 
were first introduced into the test-tube and shaken, before the addi- 
tion of the syrup, to make certain that no trace of a ferric compound 
was present in the test-tube, which would give a reaction for ferric 
iron when none might be present in the syrup. 

That caramelization takes place to some extent occasionally, is 
quite possible; but that it is the cause of the discoloration of syrup 
of ferrous iodide in most cases does not seem probable. 

As to the relative merits of the different preservatives suggested, 
we should note that thus far all methods and means suggested as 
preservatives of syrup of ferrous iodide, with the single exception 
of hypophosphorous acid, while they have proven successful in the 
hands of some, have absolutely failed in the hands of others. Hypo- 
phophorous acid seems to be the only substance to hold undisputed 
ground as an effective preservative of syrup of ferrous iodide. 

As to the presence of hypophosphorous acid in syrup of ferrous 
iodide, from a therapeutic viewpoint, the writer should like to ask 
which of the two conditions is the preferable one : To have a syrup 
with a small quantity of hypophosphorous acid, or one which has 
been discolored and contains free iodine, with the accompanying risk 
of producing iodism, one case of which has come under the writer's 
observation. 

In the writer's opinion the first condition is surely the pref- 
erable one. The physiological effect of free iodine we need not 



Am. Jour. Pharrr.l 
February, 1903. J 



Why Popcorn Pops. 



77 



discuss, for when a physician prescribes syrup of ferrous iodide he 
does not want free iodine ; if he should, he has the official compound 
solution of iodine, which he can make use of and which contains a 
definite amount of free iodine. 

When we consider the amount of hypophosphorous acid consumed 
in the form of its various salts, present in the much-lauded com- 
pound syrups of hypophosphites, emulsions of cod-liver oil with 
hypophosphites, etc., and which are recommended as great nerve 
and brain foods, its presence, in trifling quantity, in the syrup of 
ferrous iodide should cause no alarm, nor should it raise any objec- 
tions on the part of the physician. 



WHY POPCORN POPS. 

BY M. I. WlI/BERT, 

Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Why popcorn should have the peculiar property of being readily 
converted, from a hard, dense, flinty kernel to a deliciously mealy 
morsel, by the simple application of heat, is a question that has 
probably suggested itself to every thinking individual that has ever 
held a popper of popcorn over a bed of hot coals. 

While this question has, no doubt, been answered a number of 
times, I myself have never found any satisfactory explanation of the 
phenomenon, either from books of reference on general subjects, or 
from inquiries made of a number of individuals who might be 
supposed to know. 

A chance clipping from one of the daily papers, in which popcorn 
was recommended as a most desirable food-product, appeared to 
contain a possible key to the problem. 

The explanation given in this particular clipping was, that " pop- 
corn being corn with an excess of water in it, and surrounded by a 
tough envelope that retains the water, may be heated over a fire 
until the contained moisture is converted into steam under pressure. 
W T hen the skin cannot longer resist the pressure of the steam within 
it bursts and the corn is fit to eat." 

This appears to offer a feasible explanation of the phenomenon, 
with the single exception, that instead of supposing each kernel to 
be a mass of corn, or cornstarch and water, enveloped in a hard 



78 



Why Popcorn Pops. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X February, 1903. 



shell, we must suppose that each individual cell is a miniature sealed 
container, the walls of which are sufficiently dense to retain the con- 
tained moisture, until the same has been converted into steam under 
pressure. If the residual moisture is sufficient and the conversion 
into steam is uniform and rapid, the greater number of the cells of 
which the kernel is composed will be exploded and the result will 
be a large, dry, mealy mass of converted cornstarch. If the corn is 
old and dry it will at best only split open from a number of cells 
near the centre of the corn kernel. If the application of heat be 
made slowly it is possible to dry the kernels of corn, parch and even 
char them without rupturing the outer coat in any way. 

Another interesting feature of popcorn may be found in the fact, 
that at the base of the kernels, or at the point of attachment to the 
cob, the cells are less compact and are seldom if ever ruptured by 
the generated steam. It is from this point too that the kernels of 
corn appear to dry most rapidly. 

This latter fact would appear to explain the reason why popcorn 
is always preserved on the cob and never shelled, as is ordinary fod- 
der corn. 

One feature that appears to bear out the theory of explosion by 
steam is the fact that popcorn invariably bursts first at the densest 
portion of the kernel, and never at or near its base or point of 
attachment. 

A series of experiments that were made appear to demonstrate 
the fact that popcorn loses considerably in weight by being heated. 
Using corn from the same cob, it was found that the weight of the 
kernels at the several stages was as follows : 

Whole or unpopped corn, 100 grains weighed 13-00 grammes. 

Partially popped corn, 100 grains weighed n-oo grammes. 

Fully popped corn, 100 grains weighed 9 20 grammes. 

Dried and parched corn, 100 grains weighed 7-50 grammes. 

The corn that was used in these experiments was rather old and 
dry; the resulting popcorn was decidedly tough and not very light. 
An attempt was then made to see if it were possible to improve the 
corn by moistening. A cob of approximately the same size as the 
one used in the experiments noted above was soaked in water for 
twelve hours, then allowed to dry for twelve hours. When the corn 
was shelled it was found to be still moist. An attempt to pop this 
corn was not very successful, many of the kernels being only cracked 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1903. J 



Tea. 



79 



open. It was noted, however, that the resulting kernels were not 
so tough as the ordinary dry popcorn kernels that had been popped 
at the same degree. 

Allowing these kernels to dry on the surface for another twenty- 
four hours, and then popping, gave us a very pleasant surprise, in 
that the resulting kernels of popped corn were not only very large, 
light and flaky, but had absolutely no suggestion of toughness when 
first popped. 

In this connection it would be interesting to know more of the 
damage done to the cell -structures, and also to determine the 
amount of soluble material produced by the change in the starch. 



TEA. 
By Wm. B. Marshal. 
I. BOTANY. 

At the present day it is pretty well established that there is only 
one species of tea, viz., Thea sinensis, L. In the second edition of 
Species Plantarum, Linnaeus divided T. sinensis into two species: 7. 
bohea and T. viridis, the former to include the plants from which the 
black teas are made and the latter the plants from which the green 
teas are made. Other authors have described other supposed species. 
All of these are now referred to T. sinensis. If there be any differ- 
ences they are at best merely varietal and are most likely due to 
changes effected by ages of cultivation and selection. Robert 
Fortune found that in the Canton district, which prepares black tea 
only, T. bohea is grown ; in the Chekiang district, which prepares 
green tea only, 7. viridis is grown ; but in the Fokien district, which 
prepares black tea only, 7. viridis is the variety commonly cultivated. 
Until recently Thea and its close ally Camellia were placed in the 
order Ternstrcemiaceae but are now placed in a separate order named 
Theaceae. The tea is important for its leaf. The Camellias are 
important for their floral beauty ; several species, especially Camellia 
oleifera, are extensively cultivated for the seeds, which yield, upon 
boiling, tea oil resembling olive oil and similarly used in China ; and 
one species yields Sasanqua tea, and its flowers, for which it is chiefly 
cultivated, are used to flavor some kinds of the true tea. 



8o 



Tea. 

II. THE PLANT. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1903. 



In its natural state the plant is a tree from 20 to 30 feet high, but 
under cultivation it is made to remain a shrub from 3 to 6 feet high. 
The leaves are from 2 to 6 inches long, evergreen, lanceolate, ser- 
rated throughout nearly the whole margin, distinctly petioled, and 
arranged alternately. The flowers are somewhat smaller than apple 
blossoms, which they resemble in a general way. They have a per- 
sistent five-parted calyx, six to nine pure white petals, and a great 
number of stamens. They are very fragrant. They occur singly 
or in groups of two or three, in the axils of the leaves. The plant 
is frequently grown in our gardens and greenhouses, because of the 
beauty of its foliage and flowers, and the interest attaching to it as 
a plant of the first economic importance. The seeds, of which each 
flower should produce three, are nearly spherical, about as large as 
a small hazel nut, hard, dark brown or nearly black, and enclosed 
in a horny capsule. The fruit itself resembles three small marbles, 
each touching the other two and all three sharing a tight-fitting 
jacket which tones down the interspaces but conceals little of the 
form of each little sphere within. It hangs by a short stem. In 
dropping the seeds the capsule opens at three places from the stem 
downward, each sphere having one opening across (up and down) 
its outermost surface. 

III. GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

As in the case of many other plants which came under cultivation 
thousands of years ago, the exact locality in which the tea plant 
originated is doubtful. But that it originated somewhere in South- 
eastern Asia is certain, and that has and probably always will be its 
chief home. One author has expressed the opinion that the island 
of Hainan, lying off the south coast of China, between the Yellow 
Sea and the Gulf of Tonquin, is the native habitat ; while others 
think that various parts of Eastern China are entitled to the distinc- 
tion. Most plants in the wild state, especially those of a hardy 
nature, are not, as a rule, confined to a small area, but have an 
extended range. It seems reasonable to infer Irom this that the tea 
plant may have grown not only on the island of Hainan but also on 
the mainland over an area of many hundreds of square miles. De 
Candolle's investigations of the origin of the tea plant seemingly 



Am. Jour. Pharn .) J" o T 

February. 1903. J lta. OI 

left him wallowing in a slough of doubt, and he expresses no sharp, 
crisp, clear opinion on the subject. In " Origin of Cultivated 
Plants " he says : " The seeds of the tea plant often sow themselves 
beyond the limits of cultivation, thereby inspiring doubt among 
botanists as to the wild nature of the plants encountered here and 
there. Thunberg believed the species to be wild in Japan, but 
Franchet and Savatier absolutely deny this. Fortune, who has so 
carefully examined the cultivation of tea in China, does not speak 
of the wild plant. Fontanier says that the tea plant grows wild 
abundantly in Manchuria. It is probable that it exists in the 
mountainous districts of Southeastern China, where naturalists have 
not yet penetrated. Loureiro says that it is found both cultivated 
and uncultivated in Cochin China. What is more certain is that 
English travelers gathered specimens in Upper Assam and in the 
province of Cachar, so that the tea plant must be wild in the 
mountainous region which separates the plains of India from those 
of China; but the use of the leaves was not formerly known in 
India." 

According to Breitschneider, tea is mentioned in a Chinese work, 
the " Pentsao," about 2700 B.C., the period that marks the begin- 
nings of Chinese history, and again in the " Rye," about 600 or 300 
B.C. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the use and 
cultivation of tea was introduced into China proper from Corea 
during the fourth century a.d. From that period forward the his- 
tory of the plant in China may be clearly traced. Tea cultivation 
in Japan began during the ninth century. Until the last century 
these two countries grew all the tea produced and even at the pres- 
ent day they grow by far the larger part of the world's supply. 
Hindustan, Farther India and the nearby islands are the only places 
whose teas have regularly entered the markets in competition with 
the Chinese and Japanese teas. Systematic tea culture on an 
extended scale in India began about 1836, and since that time the 
Indian product has steadily increased in quantity. The rapid growth 
of tea culture in that country began about 1 870, when the crop 
amounted to 3,000,000 pounds. By 1878 it had reached 37,000,000 
pounds, and by 1880 the estimated crop was 78,000,000 pounds. 

In Natal the plant is successfully cultivated and the acreage is 
being increased from ^year to year. In a recently published paper 
a Natal citizen expresses the opinion that his country will soon 



82 



Tea. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1903. 



become a competitor in the world's tea market. The whole prod- 
uct of that country is now consumed at home. On some of the 
Natal plantations the labor is done by Hindustanese coolies imported 
for the purpose. 

In Brazil, tea has been successfully cultivated for many years. The 
tea product, helped out by the use of considerable yerba mate, fills 
a very large part of the Brazilian demand for this kind of beverage. 
In France, Madeira, Mexico, Florida and California the plant is 
cultivated to a small extent, but as yet the product of these localities 
has little importance. Experiments in South Carolina have been of 
sufficient importance to attract the attention and aid of our Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. In the year book of the Department for 1901, 
the Secretary makes the following statement : "The production of 
several kinds of tea in the United States is now an assured fact, and 
in addition to this it is encouraging to be able to announce that 
experts who have examined the tea produced here this year pro- 
nounce it equal in flavor and aroma to the best imported teas.. As 
pointed out in my previous report, the profit in this crop averages 
from $30 to $40 per acre net. During the year Dr. Chas. U. Shep- 
ard, of Summerville, S. C, has been in charge of the government 
work, conducting it in connection with his large tea gardens at the 
place mentioned. This year Dr. Shepard produced about 4,500 
pounds of high-grade tea, for all of which a ready market was found 
in the North." The value of our tea imports justifies the Secretary 
of Agriculture in promising that " the extension of the industry in 
the South, and studies for the purpose of improving the quality of 
tea will be pushed as rapidly as the moneys at hand will permit." 

There is little difficulty in getting the plants to grow and thrive 
in tropical, subtropical or even moderately cold climates. A real or 
supposed lowering of quality in the prepared leaf has been the main 
drawback to a general cultivation of tea in many parts of the world, 
but it is a question whether this lowering of quality is not due to 
lack of skill in curing, rather than to any deficiency in the leaf itself. 
The South Carolina experiments have practically proved that tea of 
high-grade can be grown in that region. Corn, coffee, wheat, 
potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco and many other plants, some animals 
and the Caucasian race itself, have done better in localities far 
removed from their native habitats than at home, but, until quite 
recently, at least, the tea plant has been regarded as a home-lover, 



Am. Jour. Pharm.1 
February, 1903. J 



Tea. 



83 



and on that account capital has been backward in extending finan- 
cial aid to the introduction of tea culture. 

Tea first came to England in small quantities as presents to per- 
sons in high station. The regular importation of the article began 
about 1656-1673. The prices ran very high, ranging from $25 to 
$50 per pound. Heavy import duties, and internal duties levied 
upon each gallon of the drink itself helped to make still more expen- 
sive an already costly material. Great Britain and the United 
States are the greatest tea consumers outside of the tea countries of 
Southeastern Asia. In 1901 we consumed 1-14 pounds of tea per 
capita, and 10-6 pounds of coffee per capita. Several reasons account 
for the great difference in the quantity used — tea costs more, goes 
much further, is used generally at but one of the daily meals, and 
as it is less liked a second or third cup is less frequently called for. 
It is more generally denied children, and there are fewer consumers, 
even among adults. While both tea and coffee have to compete to 
a certain extent with wines and other alcoholic liquors it is upon 
the former that the competition makes the greater inroads. Coffee 
practically rules the early part of the day, but the afternoon and 
early evening, the times at which tea is chiefly used, find wines upon 
many tables. It is also true that at formal dinners, especially 
among men, a cup of coffee usually finishes the meal. 

IV. CULTIVATION. 

The plant is universally propagated from seeds. These are often 
planted in nurseries and the young plants set out from time to time 
at the places where they are needed, or three or four seeds are 
planted at the spot where a plant is wanted. The arrangement is 
in rows like the rows in a cornfield, with alleys running at right 
angles, or like a series of hedges with alleys running lengthwise 
only. The rows are kept from 3 to 4 feet apart. At a little dis- 
tance the plantation looks like a field of currant or gooseberry 
bushes. The main stems are pruned near the top in order to keep 
the plants from making tall growth and to cause branching. Gen- 
eral pruning and the pinching off of the succulent ends of the small 
twigs, in order to obtain the two young leaves near the end, encour- 
ages a plentiful growth of new twigs which, later in the season, give 
another " flush," i. e., each little branch puts out five or six leaves 
suitable for picking. Each picking, therefore, prepares the way for 



8 4 



Tea. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1903. 



another picking, and in some tea districts the flushes follow each 
other at such short intervals that the picking is nearly continuous 
from the beginning to the end of the season. In other districts 
there are but three, four or five flushes during the season. At the 
end of the third year the bushes are large enough to allow of the 
first picking without injury to the plant. At about the eighth year 
the plant is cut down to the ground, and a number of new shoots 
spring up from the old roots. This cutting down is repeated at 
intervals whenever the crop of leaves becomes scanty, until about 
the thirtieth or thirty-fifth year. The plant is then replaced by a 
new one. 

As a rule the plantations are small and are owned or worked by 
individual farmers. Those in China are preferably on the hillsides 
which have a southern exposure. Many of the hills so used are 
very steep, having a slope of as much as 65 °. But the cultivation 
of tea is by no means confined to the hillsides. There are many 
plantations in China, and especially in Japan, and also elsewhere, 
that are located on level grounds. The more sparsely settled the 
region in which the plantation is located the better the quality of 
the tea. In densely populated districts, smoke and dust, and other 
kinds of dirt which are always abundant, settle upon the leaves and 
lower the quality. 

V. PREPARATION FOR MARKET. 

Picking. — The time of first picking, the number of pickings dur- 
ing the season and the time of last picking vary in different parts 
of the tea district. In Ceylon and parts of India the picking begins 
usually in March and there are often as many as twenty-five pick- 
ings during the season which continues until October or even later. 
In China the pickings begin in April and vary in number with the 
latitude and altitude. In Japan the picking begins late in April or 
early in May and the first crop gathered is the famous hyson 
quality. In that country there are not generally more than four or 
five pickings during the season. In all tea countries the early pick- 
ings make the finest qualities of tea. Late in the season the leaves 
become tough and less succulent and the twig becomes more woody. 
Leaves gathered then yield a very inferior grade, which is not usu- 
ally exported, but is used by the peasants of the poorer districts. 
Although the expense of the primitive methods of transportation 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1903. / 



Tea. 



35 



t© exporting points, the cost of curing and the commissions to the 
various dealers through whose hands the tea passes before it reaches 
the consumer, are the chief elements in making tea costly, the 
expense of picking is by no means inconsiderable. For the finest 
qualities each leaf is separately picked. For less fine qualities the 
end of the twig with the bud and one or two leaves is pinched off. 
In many of the teas in our markets these twig ends may be seen. 
For indifferent qualities the twig is pinched off further down, and 
the fanning and sieving, after the curing is complete, must do the 
whole work of sorting. Tea would be somewhat cheaper if it were 
practicable to take a branch in the hand and by one motion strip 
off all the leaves. But this would involve injury to the plant by 
removing too much foliage; would strip off or injure the buds that 
must be depended upon to start the twigs for future crops ; would 
break the leaves and thus cause a general mixing of qualities and a 
greater amount of tea-dust, and would take all of the stalk of each 
leaf, thus lowering still further the quality of the product. Most 
fine teas if softened in water will show that the leaves were pinched 
off near the base, leaving the stalk on the bush. 

Other things being equal, the time of picking and the position of 
the leaf on the twig determine the quality of the tea. Generally but 
three or four leaves nearest the end of the twig are taken. If the 
partly opened bud almost at the end be taken it is called flowery 
pekoe; the next leaf is orange pekoe; the third is pekoe; the 
fourth is first souchong; the fifth is second souchong; the sixth is 
congou ; the seventh is bohea. A mixture of the first, second and 
third is called pekoe; a mixture of the first five is pekoe souchong, 
and there are various other mixtures. 

Curing. — There are many varieties of tea known to commerce. 
Many of these differ in quality and many in trademark only. Some, 
as we have seen, owe their names to the position of the leaf on the 
bush, others to the geographic sources from which they come, others 
to the time of picking or to the shape given the prepared leaf, as in 
the case of the gunpowder and imperial teas. But practically all 
teas are classed as green or black, no matter wha"t other circum- 
stance may make them pekce, souchong, hyson, imperial, etc. 
The method of curing determines whether the tea shall be green or 
black. The agricultural variety of the plant from which the leaves 
were gathered does not determine the color of the prepared leaf. 



Q£. T^/> / Am. Jour. Phar m 

ou leu. \ February, 1903. 

although it is true that some varieties are preferred for the black 
and others for the green. So far as I can determine, quick drying 
without fermentation gives green tea; slow drying with fermenta- 
tion gives black tea. We see this principle involved in drying 
plants for the herbarium. If rapidly dried they remain green. If 
slowly dried they discolor, become brownish, and, if fermentation 
takes place, they turn black. Even with the flowers — quick drying 
tends to preserve the natural colors, while slow drying causes them 
to change color. 

Green Tea. — The leaves, as soon as brought from the garden, are 
spread out for a short time until they wilt. They are placed in pans 
over a charcoal fire for rapid withering. During this process they 
are kept in motion by tumbling them about with the fingers. In 
the five or eight minutes of this roasting they lose a large part of 
their moisture which is driven off as a vapor and they become quite 
flaccid. They are then rolled by hand upon a table and each couple 
of handfuls is then made up into a compact ball. The rolling and 
balling give the curl and twist so noticeable in the tea as we know 
it. They are allowed to remain in the balls for a brief space of time 
to help set the twist, but not long enough to permit of any fermen- 
tation. They are then placed again in the firing-pan and dried as 
quickly and as thoroughly as possible. Often the leaves are given 
two roastings and rollings before the final drying. During the roll- 
ing process the leaves which are oversize, or of bad color or other- 
wise inferior, are put to one side and used for making low-grade tea. 
After the leaves are thoroughly dried they are placed in the hopper 
of a fanning machine, consisting of wooden paddles turning in a 
circular wooden box and having an outlet through which a current 
of air may strike the tea as it falls from the hopper. The current 
drives the dust and lighter particles of tea to a distance and roughly 
assorts the leaves as to weight and size. The final sorting is done 
by passing the tea through bamboo or wire sieves of varying mesh. 
It is then packed in zinc-lined boxes. The finest grades are some- 
times packed in large pewter jars, ingeniously contrived to exclude 
air, and yet permit of easily reaching the contents by merely draw- 
ing out the stopper. 

Black lea After the leaves are gathered they are spread in the 

sun for thorough wilting. They are allowed to remain thus for 
several hours, except that they are occasionally tumbled about to 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1903. J 



Tea. 



87 



prevent heating, which, at this stage, is undesirable. When they 
are completely wilted they are placed in heaps for about an hour, 
during which time they become soft and moist and undergo a slight 
change of color. They are then put in the roasting pan for a few 
minutes roasting. They go then to the rolling and balling table. 
The balls are placed on bamboo trays and stood in the sunlight for 
an hour's fermentation. The balls are then broken apart and the 
leaves separated from each other and spread out in thin layers in 
the sun. When first spread the leaves are partly greenish, partly 
yellowish and partly blackish ; but at the end of two or three hours 
they become uniformly blackish. They are then ready for the 
second roasting and rolling, and after that for the drying or firing- 
This and the subsequent operations are about the same as in the 
case of green tea, except that the black tea is usually given three or 
four firings and the firing is done in network receptacles. 

While the principles involved are always the same there are many 
variations in the above-described processes. They lead to supposed 
or actual differences in the resulting product. For instance, if the 
wilting be done by artificial heat the tea will have a greenish tinge. 
There is said to be a relation between the amount of twist in the 
leaf and the strength of the infusion made from the leaf. Well- 
twisted tea, which is well-rolled tea, gives the stronger infusion. 
This is possibly due to the fact that when the leaves are thoroughly 
rolled the juice is squeezed out and is then mopped up again, and 
this is repeated several times, having most likely some effect in 
making the leaves yield up their good qualities while infusing. 

Robert Fortune, who made an extended trip through the Chinese 
tea districts in the interests of the East India Company and who, 
in 1849, successfully introduced 12,000 tea plants to the company's 
plantations in the Northwest provinces by the novel method of 
planting the seeds in boxes at the beginning of the journey, in order 
that they might be sprouted on reaching their destination, carefully 
observed the preparation of both the black and green teas. He 
summarizes his description of the processes as follows : 

" It will be remarked, then, with reference to green tea: (i) that 
the leaves are roasted almost immediately after they are gathered ; 
and (2) that they are dried off quickly after the rolling process. 
* # * It will be remarked, therefore, with reference to the 
leaves which are to be converted into black tea: (1) that they are 



ss 



Tea. 



[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1903. 



allowed to lie for a time spread out in the factory after being gath- 
ered and before they are roasted ; (2) that they are tossed about 
until they become soft and flaccid, and then left in heaps, and that 
this also is done before they are roasted ; (3) that after being roasted 
for a few minutes and rolled, they are exposed for some hours to 
the air in a soft and moist state ; and (4) that they are at last dried 
slowly over charcoal fires. The differences in the manufacture of 
black and green teas are therefore most marked, and I think fully 
account for the difference in color, as well as for the effect produced 
on some constitutions by green tea, such as nervous irritability, 
sleeplessness, etc." 

VI. CHEMISTRY. 

As in the case of coffee, the taste of tea is principally due to an 
essential oil and to tannic compounds. The oil is not present in the 
fresh leaf, but develops in the curing process to the extent of -75 
per cent, of the weight of the dried leaves. In theine, tannic com- 
pounds and essential oil, the tea-leaf is much richer than the coffee 
bean. It is by these three constituents that the beverage materials 
are usually compared from a chemical point of view. The differ- 
ences between tea and coffee are shown in the following table of 



analyses : 

Tea, per cent. Coffee, per cent. 

Water \ . . 5 " 12 " 

Theine 3 " 1*75 " 

Caseitie 15 " 13 " 

Gum 18 " 9 

Sugar 3 " 6*5 " 

Starch ... trace trace 

Tannin .... 26*25 " 4 " 

Aromatic oil . 0*75 " 0*002 " 

Fat 4 " 12 

Fibre 20 " 35 " 

Mineral 5 " 67 " 



Such analyses are only partially satisfying. It should be remem- 
bered that it requires five or six times more coffee to make a cup of 
coffee than of tea to mak a cup of tea. Hence, in determining the 
amount of theine and tannin taken into the stomach with these 
beverages, the liquors themselves, and not the beans and leaves, 
should be subjected to analysis. 

In the following table black and green tea are compared : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1903. , 



Tea. 



8 9 



MULDER'S ANALYSIS. 

Black tea, per cent. Green tea, per cent. 



Bssential oil 


o-6o 


0-79 




1-84 


2'22 " 


Wax 


. . . o*oo " 


0-28 






2'22 " 




. . . 7-28 


8- 5 6 " 




12-88 


I7-80 " 


Theine 


. . . 0-46 


0-43 " 




. . . 21-36 » 


22 - 8o " 


Coloring substances . . . 


. . . 19-19 


23-60 " 




. , 2-80 


3-00 " 




• • • 28-33 " 


I7-80 


Ash . . 


• • • 5-24 " 


5-56 " 



Blythe considers the above trustworthy in all except the percent- 
age of theine. Other analysts have uniformly found a higher per- 
centage. Dragendoff in three analyses of green tea found the theine 
to be 1 -6 1, 1-66 and 1*82 per cent. In six analyses of black tea the 
theine varied from 1-36 per cent, to 2-14 per cent. In three high- 
grade flower teas consisting of young leaves without buds he found 
the percentages to be 2-02, 2-68 and 3 09. 

Tea does not class as a food but as a food adjunct. Its chief food- 
value lies in the fact that it retards waste of tissue. But the leaves 
are rich in nitrogenous compounds, and when the beverage is pre- 
pared in such a way as to make these compounds available, tea may 
be classed as a true food. As bearing upon the food-value the fol- 
lowing is quoted from Chambers' Encyclopedia : " The nitrogenous 
compound allied to caseine or gluten constitutes about 15 per cent, 
of the weight ot the leaf. As hot water extracts very little of this 
substance, a large quantity of this nutritious matter, which forms 
about 28 per cent, of the dried spent leaves, is thrown away. 
Much of it might be dissolved if a little carbonate ot soda were 
added to the boiling water with which the tea is made; and in 
the brick tea (the refuse and decayed leaves and twigs pressed 
into molds) used by the Tartars, most of this substance is utilized' 
They reduce the tea to powder, and boil it with the alkaline water 
of the Steppes, to which salt and fat have been added. Of this 
decoction they drink from twenty to forty cups a day, mixing it 
first with milk, butter and a little roasted meal. But without the 
meal, mixed only with a little milk, they can subsist for weeks on this 
thin fluid food." A Chinese author tells not only the kind of water 



9 o 



Tea. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1903. 



that should be used but also how it should be boiled — " that from 
springs in the hills is said to be the best, and river water next, 
while well water is the worst." His directions are quaint and 
amusing, but perhaps worthy of consideration, for a Chinaman usually 
knows something worth knowing about making tea. Then, too, 
our own choice of the kind of water to be used in the wash-bowl 
and laundry shows that the kind of water used in making tea may 
be of importance. 

VII. EFFECTS. 

As to the effects of tea upon the human system, it seems that it is 
best for every man to be his own judge. Both professional and 
popular opinion are liable to be warped — the former by the knowl- 
edge that tea contains some principles which ought to have bad 
effects, and the latter by a prejudice springing from a liking for the 
beverage and from its every-day use. As with the use of many 
other things, those who use it in moderation are best fitted to pass 
opinion, and in the great majority of cases that opinion, whether it 
be from the physician or the layman, will be that the effects are 
mostly temporary and usually beneficial. Most of us have experi- 
enced the refreshing effects of tea when a day of unusual strain has 
made demands which have depleted the store of physical and men- 
tal energy. While these effects are but temporary, they for the 
time bolster up the flagging spirits, thus giving the physical being 
time to make repairs free from the retarding influences of a fretful 
mind. When the physical nature reports all well, the mental nature 
is not disposed to complain of conditions within or without. This 
should not be considered as parallel to the " Dutch courage " that 
comes from the use of alcoholic liquors, opium, morphia, etc., 
because the tea has no evil after-effects. Its use on such occasions 
is rather a means of setting in order a disordered house. 

The effects are mostly due to the theine, the tannic compounds 
and the warmth or coldness of the infusion. Green tea has a larger 
percentage of tannin, and this probably accounts for its greater 
effect. The theine has the property of lessening the waste of tissue. 
This has been determined by observing the amount of waste tissue 
in urine. It has been thought that this lessening of waste should 
permit of the same amount of exertion on a lessened diet. Experi- 
ence seems to confirm the truth of this in the case of coffee, tea 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
February, 1903. / 



Tea. 



9i 



yerba mate, guarana and kola, all of which contain theine, and also 
in the case of cocoa containing a similar alkaloid — theobromine. 
The theine acts also as a mild cardiac stimulant. The tannin being 
astringent tends slightly to cause constipation. Medical writers 
differ in their opinions of the value of tea, some regarding it as the 
source of various nervous complaints, while others recommend it as 
a daily drink, and as a medicine in cases of rheumatism, nervous 
headache, fevers, etc. 

The effects of inordinate use of tea are said to be frightful, but, 
fortunately, such use in this country is not of frequent occurrence. 

VIII. SOCIAL STATUS. 

Much might be written about the social status of the table bever- 
ages, or what might be called the psychologic elements in their use. 
Cocoa is a dainty, a sort of liquid confection ; coffee is largely utili- 
tarian ; tea is, in great measure, a handmaiden of fashion and refine- 
ment. In a great number of cases the liking for tea is not natural 
but acquired. In this respect it differs from cocoa and coffee. 
Nearly every child likes cocoa from the very first sip, and but few 
of them do not like coffee. Children like to imitate their elders, 
and are prone to feel aggrieved if denied anything that usually 
forms part of the meal. Very often when denied tea they are 
placated and made to feel " big'* by giving them the mixture of hot 
water and milk, called cambric tea. Later, in response to their 
more urgent demands for equal rights, or just for the fun of it, a tea- 
spoonful of real tea is added. This naturally leads to increasing the 
quantity and frequency of the true tea until cambric tea becomes a 
mere memory of little childhood, and the regular use of tea marks 
one of the steps in the transition from the bib to the napkin. 

In the liking for tea the female palate differs from the male, and, 
as Talmage has said, " the bottle rules the sensual world, but the 
teacup is queen in all the fair dominions." Coffee and cocoa 
decline to compete with wine to loosen the male tongue, or with tea 
to set the tongues of the ladies into a canter. If we should change 
the line of the popular song to read, " Polly, put the kettle on, and 
we'll all take coffee," it would be something like the factory whistle 
at noon, which tells us to knock off, fill up and be quick about it. 
But if we say, " Polly, put the the kettle on, and we'll all take tea," we 
feel a poetic force in the line. It helps to show that tea is a sociable 



9 2 



Tea. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1903. 



sort of beverage, the mere mention of which transports the imagina- 
tion into a realm of things dear to the heart. The third meal of the 
day — the family meal, the sociable meal — is often called tea. 

IX. SUBSTITUTES. 

Tea or a similar hot decoction is used in nearly all «parts of the 
world, by savage as well as by civilized man. In the parts of the 
world where tea and coffee have become known, substitutes which 
do not contain theine are rarely used except when the theine-con- 
taining products are denied through stress of poverty, embargo in 
war time, or some other circumstance. During the American Rev- 
olution our people used New Jersey tea, not because they preferred 
it, but because tea and coffee were unobtainable. The substitutes 
for tea divide into two classes — those which contain theine, and 
those which do not. The most important of those containing theine 
is yerba mate or South American tea or Paraguay tea, made of the 
toasted leaves of several species of holly growing in Paraguay, 
Northern Argentina and Southern Brazil. It is the principal drink 
in a large part of that region. 

Coffee-tea or Sumatra tea is made of the toasted leaves of the 
coffee-tree, which are said to contain a larger percentage of theine 
than do the beans themselves. The natives of Sumatra prefer the 
leaf to the bean because it contains more bitter principle and is 
more nutritious. In the Sumatran lowlands the coffee-tfee is grown 
for the leaf instead of the berry, because in that region it does not 
yield good quantities of the latter. 

Kola and guarana also contain theine, and are used in infusions ; 
the former being used as a masticatory, also. 

A great number of plants which do not not contain theine are 
used as substitutes. In North America the principal substitutes 
have been Labrador or James's tea [Ledum palustre and L. latifolium 
— Ericaceae) ; mountain tea from the creeping wintergreen, checker- 
berry or partridge -berry (Gaultheria procumbens — Ericaceae); Os- 
wego tea (Monarda didyma — Labiatae) ; New Jersey tea {Ceanothus 
amencanus — Rhamnaceae), and the famous Appalachian tea, or black 
drink of the North Carolina Indians, made from the leaves of the 
cassena or yaupon (Ilex casstne — Aquifoliaceae), made also from the 
dahoon holly {Ilex dahoori), and the inkberry (Prinos glaber — Aqui- 
foliaceae), and the withe-rod ( Viburnum cassinoides — Caprifoliaceae). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1903. J 



Tea. 



93 



Johnston (" Chemistry of Common Life") gives a list of thirty-five 
plants used in various parts of the world as tea substitutes, and the 
list is by no means complete. Even in China and Japan substitutes 
are in use. In the former country the leaves of Sagaretia theezans 
are so used by the poor classes ; and in Japan the leaves of Hydran- 
gea thnnbergii are used for making the Ama tsja or tea of heaven. 

X. ADULTERANTS. 

The adulteration of tea is of two kinds: (i) coloring ; (2) mixing 
leaves of other plants with the true tea. Small quantities of prus- 
sian blue and soapstone or gypsum are used for brightening the 
color of some green teas. The coloring is done , by heating the tea 
in the firing pans, throwing in the quantity of coloring matter to be 
used, and mixing the whole thoroughly by a raking action of the 
fingers. As to the use of other leaves, it may be said that they can 
be prepared in such a way as to be practically undistinguishable 
when mixed with the true article, except to the expert. In infusion, 
however, the characters of the various leaves become apparent as 
soon as the leaves soften and spread out, and one knowing the 
appearance of the tea-leaf should be able to distinguish it from other 
kinds of leaves used as adulterants. It is generally conceded that 
at the present time in this country there is but little adulteration by 
mixing other leaves with the tea. Chemistry, the microscope and 
the appearance and taste of the infusion are the means for detecting 
adulteration. To expert tasters the infusion is sufficient not only 
for this purpose but also for grading teas as to the prices to be 
asked for them, and the opinions of different tasters on a given lot 
of teas of varying grades will be found to be remarkably uniform. 

XI. COMMERCE. 
GROSS IMPORTS OF TEA FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1902. 



From. 


Pounds. 




Av. Price. 




• ■ ■ 35, 998>2i9 


13,737,941 


$0 IO'4 






4,183,773 


13-6 






396,-6o 


137 




. . . 328,152 


41,178 


12-5 






704,772 


i9'o 




• • • 1,853,319 


323-400 


17*4 






2,204 


277 



94 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1903. 



IMPORTS, AVERAGE PRICE) AND PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF TEA IN THE 
UNITED STATES DURING CERTAIN YEARS, 1850-1901. 



Year Ending June 30th. 


Net Imports. 
Pounds. 


Net Imports. 
Dollars. 


Average 
Price. 


Per Capita 
Consumption 
Pounds. 


1850 

1855 

1865 

1875 

1885 

1895 


28,199,591 
19.763,593 
26,326,978 
16,849,189 
42,540,471 
63,291,304 
69,894,769 
66,374,365 
83,494 ; 956 
96,437,042 

83-303,177 
88,502,554 


$3,982,054 
4,937,610 
6,910,124 
3,043,933 
12,489,217 
2i,959,5i8 
18,983,368 
13,135.782 
12,219,643 
12,979,868 
10,325,987 
10,865,138 


$0 14-1 
25 

26- 3 

18- i 
29-4 

347 

27- 4 

19 - 5 
15 
I3'5 
12-4 
12-3 


I'22 

73 
84 
49 
no 
1-44 

!'39 
1 18 
* "33 
1-38 
1-09 
t'H 


COFFEE. 




809,036,029 


$58,681,620 


7*3 


10*60 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

UNIFICATION OF FORMULAE. 

lo the Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

I read carefully, and with the greatest interest, the tabulation of 
various international standards of remedies now official in leading 
national pharmacopoeias, and would state that it is a matter for 
serious thought and consideration. 

I have always been an advocate of uniformity and accuracy 
wherever possible, and certainly this matter commends itself to all 
on the most practical grounds. 

Every merchant in good standing, of whatever nationality, is per- 
fectly familiar with the dollar, pound sterling, franc and mark, or 
their equivalents; but are we, as pharmacists, as familiar as we 
should be with foreign national standards ? 

I, for one, must admit the truth: I had no idea of so great a varia- 
tion, and I take this opportunity to personally thank the writer for 



A F L eb J r ua r ry P ^9() r 3 m ■} Reviews and Bibliographical. Notices. 95 

so valuable a paper ; for I know and appreciate the labor of such a 
task. 

While on this subject, I would state I am a confirmed advocate 
of the decimal system, and greatly favor expressing formulae by 
percentage only and not by specific weights. 

Our duty is not done by simply being pleased ; but this inter- 
national tabulation, and any other literature bearing upon the sub- 
ject that will lead to uniformity of standard, should be placed in the 
hands of every thinking pharmacist — it is too valuable to be hid 
under a bushel. 

Steam and electricity are bringing the people so nearly together 
commercially and socially ; and why not in so grave a matter as 
unification of formulae of all medicaments ? Let us all take a hand 
and push the matter. It must come, and why not now? 

Allen Shryock, Ph.G. 

Philadelphia. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Handkommentar zum Arzneibuch fur das Deutsche Reich 
(Vierte Ausgabe) Bearbeitet von Dr. Alfred Schneider und Dr. Paul 
Suss. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. 1902. 

This, the third edition of this exhaustive work, is now available in 
its completed form. Some of the early parts of the book have 
been referred to in this Journal (1902, page 85). The complete 
work is, however, worthy of a special notice. 

The book consists of 1,140 pages, large octavo, and is well printed 
on a good quality of paper. 

Following a short preface, we find an introduction of 63 pages 
containing a general description of the tests, reagents and methods 
of applying them to the drugs and chemicals of the Pharmacopoeia. 
Succeeding this, we have 1,017 pages containing the text and com- 
ments on the Pharmacopoeia proper. The arrangement of this 
matter is rather interesting, and also very satisfactory, in that it 
gives a clear distinction between what is official, or belongs to the 
Pharmacopceial description, and what is comment. 

To prevent any possible misunderstanding, the official portion is 
in the German script, similar to that used in the Pharmacopoeia 



96 Reviews and Bibliographical No tices. { A Ye^lmT' 

itself, while the comments are uniformly in Latin script, making a 
sharp distinction between the two. 

That these accompanying comments are not alone exhaustive, but 
also of a correspondingly high scientific standard, is assured by the 
reputation and attainments of the editors and their collaborators. 
At the close of the commentary portion we find the various tables 
that are included in the German Pharmacopoeia, including the table 
of maximum doses, and the lists of drugs and preparations that are 
to be carefully kept, and those that are to be very carefully sep- 
arated from other medicinal preparations. 

In addition to this we find an appendix containing additions and 
corrections that are likely to arise with a work that has been nearly 
two years in process of publication. 

There is also a very complete and exhaustive index, covering 24 
three-column pages. 

Altogether the book would appear to bear out the claim that is 
made lor it in the German pharmaceutical journals, that " it is gen- 
erally acknowledged to be the most exhaustive and also the most 
complete commentary on the latest edition of the German Pharma- 
copoeia." M. I. W. 

A Course in Botany and Pharmacognosy. By Henry Kraemer, 
Ph.B., Ph.D., Professor of Botany and Pharmacognosy, and Director 
of the Microscopical Laboratory in the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. Illustrated with plates from original drawings by the 
author. Philadelphia, 1902 : 8vo, 384 pages. Cloth, $3.50. G. E. 
Stechert, agent, 9 East Sixteenth Street, New York City. 

For some time rumors have been rife that at least one new Ameri- 
can text-book on botany and pharmacognosy and related subjects 
would make its appearance almost simultaneously with the new edi- 
tion of the United States Pharmacopoeia, consequently, those most 
concerned in these subjects have been looking forward to its 
appearance with interest. The author, having been a successful 
teacher of botany and pharmacognosy for many years — having pub- 
lished elaborate researches in these branches of science — and being 
chairman of the Sub-committee on Botany and Pharmacognosy of 
the Committee for the Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, 
is eminently qualified as an authoritative writer. 

This new book is about the size of the familiar text-book of 



A FebruMvTwoT*} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 97 

Maisch, and contains 380 pages of text. The subject-matter is 
divided into four parts, as follows : Part I, 98 pages, Plant Mor- 
phology; Part II, 214 pages, Pharmacognosy; Part III, Reagents; 
Part IV, Illustrations and Index. 

As stated in the preface, the subject of morphology, both outer 
and inner, is more or less extensively treated, because this knowl- 
edge is of fundamental importance in the study of vegetable drugs, 
crude and powdered. There are many treatises upon this subject, 
but the great difficulty is that they have not been adapted to the 
needs of the pharmacy student. Either they are burdened with 
multitudinous technical details unimportant from his point of view, 
or they are wofully superficial. A happy medium has been struck 
in this text, especially when we consider that the author elucidates 
the subject by illustrated lectures. To some, the absence of 
illustrative cuts along with definitions will be considered an objec- 
tion as a book for general use. A very serviceable feature is the 
plan of emphasizing special or subtopics by means of conspicuous 
heavy-faced type. 

The introduction to Part II defines pharmacognosy, and very con- 
cisely and clearly explains the meaning of the terms — natural origin, 
botanical origin and habitat of plants ; official title, pharmacopceial 
definition and commercial origin of vegetable drugs, and generalizes 
upon the collection, drying, preservation, garbling and valuation of 
drugs. 

The classification adopted by the author is the morphological, 
viz.: seeds are considered together, then the roots and rhizomes, and 
so on with the rest of the plant organs in a natural sequence. A 
very concise key or classification precedes the actual discussion of 
each group of plant organs; in fact, this part is very similar to the 
plan of Maisch. There are, however, no illustrations in the text, 
the constituents are not so fully treated, and the properties of the 
drugs are omitted entirely. With reference to chemical constitu- 
ents given with each drug, the disproved statements have been 
eliminated and the results of latest research incorporated. In a very 
few instances, however, it is noticed that the most important con- 
stituents are omitted, as, for example, in oil of fennel, oil of caraway 
and oil of coriander, while in some relatively unimportant drugs, as 
staphisagria, the constituents are given in considerable detail. It is 
not surprising that the constituents of sanguinaria are not correctly 



9 8 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm . 
\ February, 1903. 



stated when we consider the confusion in nomenclature that exists 
in literature. 

The chapter on powdered drugs embodies the author's own labors 
upon 208 drug powders. The results were presented in the form of 
a paper at a meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
and later published in pharmacy journals, so that it is well known. 
For this reason, additional comment upon its merits is at this time 
unnecessary. 

Part III is devoted to a discussion of reagents and their uses, and 
Part IV to 128 pen-and-ink drawings by the author, illustrative of 
the text. The drawings are reproduced upon a fine grade of glazed 
paper and are of superior excellence. There is only one drawing 
that is not representative, viz.: eighty-seven of the lupulin glandular 
hairs. The otherwise beautiful plates are somewhat marred by the 
lack of uniformity in lettering and numbering, which is rather crude 
and unfinished. 

This book is certainly a very considerable contribution to the 
literature of pharmacognosy in America, and is probably the first to 
take up seriously and extensively the subject of the identification of 
drug powders. It must be borne in mind, however, that the most 
satisfactory results are only to be obtained by using it in connection 
with lecture and laboratory work. 

The mechanical part of the book and general make-up is not the 
equal of the contents. The writer's copy is not well bound and 
would not stand the wear that a student would give it. The paper 
is of excellent quality, its rough surface, though, in the mind of the 
writer, not being practical in a book that will be handled as much 
as this will be. Very few errors were noticed, showing very careful 
proof-reading. 

Every pharmacist, whether student, clerk or proprietor, ought to 
experience a feeling of satisfaction in the possession of this work. 

J. O. SCHLOTTERBECK. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy was held Tuesday, January 20th, Mr. C. W. Hancock, a 
member of the College, acting as chairman. 

The first paper on the program, entitled " What druggists can do 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1903. f 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



99 



to assist in detecting cases of poisoning " (see page 51), was read by 
Dr. Henry Leffmann, the well-known chemical and sanitary expert. 
In discussing the paper, Professor Remington commended it 
very highly, and referred to several cases of ptomain poisoning, 
and said that he had no doubt that a large number of cases of 
poisoning were due to the development of poisonous principles 
resulting from the decomposition of animal matter. Professor 
Lowe said that alcohol was not efficient as an antidote to carbolic- 
acid poisoning when the latter entered the system, and that the em- 
ployment of some of the soluble sulphates, e.g., magnesium sulphate, 
was useful in this connection. Dr. Leffmann said, that next to 
illuminating gas, carbolic acid was more frequently used in suicidal 
poisoning than any other means, and that during the past year there 
were nearly thirty cases of this kind in Philadelphia. He further 
said, that when carbolic acid entered the system it was difficult to 
follow it up with physiological antidotes, and that systemic reme- 
dies were indicated. 

In answer to a question regarding the poisonous properties of 
illuminating gas, Dr. Leffmann said that the illuminating gas 
made by the destructive distillation of coal consisted chiefly of 
hydrocarbons — members of the methane and methene group, which 
do not possess free valencies ; while water-gas contained variable 
amounts of carbon monoxide, the valence of which is not satisfied, 
and entering the blood unites with the hemaglobin forming a com- 
pound, which is not readily decomposed, and in this way it acts as 
a cumulative poison throwing all of the hemaglobin out of the cir- 
cuit, producing a so-called chemical asphyxia. In regard to the 
treatment, he said that artificial respiration and the administration of 
oxygen were useless, and that a patient overcome by water-gas 
could only be resuscitated by the transfusion of new blood. Dr. 
Leffmann further said that he believed that many cases of slight 
illness were due to the inhalation of carbon monoxide in this way, 
and that people should be careful in seeing that the gas-pipes 
and fixtures were perfectly tight. Mr. Wilbert recommended that 
every apothecary have a stomach-tube at hand for emergency cases. 
In reply to a question by Mr. England in regard to the poisonous 
properties of methyl alcohol, Dr. Leffmann said that the action of 
pure methyl alcohol wa,s a slow one, and that he believed that where 
blindness had been produced that possibly some creosote products 



100 Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

were present. Mr. Kebler said that no doubt Reinsch's test 
was the best for general purposes; that although Marsh's was more 
difficult, the former is the more delicate. He also referred to the 
presence of arsenic in potassium carbonate extracted from the 
residue of sheep washings, and said that this was probably due to 
the fact that the sheep were washed in arsenical dips. 

M. I. Wilbert read a paper on " Why Popcorn Pops." (See page 
77). Mr. LaWall called attention to the fact that pieces of the 
grain will pop, and showed a hybrid ear of popcorn which had 
been planted near yellow corn, and said that while the grains 
appeared to be similar in most particulars, that some popped and 
others did not. Mr. Kebler said that under certain conditions sweet 
corn would pop, but that the " yellow dent " would not pop as well 
as the " crowfoot." Mr. Wilbert said that field corn would pop and 
that the older it was the better. He also stated that in the popping 
of corn it was necessary that the outer cells be dry and the inner 
ones moist. Professor Kraemer drew a section of a corn grain and 
referred to the composition of the different parts of the grain and 
the changes which take place on the application of heat. 

Professor Remington presented life-sized bust-portraits of Alfred 
B. Taylor and Maurice W. Alexander, and said that Mr. Wilbert 
had prepared short sketches of each of these men, which Mr. 
Wilbert then read. The portraits were pronounced very accurate 
likenesses, and remarks on the life and work of these men were 
made by Messrs. Hancock, Wiegand, Lowe, Wilbert, England and 
Boring. The latter offered the following motion, which was unani- 
mously adopted : 

" In view of the great services rendered to pharmacy by Alfred 
B. Taylor, and of the prominent part which Maurice W. Alexander 
took in the affairs of the American Pharmaceutical Association; and, 
furthermore, in view of the desirability of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy procuring the portraits of representative men whose 
lives furnish interesting chapters in the history of American phar- 
macy, I move' that a special vote of thanks be tendered to Professor 
Remington for presenting the portraits of these men to the college 
this afternoon." 

Evan T. Ellis presented a paper on " The Story of a Very Old 
Philadelphia Drug Store," which was read by title and referred to 
the Committee on Publication. H. K. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, igoj. 



THE MODERN THEORIES OF THE NATURE AND 
ACTION OF TOXINS. 

By Torai^d Soixmann, M.D. 

From the Pharmacological Laboratory of Western Reserve University, 

Cleveland, O. 

The experimental study of the action and production of toxins 
and antitoxins, which has been so actively pursued Jn the last 
decade, has brought to light a large number of results which have 
a very wide, one might say startling, significance. These called 
loudly for an explanation which would render them intelligible. To 
furnish this explanation, a complicated structure of brilliant hypoth- 
eses has been involved, mainly by Ehrlich. These fulfil admi- 
rably the purposes of working hypotheses, in that they furnish a 
guide in experimentation and aid in grasping the facts. They have 
in this way proved themselves very useful. A clear understanding 
of them is therefore very important to every one who aims to keep 
in touch with the progress of natural science. 

These theories attribute to the toxins and antitoxins proper- 
ties which are familiar in ordinary chemical molecules, and the 
theories are most easily understood if they are treated and illustrated 
as chemical theories. This I have attempted in the present article, 
In its preparation I have availed myself very freely of the Huxley 
Lecture, delivered in 1902 by Prof. Wm. H. Welsh. 1 This gives a 
most comprehensive exposition, from the standpoint of pathology, 
of the overwhelming literature which has appeared on this subject. 



1 Published in the Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital, 13 : 285. 

(101) 



102 



Nature and Action of Toxins. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1903. 



Toxins possess some very distinctive characters : They produce 
their actions in extremely small doses, being in this respect allied 
to ferments ; they act, as a rule, specifically, i. e. y upon only a few 
structures ; and they are destroyed by specific substances produced 
by cells, especially under the influence of the particular toxin. 

Both the toxins and antitoxins are usually either proteid, or are 
so closely bound to the proteids that it has been impossible to sepa- 
rate them; they are, therefore, sometimes called u toxalbumins." It 
is doubtful whether any toxin has been isolated in pure form. 
Several have, however, been purified until they ceased to give pro- 
teid reactions. They still contained nitrogen. Most toxins are very 
sensitive to the conditions which alter proteids. They are often 
destroyed by even moderate heat. Many are also altered by fer- 
ments, so that they produce little action when introduced into the 
alimentary canal. 

Toxins exist normally in the cultures (diphtheria, tetanus) or in 
the cells (pus organisms) of a number of bacteria ; in some animal 
fluids (serum, snake venom) ; in some plants (jequirity and castor- 
bean), and in certain proteids (albumoses and peptones). Other 
toxins are produced by the body only through the stimulus of some 
foreign element, as by the introduction of cells, proteids or toxins, 
of a foreign species (or bacteria). These act then only on the sub- 
stance which gave rise to their formation. When a substance of 
this class is useful to the body by destroying bacteria or their prod- 
ucts, it is called an antitoxin. Antitoxins, therefore, differ from 
toxins only by acting on different structures. Certain bacteria simi- 
larly produce toxins only under the stimulus of the conditions exist- 
ing in the living body. Other bacteria, as e.g., anthrax, probably 
do not produce toxins at all, but act through the mechanical 
impediment which their numerous cells introduce into the circula- 
tion. 

The effects of toxins (including so-called antitoxins) are generally 
exerted upon only one or a limited number of cells or substances. 
They consist in : Injury cells, as shown by the cessation of move- 
ment, morphological changes, or death (toxins producing such 
actions being classed as cytotoxins), or even by solution of cells 
(cytolysins), agglutination of cells (agglutinins), precipitation of 
substances (precipitins), coagulation (coagulins), neutralization of 
other toxins (antitoxins), or of ferments (antienzymes). These 



Am March.f903. rm "} Nature and Action of Toxins. 103 

classes are further subdivided according to the structure upon which 
the toxins act specifically. These subgroups are distinguished by- 
such self-explanatory terms as leucotoxins, spermotoxins, hemo- 
lysins, hemagglutinins, etc. A further very important effect of 
toxins consists in their leading to the formation of antagonistic sub- 
stances. 



To explain these effects of toxins, we must premise some concep- 
tions of the chemical processes of life. 

The molecules of the substance which forms the chemical basis 
of life — the " biogen " molecules, as they are called — must be struct- 
ures of the greatest complexity, composed of enormous numbers of 
atoms. It has been truly said that the composition of the biogen is 
constant only in the sense in which the composition of a flame is 
constant. Whilst the ratio of the atoms may remain unaltered, the 
individual atoms are ever changing their position and relations. 
The most characteristic feature ot biogen is its metabolism — the 
tact that it assimilates molecules which are foreign to it. This pre- 
supposes that the structure ot the biogen molecule is of such a 
nature that it can readily add other molecules. It must have un- 
saturated or loosely saturated affinities. In order that two mole- 
cules can combine they must have affinities for each other. These 
affinities do not reside in the molecule, but in certain of its atoms or 
groups of atoms, so-called side-chains, just as in the benzol ring, sub- 
stitutions do not occur in the entire molecule but in the H atoms or 
other side -groups. These side - groups, corresponding to the H 6 
atoms of benzol, or to the CH 3 of toluene, etc., are called " receptors " 
in the case of the biogen. The fact that the biogen molecule can 
combine with almost innumerable substances, proves that it pos- 
sesses a large number and variety of these side-chains. The almost 
infinite number of such reactions, which have been demonstrated or 
forecast, makes it probable that the biogen molecule does not only 
possess a large number of rceptor side-chains, but that these are 
capable of such readjustment that they may develop affinity lor 
almost every conceivable reagent. It is plain that these open side- 
chains or receptors — as we shall henceforth call them — are of the 
utmost importance to the cell, since they are prerequisite to metabol- 
ism. Their saturation by food-molecules does not lead to an 
appreciable diminution of them, since the receptor food-molecules 



104 Nature and Action of Toxins. { A Va™h, ^_ rra - 

are quickly broken down again, the receptor again becoming unsatu- 
rated; but if a receptor is saturated by a molecule which does not 
break down again, that receptor is lost to the biogen. This seems 
to happen when the reagent is a toxin. 

We have seen that a complex molecule takes up other molecules 
only into its side-chains. The same fact may be stated in other 
words: a complex molecule does not unite with another molecule 
except by its side-chain. A potentially toxic molecule often cannot 
act upon biogen, because it has no appropriate side-chain by which 
it can enter into a biogen combination. If now such a side-chain is 
introduced, the possibility of combination, and thereby of action, is 
given. For instance, C 6 H 6 has potentially the toxicity of the coal- 
tar antiseptics ; but having no affinity for biogen it cannot exert its 
action. Hydroxyl OH has considerable of this affinity, but its action 
is quite weak, and totally unlike that of the coal-tar series. If the 
OH is introduced into the C 6 H 6 — producing carbolic acid — we obtain 
at once a great toxic and antiseptic action, because now the benzol 
molecule can unite with the biogen molecule through the inter- 
mediation of the OH. To anticipate the terminology of toxins : C 6 H- 
is the toxic complement ; OH is the intermediary body. 1 Now, in 
the case of toxin action, both classes of constituents must be present — 
a toxic complement which contains the potential toxic action, and 
an intermediary body which is necessary to bring this potential 
action into execution ; and besides these there must be a fitting 
receptor or side-chain in the biogen to which they may attach them- 
selves. A very great diversity exists as to the source of the first 
two components. The foreign toxin may contain both the toxic 
complement and the intermediary body ; or, it may contain either 
the toxic complement or the intermediary body alone, the other 
ingredient being furnished by the biogen, or from some other 
extraneous source, as, for instance, by the serum in cases in which 
the toxic action is on the blood-corpuscles. 

1 To illustrate or emphasize certain features of the hypotheses, a large num-' 
ber of nearly equivalent terms are commonly used. These often differ a shade 
amongst themselves; but as their meaning has altered somewhat with the evo- 
lution of the theory, and as they are often rather loosely interchanged, they are 
apt to give rise to much confusion. These synonyms are: 

Receptor. — Haptophor, side-chain, amboceptor. 

Toxic Complement. — Complement, alexin, cytase. 

Intermediary Body. — Toxiphor, immunizer, sensitizer, fixative, preparative, 
copula, desmon, toxoid, amboceptor. 



A Va?ch',r9of. rm '} Nature and Action of Toxins. 105 

There is still another important fact which must be mentioned : 
Experimental data show that the intermediary body is not necessary 
for the combination of the receptor with the toxic complement. The 
receptor may combine with either the toxic complement or the inter- 
mediary body alone ; in this case no toxic action will result. In 
order to have a toxic action, the receptor must combine simulta- 
neously with both these elements. In other words, we must con- 
clude that the receptor has two unsaturated affinities (hence " ambo- 
ceptor "), whilst the toxic complement and the intermediary body 
have each only one affinity. If only one of the affinities of the 
receptor is saturated, either by an intermediary body or by a toxic 
complement, this will not interfere seriously with the biogen ; but it 
both are saturated simultaneously by a toxic complement and by an 
intermediary body, the receptor is rendered useless, as already 
explained. And if the toxic molecules are sufficiently numerous to 
saturate most or all of the receptors, the biogen must be destroyed, 
since unsaturated receptors are essential to its nutrition, and thus to 
its lite. Since the biogen contains a very large number of actual or 
potential receptors, the result of the saturation of one or a few of 
these is not necessarily fatal to the biogen. Indeed, as may be seen 
in tissues, a small injury often serves as a stimulant, and in this case 
it leads the biogen to regenerate the lost receptors. It even goes 
further and regenerates these receptors, or whichever of its groups 
have been lost in excess, and discharges these into the exterior, into 
the serum. The serum charged with these receptors has now the 
power to bind toxins, and is therefore "antitoxic." 

The facts will be much more readily understood it we substitute 
symbols for the terms, and represent the reactions as we would in 
chemistry. 

Let B = the main biogen molecule ; R< one of its receptors 
with its two unsaturated affinities ; — T the toxic complement ; — i 
the intermediary body, each with one affinity. The normal biogen 
molecule would then stand : B . R< ; the poisoned molecule 

B • R<1' or possibly B • R( I 
1 \ T 

The following cases occur : 

(a) If the toxin contains both i and T, it can enter directly into 
combination with B • R<. If an antitoxin is produced, this must 
consist of R<. 



106 Nature and Action of Toxins. { An iiiX.im rm 

(b) If the toxin contains only T, the body must furnish i ; if an 
antitoxin is produced, this must consist of 

(c) If the toxin contains only i, the body must furnish T ; the 
antitoxin must be 

R< T 

The first case occurs with diphtheria and tetanus toxins ; these 
contain both the T and the i molecules ; the last occurs with snake 
venom, which contains only i. The second case occurs with most 
bacteria which do not form soluble toxins in cultures ; as also with 
the formation of precipitins, etc., by the injection of living foreign 
cells or substances. 

An example may make this clearer: The milk of a cow, when it 
is injected under the skin of a rabbit, acts toward the biogen of the 
rabbit as if it contained a T-group. 
This group, combining with the 

R<' 

of the biogen, stimulates these to an overproduction of 

R<* 

molecules, which are discharged into the serum. These molecules 
have the power of combining with the T-molecules of the milk. 
This fact is shown by the production of a precipitate when the 
serum of a rabbit thus treated is added to a sample of cow's milk. 
This 

R< i 

is therefore called a " precipitin." The serum of a rabbit which 
has not been treated to milk injections does not produce this pre- 
cipitate. The T of the cow's milk being different from the T of any 
other milk, the serum of a rabbit which has been treated with cow's 
milk will not precipitate, e.g., goat's milk. Nor will one treated 
with goat's milk precipitate cow's milk. Since the proteids of an 
animal do not contain any molecules which act as T toward the cells 



Am Mi?ch.X. rm '} Nature and Action of Toxins. 107 

of that species of animals, the injection of rabbit's milk into a rabbit 
would not lead to a production of a precipitin. 

The production of toxins and antitoxins through the overprolific 
regeneration of saturated side-chains form a plausible theory to 
account for the non-toxicity of the sterile cultures of many bacteria, 
as those of typhoid, cholera, etc. There can be little doubt that 
these, as well as diphtheria and tetanus, act by the production of 
toxins. The absence of such toxins in culture has been explained 
by several theories : It may be assumed that the culture media are 
unfit for toxin formation ; that the toxins are very firmly bound in 
the bacterial cells, and are only liberated on the disintegration of 
these cells ; or finally, that the toxins are only produced in con- 
siderable amount in the contest of the bacteria with the tissue-cells. 
Whilst there is probably considerable truth in the first two explana- 
tions, the last accords best with the theories which we have studied. 



It will be recalled that toxins and antitoxins do not differ in their 
nature ; the terms refer merely to the damage or protection to man. 
The biogen of the bacterial cells behaves precisely like the biogen 
of a man, and from the standpoint of the bacterium, the terms of 
toxin and antitoxin are precisely reversed. It reacts to what we 
call antitoxin, but what the bacterium would call toxin, in precisely 
the same way in which the human biogen would react — by the 
increased production of an antibody. Let us suppose that we intro- 
duce a colony of cholera spirilla into the circulation of an animal. 
The biogen of these bacteria may be represented as 

B — R< T 

In the culture medium these have produced a small excess of T, 
which goes into solution, so little that it cannot be demonstrated by 
ordinary tests — enough, however, to combine with the 



of some body-cells and lead to an increased production of this com- 
plex. This now combines with the 

; b-r< t 



108 Notes on Syrups. { A VaSfm™' 

of the bacterial biogen, saturating the receptors,- and leading to the 
overproduction of bacterial 

R< T 

groups. A circulus viciosus is thus established, which will con- 
tinue until either the i or the T obtains the upper hand, when the 
circle will turn in the other direction, one or the other cell being 
killed. 



This necessarily fragmentary exposition will suffice to show the. 
general nature and scope of the side-chain theory. The few illustra- 
tive examples will make clear how this theory can furnish satisfac- 
tory explanations of the facts now known to us. It must not be 
forgotten, however, that the conceptions upon which these hypoth- 
eses are based are as purely symbolical as is the hexagon by 
which we represent the benzol molecule. 



NOTES ON SYRUPS. 
By Frederick W. Haussmann. 

The phenomenon of caramelization is not solely confined to syrup 
iodide of iron. Other syrups, as well as saccharine preparations 
containing metallic salts, show a similar effect on standing. Syrup 
of ferrous bromide is an illustration, as well as the very frequent 
experience, that syrups containing free acids gradually turn dark. 
Recently the writer observed that caramelization takes place in 
syrups containing salts of manganese and a number of similar illus- 
trations may be cited. 

The question, why caramelization does not take place immedi- 
ately upon preparing syrup ferrous iodide directly from sugar, may 
be answered that it will take place if the syrup is heated to excess. 

Recent researches have shown that metallic salts cause inversion 
of sugar in solution, and this is very probably the cause of caramel- 
ization in syrup of iodide of iron and other saccharine preparations. 

SYRUP OF THE HYPOPHOSPHITES. 

Considerable difficulty is occasionally experienced to obtain com- 
plete solution of the calcium hypophosphite in preparing this syrup. 



Am. Jour. Pbarrti. \ 
March, 1903. / 



Notes on Syrups. 



Even if the insoluble residue is triturated with hypophosphorous 
acid, some insoluble material still remains. 

Complete solution will, however, take place on prolonged stand- 
ing. If the salts, previously well triturated with the hypophospho- 
rous acid, are in contact with the full volume of water directed by 
the Pharmacopoeia, complete solution will be effected on standing 
twenty-four hours. 

In preparing the syrup by agitation, it is frequently observed 
that upon the addition of the sugar to the filtered solution of the 
hypophosphites, a crystalline deposit takes place in the syrup. 

This is not always the case, as some syrups will keep almost 
indefinitely. 

This phenomenon appears to be dependent upon the quality of 
the calcium salt. 

Some manufacturers, putting up the salt in cartons, request 
transfer to impervious containers immediately on receipt, stating 
that the article is decomposed by exposure. It is also stated in 
some text-books that syrup of the hypophosphites is oxidized on 
standing. An examination of the precipitate in several specimens 
of cloudy syrup showed that it was merely redeposited calcium 
hypophosphite. 

The singular feature is, that syrups prepared from the calcium 
hypophosphite of certain manufactures invariably precipitate, while 
the salt, procured from other sources, furnishes a stable preparation. 

The question arises here, If saturation of the aqueous solution 
with the sugar does not cause precipitation of the calcium salt, or if 
other causes underly this change ? 

SYRUP OF IPECAC. 

While making 5,000 c.c. of this syrup, with strict observation ot 
the official directions, it was found that the finished syrup measured 
nearly 5,200 c.c. A second trial, in which 1,000 c.c. were prepared, 
confirmed this result, as the final volume was found to measure 
between 1,035 an ^ 1,040 c.c. 

The cause of this error, which results in a slight decrease in the 
strength of the syrup, is found in the pharmacopceial directions, 
which are approximately as follows : Dilute 70 c.c. of fluid extract 
of ipecachuana with 3Q0 c.c. of water previously mixed with 10 c.c. 
of acetic acid, shake, filter the mixture and pass enough water 



no 



Notes on Syrups. 



/ A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1903. 



through the filter to measure 500 c.c. To this' liquid add 100 c.c. 
of glycerin, and dissolve in it 700 grammes of sugar. 

The volume of the filtrate — qoo c.c. — is excessive, and should be 
reduced to 450 c.c., when a syrup can be prepared, the finished vol- 
ume of which will not be in excess of the official limit. 

SYRUP OF WILD CHERRY. 

A number of specimens of syrup of wild cherry, which were pre- 
pared in the latter part of 1899, an d the early months of 1900, 
were recently examined as to their state of preservation. 

As some were made with menstrua containing various percent- 
ages of acetic acid and glycerin, a comparison with syrups contain- 
ing no acetic acid was deemed of possible interest. 

The infusions, from which the syrups were prepared, were also 
preserved and show, as may be expected, various forms of decom- 
position. 

All syrups, in the preparation of which an acetic acid menstruum 
was employed, contained a reddish precipitate. A specimen, pre- 
pared with a menstruum of I per cent, acetic acid and 5 per cent, of 
glycerin contained a heavy red-brown deposit, which is also the case, 
although to a less degree, in a syrup containing 10 per cent, of 
glycerin. 

Syrups containing 2 and 3 per cent, of acetic acid and 10 per 
cent, of glycerin in the extracting menstruum show the greatest 
stability. 

A syrup which was prepared with diluted acetic acid, without 
any glycerin, was found to be an unsightly preparation. 

All syrups containing acetic acid possessed a peculiar odor. 

Three specimens of the syrup, prepared without acetic acid and 
containing respectively 5, 10 and 15 per cent, of glycerin, the latter 
the official amount, were found in a good state of preservation. 
The 5 per cent, syrup was found to have a red deposit, while in the 
others precipitation was slight. 

This would' indicate that glycerin is necessary as a preservative 
of wild cherry syrup ; that it must be a part of the percolating 
menstruum and that the amount should be at least 10 per cent, of 
the syrup. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1903. 



Microscopic Study of Urine. 



in 



THE MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF URINE, TECHNIQUE FOR 
PERMANENT MOUNTS AND METHOD OF MAKING 
RECORDS 

By L. Napoi^on Boston, A.M., M.D. 

Bacteriologist to the Philadelphia Hospital; Demonstrator in charge of the 
Clinical Laboratories of the Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia. 

Due to the variable number of gateways through which error 
may pass in the microscopic analysis of the urine, a careful sys- 
tematic technique sufficiently broad in its scope that it may be 
bounded on the one hand by the method for the collection of the 
specimen, and on the other by the ultimate results of such studies, 
is needed. Give the amateur microscopist such a guide and he can 
soon equip himself with a collection of specimen slides, equal in 
every way to those I shall exhibit this afternoon; moreover, he 
will acquaint himself so thoroughly with these specimens from their 
repeated study, that the knowledge of them becomes a part of him- 
self and ceases to be one of question. 

METHOD FOR COLLECTING AND PRESERVING THE GROSS SPECIMEN. 

(1) Collect from that urine voided two or three hours after the 
heaviest meal of the day, or after active exercise. Urine passed 
on rising after a night's sleep is seldom of microscopic interest. 

(2) The urine should be voided in a clean vessel — collect the 
specimen in a clean bottle and add five (5) drops per ounce of 
chloroform. I have found chloroform to be a most valuable agent 
in preserving the organic elements. The reaction of a urine 
governs largely its microscopic findings ; for example, casts are 
soon destroyed by an alkaline medium, and urine, alkaline as a 
result of fermentation, is apt to display a heavy precipitate of phos- 
phates when the total amount of phosphates present is not above 
the normal. Ammonium urate crystals appear in the same manner, 
and yet neither substance bears any clinical significance except 
when displayed by the fresh specimen. Acid urine may contain 
casts, oxalates, uric acid, amorphous urates, acid phosphates and 
crystals of bile acids ; but I have never been privileged to study 
any of these substances in a decidedly alkaline specimen. Many 
sediments do not depend in any measure upon the chemical reac- 
tion, as is shown by such substances as pus. 



112 Microscopic Study of Urine. { An !irireh.SSlJ m * 

METHOD FOR STUDY. 

(1) Invert the bottle two or three times to insure that the sedi- 
ment is perfectly disseminated through the urine, when a small 
quantity of urine is placed in a special tube and centrifugated for 
from 2 to 5 minutes. The machine is not absolutely necessary, and 
for practical work the urine can be allowed to stand in a cool place 
for 6 to 12 hours, when ample sediment will have collected at the 
bottom of the bottle. 

In case the sediment is to be mounted as a permanent specimen, 
decant clear supernatant urine, and add an equal quantity of water 
in its stead and again sediment, repeating the process until this 
sediment is thoroughly washed. 

(2) Sediment, however obtained, is lifted by means of a wide- 
mouthed pipette, and a small drop of it placed on the centre of a 
slide. The specimen is now viewed through a lens to determine 
its value ; and should the subject be one worthy of preservation, the 
above method of washing having been employed, the specimen is 
allowed to dry in the air, after which it may be mounted in Canada 
balsam. This method will be found of service for inorganic sedi- 
ments, pus, blood, bacteria, fungi, and the ova of animal parasites. 
Casts and animal parasites, however, while collected in the same 
manner, must be mounted while yet moist (since drying causes dis- 
integration) in a special medium composed of the following : Liquor 
acidi arseniosi (U.S.P.) I fluid ounce ; salicylic acid, y 2 grain ; glyce- 
rin, 2 fluid ounces. Warm slightly until solution is effected, when 
add acacia (whole tears) and again warm until solution is saturated. 
After subsidence decant clear supernatant liquid. The drop of 
mounting medium should always be of good size, since it requires a 
quantity for urinary sediments of twice that usually employed for 
sections. A perfect distribution of the sediment throughout the 
medium is accomplished by drawing a needle from the margin to 
the centre of the drop. 

STAINING. 

Place a small drop of the sediment on a slide and spread it over a 
large surface in order that the cells be separated ; heat over a flame 
for three minutes, carrying the slide to the ulnar surface of the hand 
every few seconds. A guide, in fixing by heat, is never to raise the 
temperature above that which can be borne by the surface of the 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 1 
March, 1903. J 



Microscopic Study of Urine. 



113 



hand, since a higher heat is liable to cause distortion of the cells. 
Staining is best effected by a solution of carbol fuchsin, methylin 
blue, Soudan III and iodine. The former of these solutions when 
employed without heat will be found to stain satisfactorily both 
bacteria and the tissue cells. When heat is applied and the speci- 
men steamed, and later counterstained for three (3) minutes with 
Gabbetts blue solution, the tubercle bacilli will appear as bright-red 
segmented rods, while other pathogenic organisms will appear blue. 
Study of the gonococcus in the urinary sediment is very unsatisfac- 
tory, and I hesitate to recommend its pursuit. The various fungi 
(mycelium) are also found in urinary sediments, but are of limited 
clinical value. 1 Soudan III and iodine are of service in the detection 
of fatty and amyloid changes respectively. Spermatozoa when 
stained provide an interesting subject. 

MICROSCOPIC STUDY. 

Most important is a good microscope stand provided with a one- 
sixth and a two-third objective, an iris diaphram and an Abbe con- 
denser. I cannot urge too strongly upon the use of a thoroughly 
equipped substage, and must insist that the finer and more valuable 
features of urinary microscopy are passed unrecognized by the 
person who is not thoroughly trained in the use of the diaphram 
and of the condenser. Let it suffice to emphasize that a small 
amount of light should be employed in the study of urine. It is my 
custom to devote three hours of the college course exclusively to 
the manipulation of the microscope ; yet this time has proven to be 
insufficient for the instruction of students in the workings of an 
instrument essentially so delicate and susceptible to error. 

Specimens should first be examined under a two-third lens, and 
by careful moving of the slide the entire specimen is viewed quickly. 
All questionable bodies are brought to the centre of the field, when 
the one-sixth lens is brought into focus. Much time is lost in 
searching over a specimen with a high-power lens, and any exami- 
nation is always far from perfect unless the two-third lens is used 
as a finder. 

THE MAKING OF RECORDS. 

The mixing of specimens is a common source of annoyance and 
may be avoided by use of the following blank which I have found 



1 Philadelphia Medical Journal, 1901, p. 446. 



114 



Microscopic Study of Urine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1903. 



to meet the demands of daily ciinical work. The following blank is 
8^ x 5^ inches. 

URINE ANALYSIS. 



Name, 
Residence, 

Physical and Chemical Examination : 
Amount in 74 hours, Bile pigment, 

Sp. gr., Uric acid, 

Reaction, Urea, 
Color, Sulphates, 
Transparency, Phosphates, 
Sediment, Chlorides, 
Froth, Diazo-reaction, 
Albumen, Minerals, 
Sugar, 

Microscopic Examination : 

(a) Organized Sediment. 



Casts, 

Epithelium, 

Shreds, 
Bacteria, 
Other products, 



Red 
Blood 
White 
Pus, 

Parasites, 

(b) Unorganized Sediment. 



Crystalline : 
Uric acid. 
Calcium oxalates, 
Triple phosphates, 
Ammonium urates, 

Examined by 

Date, 



A. M. 
P. M. 



Amorphous : 
Urates, 
Phosphates, 
Debris, 



-j- and — designate present and absent. 



(Remarks over) ■ 

(1) The name and address are written upon the blank, the blank 
laid upon the table and all bottles belonging to it are stood upon 
the top of the blank. Whenever a bottle is removed from the blank 
it should be returned before another bottle is taken from the table. 

(2) In the centrifugating of urines one of the machine's tubes is 
surrounded at its top by a small elastic, and upon the blank to 
which the urine in this tube belongs place the letter R, and upon 
the blank to which the urine in the plain tube belongs place the 
letter T. In this way, by special marking of the tubes, a machine 
with any given number of arms may be used without confusion. 



Am M£ch.Ym m *} Life-History of a Doctrine. 115 

(3) Immediately upon the removal of a tube from the machine its 
sediment should be lifted by means of a pipette and a drop placed 
on the centre of a slide, a cover-glass added and the slide placed 
upon the blank to which it belongs. While all the specimens are 
being made ready in this way for microscopic study, the chemical 
analysis may be done, allowing the microscopic study to wait until 
last. 

(4) The slide is now placed on the microscope and the blank upon 
which there is no slide found is the one upon which to record the 
results of our study. The signs -J- and — are used in the making 
of records. Five plus marks are used to denote the greatest amount 
of a given substance encountered. These characters are also em- 
ployed in recording acidity, froth, sediment, sugar and albumin, and 
have been found to facilitate materially in all clinical laboratory work. 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A DOCTRINE. 1 
By Prof. Ira Remsen. 

This title suggests a biological analogy. The life-history ot an 
animal includes a record of the events in the life of that animal from 
the earliest stages to the end — from birth to death. But there are 
events before birth. The life-history is preceded by the embryonic 
history, and there are events after death — events biological, as 
shown in heredity ; events chemical and physical as shown in decay, 
and the reduction of the complex constituents of the animal to sim- 
ple forms that can be assimilated by living things and thus enter 
again into the round of life. I do not refer here to spiritual events 
after death, for, in speaking of animals, I have not had man in mind, 
and it is customary, I believe, to deny to all animals, with this excep- 
tion, the persistence of the spirit after death. In the analogy that 
I have in mind, however, the spiritual events are to be taken into 
account, for, as I think can be made clear, there is a life after death 
in the case of a good doctrine as in the case of a good man. The 
pursuit of this analogy is interesting (to me), but it will be more 
profitable to illustrate it by examples, of which there is no end. I 
wish especially to point out the bearing of the philosophy of the his- 
tory of chemistry upon the present-day problems so far as this may 
be possible in the time at my disposal. 



1 Presidential address before the American Chemical Society, December, 1902, 
and reprinted from the Jour. Ame? . Chem. Soc, February, 1903. 



n6 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



t Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March. 1903. 



The doctrine of the transmutation of metals played a most impor- 
tant part in its day. No one can trace it to its beginning. It is, 
however, clear, that it developed great strength and controlled the 
intellectual activities of the leading intellectual men of the world for 
several centuries. It led to the development of chemistry. The 
alchemists were the working chemists of their day. They taught 
the world the lesson that it is only by contact with the things of 
this world that we can gain knowledge of them. They laid the 
foundations of experimental science. The soul of alchemy was 
experiment. The fundamental doctrine of alchemy, transmutation, 
after a long and active life began to show signs of weakness ; and in 
due time it took to its bed, and in spite of admirable medical care it 
died and was buried. No chemical doctrine has had anything like 
as long a life as this. To be sure, this could not have been possi- 
ble, as the life-history of the doctrine of transmutation covered a 
period longer than that which had elapsed since its death, though 
it is difficult to fix the time of its death with accuracy. It is dead 
now at all events, and we may ask the question : What came after 
death ? The doctrine accumulated large wealth and left the world a 
large estate. I need not give you the inventory. Probably no one 
can do so. But we do know that we owe to the activities of those 
who were controlled by the doctrine of transmutation a long list of 
substances that are of fundamental importance, such as sulphuric 
acid, nitric acid, phosphorus, alcohol, ether, etc. This is the mate- 
rial side of our inheritance. How about the spiritual? I have said 
that experiment was the soul of alchemy. That will live forever. 
I should perhaps have said that experiment was one of the souls of 
alchemy, for I suppose it is not objectionable to assume that a doc- 
trine may have more than one soul. The rule in regard to human 
beings seems to be perfectly simple, and it is generally accepted, but 
I once heard of a professor, who, speaking of some great disaster, 
said : " On this occasion 300 souls perished — counting one soul to 
each body." Assuming that a doctrine may have more than one 
soul, 1 am inclined to think that a second soul of alchemy is to be 
found in the idea of the relationship between the elements — an idea 
that persists and keeps dangling before us the possibility of the 
transmutation, not only of base metals into gold or silver, but of all 
the elements one into the other from one end of the list to the 
other. 



Am. Jour. Pharrti. 
March. 1905. 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



117 



Let us take another doctrine — that of phlogiston. The embry- 
ology of this doctrine has not been clearly worked out, but its life- 
history has been traced pretty carefully. We know how it died and, 
in the events that followed, it is not difficult to find evidence of its 
existence after death. It was through the influence of this doctrine 
that chemists came to recognize the common features of those phe- 
nomena that we now group together under the general name of 
oxidation. They were all ascribed to one cause, a subtle substance, 
phlogiston. The search of this substance became the great problem 
of chemistry. The possibility of finding it was a great incentive to 
work. What matters it that the doctrine of phlogiston became 
aged and died and was buried ? It did good service — inestimable 
service: It kept its disciples at work and led them through this 
work nearer and nearer to the truth. In its life it passed through 
the period of infancy with all its attendant dangers, through the 
period of enthusiastic youth, through sturdy manhood, and it 
reached old age with its attendant signs of weakness and decay. It 
died at last, but only after a mighty struggle. The act of dying 
was prolonged. Since then generations of astute teachers of chem- 
istry have pointed out to their perhaps even more astute scholars 
the errors of phlogisticians, and they have all smiled and wondered 
how these deluded men could ever have been deluded. Possibly 
they forget that those at whom they smile were the leaders of their 
times, and that these leaders were trying as earnestly as the chem- 
ists of our own day to learn the truth. 

What is the spiritual part of the doctrine of phlogiston that lives 
after its death ? Clearly it is the idea that all the phenomena of 
combustion, including calcination, have a common cause. That 
cause has, to be sure, been shown to be oxygen. The phlogisticians 
thought that the cause was phlogiston, a purely imaginary sub- 
stance. Priestley and Scheele and Lavoisier showed that it is an 
invisible gas working quite differently from the way the phlogisti- 
cians supposed. The life of the doctrine of phlogiston left us richer 
in material possessions and in ideas. The discovery of oxygen, 
which is, no doubt, the most important discovery ever made in the 
field of chemistry, tended to give a materialistic trend to the 
thoughts of chemists. Both the philosopher's stone and phlogiston 
were imaginary substances that were sought in vain. Although 
both have been described by enthusiastic, but inaccurate, and per- 



Il8 Life- History of a Doctrine. {^fi.S™ 

haps mendacious workers and writers, neither of these subtle things 
could be found. It was, nevertheless, possible to believe in their 
existence and to indulge in the hope of their discovery. But now 
oxygen came on the scene. Indeed, it may be truly said that it took 
possession of the stage, and it has been playing the leading part in 
the field of chemistry ever since. Here is an invisible substance 
existing in the air and capable of bringing about the most astonish, 
ing changes in things. We cannot realize the effect of this dis- 
covery upon the thoughts of chemists. I sometimes feel that I 
should like to have lived as a chemist in the latter part of the eigh- 
teenth century. What thrills the workers of that time must have 
felt when they heard of the discovery of oxygen and learned from 
Lavoisier what part it piayea in combustion ! We sometimes plume 
ourselves upon the doings ol our own times. Has there ever been 
a more active or more fruitful period in the history of chemistry 
than that wonderful period here referred to ? 

It was a great step forward to show that oxygen is one of the 
most powerful agents at work in the processes that are in progress 
on this earth. Not only combustion, but life in all its forms is in 
some way dependent upon it — animal life directly, plant life indi- 
rectly. Oxygen is the controlling factor in all the changes that are 
familiar to us. Some one, I do not know who, is responsible for 
that superficial and much-quoted phrase " Without phosphorus no 
thought." The same statement could be made with equal truth in 
regard to other elements, such, for example, as nitrogen, carbon, 
hydrogen, sulphur, sodium, calcium, and, above all, oxygen. Indeed, 
we may almost say, without oxygen no chemical activity on this 
earth. This sudden appearance of oxygen and the recognition of 
its importance tended to put matter on a throne. " The study of 
material things will lead to the discovery of the hidden causes of 
other phenomena. See what the discovery of oxygen has done for 
us ! Here is something tangible. Let us to work. There must be 
plenty of other things that operate as causes. If we can only bring 
these things to light, we shall be able to understand what is going 
on around us." So must the materialists have thought. There 
were, however, in those days, as there probably always have been, 
those who looked for the power behind the throne on which matter 
had been placed. To drop the figure and return to oxygen we may 
say that, while the discovery of this element gave the answers to 



Am MMch',rm ruJ '} Life-History of a Doctrine. 119 

many questions, it raised many new questions ; and the attempts to 
answer these led again to regions of imagery. 

One of the oldest tricks of the mind is the evoking of spirits in 
time of need. What causes all bodies to attract all others ? We say 
gravitation, and somehow this spirit helps us. We feel as though 
we knew more about the phenomena of universal attraction when 
we have given a name to an imaginary and immaterial cause. So, 
too, when we inquire why oxygen causes the changes it is known to 
cause we can only conjure the spirits and give a new name. Oxy- 
gen unites with carbon ; the carbon burns ; a new thing is formed. 
It all becomes clear when we are told that it is chemical arhnity that 
does it. Chemical affinity isn't an imaginary substance ; it isn't 
something that we may see and handle. We haven't forgotten the 
philosopher's stone and phlogiston. Our imaginary cause is spirit- 
ual ; it is not material. But this is a digression. It was intended 
to show how the mind reverts promptly to the subtle, however 
powerful the attraction of matter may be. We cannot, if we would, 
keep to things material. 

Recalling, what perhaps even I have forgotten, that my theme is 
"The Life-History of a Doctrine," I propose, now that I have tried 
to show what is meant by this phrase, to move on more rapidly, so 
that I may dwell somewhat more fully upon one particular doctrine 
that has been before the chemical world in one form or another for 
about a century. 

The discovery of oxygen did not lead directly to the introduction 
of a new chemical doctrine. Its chief result, so far as doctrine is 
concerned, was the death of the doctrine of phlogiston. 

The discovery emphasized the importance of taking into con- 
sideration the weights of the things worked with. It was by this 
means that Lavoisier achieved his brilliant success. That weight 
was rather lightly regarded in earlier days may be seen from the 
following quotation, which is taken from an essay by Dr. Jean Rey, 
published in 1630: 

" My chief care hitherto has been to impress on the minds of all 
the persuasion that air is heavy, inasmuch as from it I propose to 
derive the increase in weight of tin and lead when they are calcined. 
But before showing how that comes to pass, I must make this 
observation — that the weight of a thing may be examined in two 
ways, viz:, by the aid of reason, or with the balance. It is reason 



120 



Life- History of a Doct?'ine. 



f Am. .lour. Pliarm. 
I March, 1903. 



which has led me to discover weight in all the elements, and it is 
reason which now leads me to give a flat denial to that erroneous 
maxim which has been current since the birth of philosopy — that 
the elements mutually undergoing change, one into the other, lose 
or gain weight, according as in changing they become rarefied or 
condensed. With the arms of reason I boldly enter the lists to 
combat this error, and to sustain that weight is so closely united to 
the primary matter of the elements that they can never be deprived 
of it. The weight with which each portion of matter was endued 
at the cradle will be carried by it to the grave. In whatever place, 
in whatever form, to whatever volume it may be reduced, the same 
weight always persists. But not presuming that my statements are 
on a parity with those of Pythagoras, so that it suffices to have 
advanced them, I support them with a demonstration which, as I 
conceive, all men of sense will accept. Let there be taken a portion 
of earth which shall have in it the smallest possible weight, beyond 
which no weight can subsist ; let this earth be converted into water 
by the means known and practised by nature : it is evident that this 
water will have weight, since all water must have it and this weight 
will either be greater than that of the earth, or less than it, or else 
equal to it. My opponents will not say that it is greater, for they 
profess the contrary, and I also am of their opinion : smaller it can- 
not be, since we took the smallest weight that can exist : there 
remains then only the case that the two are equal, which I under- 
took to prove. What is shown of this particle may be shown of 
two, three, or of a very great number — in short, of all the element, 
which is composed of nothing else. The same proof may be 
extended to the conversion of water into air, of air into fire ; and, 
conversely, of the last of these into the first." 

The idea that a thing can be weighed by reason is, I suppose, an 
inheritance from the old philosophers who seem to have believed 
that all the problems of the universe could be solved by mental 
operations, or that any problem that could not be solved in that 
way was not worthy of their consideration. The first great generali- 
zation that was reached after the method of weighing was generally 
adopted by chemists was what we sometimes call the law of the 
indestructibility of matter, or, in more refined language, the law of 
the conservation of mass. Then followed the laws of definite and 
multiple proportions. Now, a law of nature is quite a different thing 



Am i£ch,im ipQ "} Life-History of a Doctrine. 121 

Irom a doctrine. A law once discovered does not wither and die. 
It is eternal. Such a statement cannot be proved to be true. It 
calls for faith, but faith is called for at every turn in scientific mat- 
ters as well as in spiritual. Without it progress would be impos- 
sible. As I am trying to deal with doctrines and not with laws, let 
me say that doctrines call lor even a larger faith than laws. The 
very essence of a doctrine is faith in things unseen. The discovery 
of the laws of definite and multiple proportions led to the thought 
of atoms — not the evasive atoms of the Greeks, but atoms that 
could, in a way, be made the subject of experiment — the Daltonian 
atoms. This conception appeals to some minds very strongly. It 
is not necessary that we should know what the atoms look like, 
though this is highly desirable. The atom of chemistry can accom- 
plish the purpose for which it was conceived by Dalton by simply 
standing for a unit of matter that can pass unchanged, so far as mass 
is concerned, through a series of chemical changes. That is all we 
need to think of under ordinary circumstances. Some refined 
thinkers have found mental objections to the atom and it has been 
the subject of innumerable attacks. It doesn't do some things that 
it appears to us it ought to do and we try to depose it from time to 
time. Particles that cannot be more than o ooi of the size of an 
atom challenge the right of the latter to supremacy, and the novelty- 
seekers, the born iconoclasts, cry out, " Make way for the corpuscle; 
the atom has had its day." But, seriously, the corpuscle does not 
seem to threaten the atom of to-day or of the immediate fuiure — ■ 
say any time within the next million years. The atom may be 
composed of corpuscles. Indeed, I think chemists would rejoice to 
learn that this is the fact. On this point, let me quote J. J. Thom- 
son, the father of the new corpuscle. Speaking of Lenard's observa- 
tion that the penetrating power ot the corpuscles depends only on 
their density, he says : " This is exactly what would happen if the 
atoms of the chemical elements were aggregations of a large num- 
ber of equal particles of equal mass, the mass of an atom being pro- 
portional to the number of these particles contained in it, and the 
atom being a collection of such particles through the interstices 
between which the corpuscle might find its way." Since the density 
depends only on the number of particles in unit volume and is inde- 
pendent of the nature of the resulting atoms, Lenard's result is a 
strong confirmation of the view that the atoms of the elementary 



122 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



( Am. -lour. Phan 
I March, 1903. 



substances are made up of simpler parts all of which are alike." I 
am as yet unable to form a judgment in regard to the value of the 
evidence thus presented, but my confidence in J. J. Thomson gives 
me faith in the thoughts suggested by him. As I understand it, 
the worst that can be done for chemistry by the corpuscle is to 
change the atom so slowly that it would take something like a mil- 
lion years to enable us to detect the change by the balance. Per- 
haps the atomic weights of the elements, or of some of them, are 
undergoing change. Whether in the course of geological ages the 
atoms are becoming simpler or more complex is a question that 
appears idle at first, and yet when we bear in mind the fact that the 
atoms of our day have already been subjected to a great variety of 
influences for ages past, and that the atoms that we know are com- 
paratively complex, we may at least suspect that the tendency so far 
is toward complexity. But here we are face to face with a problem 
far beyond our powers — the action of eons upon ions. 

Even if we assume the corpuscle, our conception is still material- 
istic, and we have to face the question, What is matter ? That is a 
deep question — one of the deepest that can be asked. It is not diffi- 
cult to show that all definitions of matter that have been given are 
totally inadequate ; to show that matter is a product of the imagina- 
tion ; that we know matter only in so far as it affects the senses, and 
our senses are affected only by the different forms of energy. By 
logic we can easily, with Ostwald, reach the conclusion that u mat- 
ter and energy are not to be thought of as distinct, as, for example, 
body and soul." We cannot help agreeing with him further when 
he says : " If we attempt to think of matter as separate from the 
various forms of energy nothing is left. Matter is, in fact, nothing 
but a group of different energies in space." But what is energy ? 
This question would have been promptly referred to the physicists 
by the older chemists, but the chemists of to.day are physical chem- 
ists or chemical physicists, and they grapple with such questions 
without reserve. Perhaps the nearest approach to an answer is that 
of Herz, who, according to Ostwald, " expressly declines to see any- 
thing in the electro-magnetic theory of light but a system of six 
differential equations." By means of mathematics, relations may be 
expressed and the story of nature told in a way that is clear to one 
who understands the language, and perhaps the time will come 
when men will have a complete record of the various forms of 



Am M J a?ch,F 9 03. rm -} Life-History of a Doctrine. 123 

activity of nature, and they may then see that our mechanical and 
materialistic conceptions of natural phenomena are like the rude 
drawings of a child as compared with the paintings of Raphael. We 
have glimpses of such a scientific millenium in a few nooks and cor- 
ners of physics. When that time shall come the physicists and 
chemists will in a way be superfluous. Everything will take the 
form of mathematics. By mental operations alone it will then be 
possible to solve such problems as may remain to be solved. It will 
then no longer be necessary to work with things — or rather with 
those manifestations of energy which in by-gone ages (say the twen- 
tieth century) had been crudely interpreted as indicating the exist- 
ence of matter. A few models of molecules, of atoms, of corpuscles, 
and, I fear I must add, of ions may then be preserved in the archaeo- 
logical institutes for the contemplation of mathematical philoso- 
phers. 

What I have just said has not been intended as a criticism of any 
tendency. I have had that vision as others have. So, too, I have 
had visions of a heavenly kingdom to come, and I am thankful that 
this has been vouchsafed to me. But that heavenly kingdom is far 
away and so is that scientific millenium. Meanwhile there is work 
to be done here on earth and with earthly things. If we were all 
angels, a good many problems that now worry us would be solved — 
never to be solved again. So, too, in that scientific millenium such 
work as scientific men now do will not be called for. I sometimes 
think that the man with the distinctly mathematical mind must 
necessarily be unhappy if he applies himself to the study of natural 
phenomena. The points of contact between his language and the 
facts established are relatively so few that he must have sensations 
like those of a man with large wealth in a desert island. I once 
knew a young mathematician, even then distinguished, who had 
made something of a study of physics. He needed to add to his 
income and an opportunity offered itself to him to coach some stu- 
dents of physics. He tried this and had to give it up. One even- 
ing I found him in great distress. He told me that he had been 
trying to explain the law of falling bodies to his scholars and had 
failed to make any impression on them. He confessed that he him- 
self had no conception of the significance of the law except as it 
appeared to him in a mathematical expression. He could not think 
ot a falling body as such. The mathematical expression 



124 



Life- History of a Doctrine. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March. 1903. 



dx 
dt 



= gt -\- constant, 



however, made all clear. He tried to convey his own thoughts to 
his students and he was greeted with open-mouthed wonder. So, 
too, I knew a physicist who approached his problems in much the 
same way. He would not let his class of beginners work with a 
lever and deduce the law from the results of their own experiments, 
which to me appeared an instructive exercise, " for," he said, " the 
lever is a mathematical instrument and it is not necessary to experi- 
ment with it in order to determine the laws of its action." 

On the other hand, I have been told that Lord Kelvin says he 
cannot form a clear conception of any natural phenomenon without 
the aid of a model. I remember years ago, when he was lecturing 
at the Johns Hopkins University, that he showed his hearers a 
beautiful model of light waves, and I am sure they had the power to 
convey light to a number of brains that would have been in dark- 
ness if any other method had been adopted. Whether we will or 
not, we have the non-mathematical mind to deal with, and this 
brings me back to chemistry and that special doctrine of chemistry 
that has to deal with atoms. 

The doctrine of atoms is still alive, though it came into being 
about a hundred years ago. It has been proved to be illogical, as 
the ether that fills all space has been shown to be incapable of 
existence. Properties must be ascribed to the atom that it cannot 
possess and the same is true of the ether. What are we to do ? 
Throw over the atom and the ether ? Although both have been 
convicted of being illogical, I do not think it would be logical to 
give them up, tor they are helpful in spite of their shortcomings, and 
in some way they suggest great truths. They are symbolic. It 
would be as illogical to give them up as it is, in my opinion, to deny 
the existence of a power in the universe infinitely greater than any 
of the manifestations familiar to us ; infinitely greater than man ; a 
power " that passeth all understanding." The atom helps us; the 
ether helps the physicist. We cannot give them up without losing 
our hold on many phenomena. For a century the phenomena of 
chemistry has been interpreted in terms of atoms. Take away that 
conception and, though it would be possible to deal with these 
phenomena, I cannot believe that they would appear as clear as they 
now do. In an address before the chemical section of the British 



Am. Jour. Pharru. \ 
March, 1903. J 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



125 



Association for the Advancement of Science last summer, Professor 
Edward Divers took as his theme " The Atomic Theory without 
Hypothesis." Let me quote a few passages from his address. He 
says : " The atomic theory of chemistry stands unsurpassed for the 
way in which it has fulfilled the purpose of every great theory — that 
of giving intellectual mastery of the phenomena of which it treats. 
But in the form in which it was enunciated, and still is universally 
expressed and accepted, it has the defect of resting upon a meta- 
physical basis, namely, upon the ancient hypothesis that bodies are 
not continuous in texture, but consist of discrete, ultra-minute parti- 
cles whose properties, if known, would account for those of the 
bodies themselves. Hence it has happened that, despite the light 
it throws upon the relations of chemical phenomena and the simple 
means it affords of expressing those relations, this theory has always 
been regarded with misgiving, and failed to achieve that explicit 
recognition which its abounding merit calls for. Indeed, the desire 
has been expressed to see the time when something on a more solid 
foundation shall have taken its place." Professor Divers thinks that 
in dealing with chemical phenomena we can avoid thinking of dis- 
crete particles of matter. The law of constant proportions is, to be 
sure, entirely comprehensive as a law without the aid of the atomic 
theory, and so is the law of multiple proportions, but can we possi- 
bly, as yet, co-ordinate them without this aid ? I do not think I can, 
and this doesn't worry me. The kind of atom that my mind's eye 
sees seems to help me, but that eye has not troubled itself with other 
attributes of the atom than that one which is needed. It will be 
remembered that in Dalton's time it was proposed to substitute for 
the atom the equivalent, and some even wanted to use the concep- 
tion of combining numbers. This last conception appeals to the 
systematic mind at first, but one cannot go very far with it without 
tacitly accepting the atomic theory. On this point Professor Divers 
says : " Refusing to commit themselves to belief in the hypothesis, 
chemists have thought from the first to escape the adoption of the 
atomic theory by putting Dalton's discovery into something like 
these words : Numbers called proportional or combining numbers 
can be assigned to the chemical elements — one to each — which will 
express all the ratios of the weights or masses in which substances 
interact and combine together. " Perhaps," says Professor Divers, 
" the atomic theory is successfully set aside by expressing what is an 



126 



Life- History of a Doctrine. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1903. 



actuality as an unaccounted-for possibility. But then those who use 
any such mode of expressing the facts without reference to the 
theory never fail also to adopt the doctrine of equivalents, and 
thus, by this double act, implicitly give in their adherence to the 
theory." 

While the atomic theory can be used without using atoms, this 
must involve a great effort for the average mind. Why should we 
make the effort ? If we can get a broader and deeper and clearer 
view of chemical phenomena by making the effort, by all means let 
us make it. Can we ? That is the whole question. Apparently, 
not enough chemists have made the effort to furnish us with the 
necessary data upon which to base a conclusion. I should like to 
ask a dozen chemists to give me each his idea of the atom. The 
results would be interesting. Some years ago I sat next the late 
Bishop Brooks at a dinner party, and I had an extremely interesting 
conversation with him. I remember many things he said and, as 
having some bearing on the question I am now dealing with, I quote 
this remark: "I am sure," he said, " that every individual has a 
different conception of God. If we could get at these conceptions 
we should probably be greatly surprised to find how markedly they 
differ from one another." Each individual injects his own person- 
ality into his conceptions, and the conceptions change according to 
circumstances. 

At first, weight, or, more accurately, mass, was the only attribute 
of the atom that needed to be taken into consideration, except, of 
course, that power of combining with other atoms which is its 
fundamental attribute. Soon after the atom came to be a part of 
the chemist's equipment two important attempts were made to add 
electrical charges to the atoms. Davy and Berzelius took different 
views of the way in which the electrical charges led to chemical acts, 
but they both agreed that chemical acts are essentially electrical. 
Every atom had not only weight, but an electric charge which did 
not add to its weight, but helped to explain its activity. The atom 
bore this charge for many years. It was thought that it gave it up 
and returned to its original simple form when the dualistic concep- 
tion ol the constitution of compounds gave way to the unitary con- 
ception. When it was found that chlorine, an electro-negative ele- 
ment, could take the place of the electro-positive hydrogen without 
creating any marked disturbance, chemists thought it best to turn 



Am Mi rch,S)t. rnK } Life-History of a Doctrine. 127 

their backs on the electro-chemical theory. In fact, the old electro- 
chrmical theories in their original forms were untenable, but this is 
quite a different thing from saying that electrical charges have noth- 
ing to do with chemical action. It appears to-day that these elec- 
trical charges are the controlling factors in chemical phenomena — 
but of that farther on. 

The next change that took place in the conception of the atom 
was that which followed the discovery of Frankland that there is a 
limit to the number of atoms that can combine with any other given 
atom. This was followed up by Kekule and the doctrine of valence 
was the result. Atoms differ from one another in respect to the 
number of other atoms with which they can combine. It would be 
interesting to follow the life-history of this doctrine of valence. It 
has had a most eventful career. It has been chastened by experi- 
ence, and now it appears to us freed, to a great extent, from the 
faults of youth. It is far from dead. Indeed it is probably at the 
beginning of its career. The phenomena of valence must be reck- 
oned with, and the study of these phenomena carries us back to the 
atoms and leads us to seek in them the causes of the differences in 
the composition of the compounds which are formed by their union. 

It has unquestionably been shown that the original form of the 
doctrine of valence is not tenable. Elements cannot be classified 
rigidly under a few heads as univalent, bivalent, trivalent, quad- 
rivalent, etc., nor can we hold the other view that all the elements 
have either an even number or an odd number of valences or bonds, 
though there appears to be some truth in this latter view. The 
artiads and perissads of our youth may return to us, but before they 
are received it will be necessary for us to ask them a few questions, 
and for them to answer them satisfactorily. In fact, we have learned 
that the phenomena of valence need to be studied carefully before 
we can discover the laws that govern them. The views that pre- 
vail to-day are but the foreshadowing of a broader conception of 
valence. This subject is very much to the front at present. The 
speculations of Werner with reference to complex inorganic com- 
pounds have awakened wide interest and have set many to think- 
ing. One cannot ignore the mass of evidence put forward by Wer- 
ner that tends to show that in many compounds it is necessary to 
assume the existence of a core or inner sphere consisting of a group 
of atoms in combination, this core holding in combination a definite 



128 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



Am. Jonr. Pharnj. 
March, 1903. 



number of atoms or groups. Whether that which holds together 
the atoms that make up the core is what in similar compounds 
manifests itself as valence remains to be seen. At all events, if the 
views of Werner should prove to be correct, we shall have two kinds 
of valence to deal with — that of the inner sphere and that of the 
outer sphere, or that of the core and that of the shell. In a recent 
article Werner extends his views and introduces the conception of 
secondary valences. Thus he holds that in ammonia the three 
valences that enable the nitrogen a u om to hold the three hydrogen 
atoms in the molecule of ammonia are different from that which 
enables ammonia to combine with a molecule of hydrochloric acid. 
The former he calls the " primary valences " (Hauptvalenzen), the 
latter a " secondary valence " (Nebenvalenz). He does not think 
that the two differ fundamentally. So Thiele in his study of the 
phenomena of saturation among organic compounds is obliged to 
assume the existence of " partial valences (Partialvalenzen), and the 
facts described by him are singularly in accord with the assumption. 
This applies up to the present only to the compounds of carbon. 
Thiele's " partial valences " are, however, not to be confounded with 
the secondary valences of Werner or the other earlier " residual 
valences " of Armstrong. A discussion of this subject might be 
made interesting and profitable, but I cannot go into it here. So 
many curious valence phenomena have been observed of late that 
one cannot help feeling that we are about to have a revelation that 
will make the old as well as the new phenomena appear clear. Car- 
bon is bivalent and quadrivalent. That has always been clear, 
though Nef has made it clearer than it used to be. But now comes 
trivalent carbon that Gomberg has shown us, and we may be pre- 
pared for almost anything. And oxygen that has been regarded as 
a very model of bivalency these many years is getting restless, and 
is beginning to show that it too can do the unexpected. It seems 
clear that it can act as a quadrivalent element, but, according to 
Walden, it has even higher powers. 

Whatever may come of all this, it is clear that we cannot enlarge 
our conception of the atom. It not only has the power to combine 
with other atoms, but under given conditions it has a definite num- 
ber of such powers. If we attempt to represent these powers to our 
minds we can only use the grossest methods. The union of two 
univalent atoms does not necessitate the conception of direction. 



Ana. Jour. Phartu.l 
March, 1903. / 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



129 



But when two univalent atoms unite with one bivalent atom we can 
hardly avoid thinking of two points of contact on the bivalent atom 
and of two directions in which it exerts its powers of combination. 
This conception of direction is further forced upon us by a study of 
the phenomena of stereochemistry, especially in the field of the 
chemistry of the compounds of carbon. But, if the carbon atom 
exerts its powers of combination in definite directions that can be 
determined by observation, it is, to say the least, highly probable 
that all other elements act in the same general way, and indeed 
many facts have been discovered within the last few years that have 
given a clue to the stereochemistry of nitrogen, of sulphur, of sili- 
con and other elements. Indeed, in the studies of Werner, already 
referred to, stereochemical phenomena are illustrated in many ways 
by compounds of platinum, palladium and other metals that enter 
into the complex inorganic bases. 

Our imaginary atom then has mass. It has the power to com- 
bine with other atoms under the proper conditions. This power is 
either a unit, as in the univalent elements, or it is divisible by 2, 3, 
4» 5» 6, 7 or 8 in the case of other elements. Further, one and the 
same element may exhibit different powers under different condi- 
tions, but the laws governing these variations are not known. 
Finally, the powers of combination of a polyvalent atom are exerted 
in definite directions that can to some extent be determined. These 
directions are evidently subject to variation, and some effect upon a 
compound caused by displacement has apparently been shown in 
the case of some carbon compounds ; at least Von Baeyer's strain 
theory is based upon this assumption. 

The latest turn that has been given to the conception of the atom 
brings in again the electric charge. It appears that the cotempora- 
ries of Berzelius were too easily frightened, and Berzelius was nearer 
right than they supposed. Every book on the history of chemistry 
has an obituary on the electrochemical theory of Berzelius. But 
now it appears that the electrical charges assumed by him must be 
assumed by us. These have come more and more to the front of 
late, and chemical union is being regarded more and more as due to 
the interaction of these charges. According to the modern concep- 
tion, an atom may or may not be carrying a charge of electricity. 
When carrying its charge it is called an ion, and it is then ready for 
action. When the elementary ion gives up its charge, either by 



130 



Life-History of a Doctrine. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1903. 



entering into combination with another ion, or other ions, or by 
being set free, it becomes an atom. But more than this : The elec- 
trical charge of an ion is either a unit charge or a multiple of this. 
The bivalent ion has two charges, the trivalent ion has three, etc. 
The experimental basis for these ideas is found in the electrolytic 
phenomena that are included in the scope of Faraday's law. Fara- 
day found that a definite quantity ot electricity causes a definite 
amount of decomposition in a conductor of the second class ; and, 
further, he found that when the same current is passed through 
solutions of the salts of different metals in series, the masses of the 
different metals that separate are proportional to the combining 
weights or the equivalents of these metals. To make clear the full 
significance of these facts would require more time than is at my 
disposal. SufTice it to say, that in terms of our present theory it 
takes twice as much electricity to set a bivalent atom free as to set 
a univalent atom free; three times as much for a trivalent atom, etc. 
How to conceive of one, two, three or four charges of electricity on 
an ion I leave to the physicists to explain, though it must be said 
that they are not in the least called upon to explain. 

The atom has thus been followed in its career down to to-day. 
The changes in our conceptions have been traced sufficiently for our 
purpose. It is at present a bundle of attributes and with these 
attributes it is a convenient nucleus for thought. Nothing has been 
said of the dynamics of the atom, by which I do not, of course, mean 
chemical dynamics in general. So far as the atom is concerned our 
knowledge of its motions may perhaps fairly be summed up by say- 
ing that it seems probable that it moves in some mysterious way, 
and perhaps the phenomena of chemistry arc all due to this motion. 
But that carries us into the region of speculation pure and simple, 
and in this region the scientific worker feels uncomfortable. The 
atmosphere is too rarefied for him. 

If you now ask what is the soul of the doctrine of atoms ? I can 
only answer that this soul is still in the course of development. The 
doctrine has some immortal attributes, but what will live after its 
death is too early for any one to say. 

44 Prove all things. Hold fast that which is goodr 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March. 1903. J 



Biographical Sketches. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 1 

By M. I. Wilb^rT. 
ALFRED BOWER TAYLOR. 

Alfred Bower Taylor was one of those unassuming, hard-working 
individuals who, while they do not make strenuous efforts to achieve 
notoriety, or empty honors while living, leave behind them, when 
they die, an enviable reputation for having followed the dictates of 
what they considered right, just and proper. 

It may be well to preface our remarks with the necessary data, 
so that we can appreciate still more the disadvantages under which 
the subject of this essay labored in his endeavors to advance his 
own and the professional standing of his fellow workers. 

Mr. Taylor was born in the city of Philadelphia on January 6, 
1824. After graduating from the academic department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, in 184 1, he engaged to learn the art and 
business of an apothecary with the late Henry C. Blair, who was 
located at the corner of Eighth and Walnut Streets. Mr. Taylor 
subsequently attended the lectures delivered at the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, graduating in 1844. This class of '44, while 
not large in point of numbers, appears to have been made up largely 
of men who devoted much of their time toward advancing profes- 
sional pharmacy, in preference to accumulating money, by devoting 
themselves strictly to the business interests of their calling. 

After spending several years in New York City, Mr. Taylor 
returned to Philadelphia and established himself as a retail pharma- 
cist. He continued in business for nearly thirty-five years, when he 
retired to devote the remaining years of his life to original research 
and literary work. Mr. Taylor died in his native city on February 
28, 1898. 

From what has been said it will be evident that it is not as a retail 
dealer in drugs and medicines that Alfred Bower Taylor will be 
remembered or referred to. On the contrary, it is rather as an 
unassuming, hard-working investigator and student, who was always 
willing to contribute of his vast store of knowledge to advance the 
professional standing and material welfare of his co-workers that he 
is to be remembered and honored by this and succeeding genera- 



1 The author will present from time to time sketches of those who have con- 
tributed to the welfare of American pharmacy. — Editor. 



132 



Biographical Sketches. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1903. 



tions. In 1848, Mr. Taylor was elected an active member of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and from that time to his death 
this institution was always foremost in his ideas, his ideals and his 
work. The actual amount of time and work that Mr. Taylor devoted 
to advance the position and standing of this college will never be 
known, and consequently can never be adequately appreciated. He 
was elected a member of the Board of Trustees the same year that 
he became a member of the college. Two years later he was elected 
to act as Secretary of the Board of Trustees. Mr. Taylor served in 
this capacity, and subsequently as Corresponding Secretary of the 
College, for a period of thirty-six years. 

To bring to mind some of the important and arduous services 
that he rendered this institution, it is but necessary to recall the fact 
that he served for twenty-one years as a member of the Publishing 
Committee of the American Journal of Pharmacy. That his con- 
nection with the Journal was not one of empty honor is evidenced 
from the very complete index of the first twenty volumes, the work 
of Mr. Taylor, that appeared in 1850. 

Mr. Taylor served for more than forty years as a member of the 
College Pharmacopceial Revision Committee, more than half of that 
time as chairman, so that a very large proportion of the very excel- 
lent work that this committee is known to have contributed was 
directly due to or was actually done by him. 

An enumeration of the special committees on which he served 
would alone fill a number of pages of this Journal. One of his more 
important services in this connection was as a member of the dele- 
gation sent by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy to attend the 
convention of colleges in New York in 1 851. As is well known, it 
was at this meeting that the Association, later known as the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, was conceived and the preliminary 
preparations made for its successful beginning at Philadelphia the 
following year. Mr. Taylor acted as secretary of this preliminary 
meeting, and much of the success of the inaugural meeting in Phila- 
delphia was no doubt due to his energy in securing the proper 
publicity and bringing the necessity of such an organization to the 
attention of such as would be likely to be interested in it. As a 
member of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Mr. Taylor 
was not alone active in that he attended the meetings, but he also 
contributed much original matter of sterling worth to the proceed- 



Am. Jour. Pbarai. 1 
March, 1903. J 



Biographical Sketches. 



133 



ings. He also served the Association in various official capacities, 
as its first treasurer, 185 2— 1 854 ; local secretary, 1863 and presi- 
dent, 1890. 

It is, however, as a member of the National Pharmacopceial 
Revision Committee that Mr. Taylor did his most important work, 
contributing much toward the gradual and successful evolution of 
that volume into a book of authority second to none for complete- 
ness and scientific worth. 

As a contributor to the literature of American Pharmacy, Mr. 
Taylor must be classed with the leaders of his time. The papers 
from his pen are not alone numerous, but they also give evidence 
of much study and a complete mastery of the subjects under dis- 
cussion. To show the wide variation in the lines of thought, it may 
be well to enumerate a few of the subjects that Mr. Taylor has dis- 
cussed more extensively. A critical review of these various papers 
would readily convince any one how completely he had made him- 
self master of the different subjects. Among the more interesting 
papers we may call to mind his contributions on Fluid Extracts, 
Cinchona Bark and the preparations made from it, Weights and 
Measures, and a proposed system of octonary numeration. 

This latter subject is interesting in that it demonstrates how far 
Mr. Taylor was ahead of his contemporaries. It is now generally 
conceded that if it were possible to introduce an octonary system 
of numeration, the advantages accruing from such an innovation 
would more than repay any inconvenience that may be occasioned 
by its introduction. While it is improbable that any change in our 
system 01 enumeration will be made in the immediate future, never- 
theless, a system of numeration in which round figures can be con- 
tinually halved without leaving awkward and lengthy fractions, 
must be acknowledged to have merits not possessed by our present 
system of decimal notation. Nor could the oft-proposed and quite 
recently rejuvenated system of duodecimal numeration compare 
in efficiency or applicability with an octonal system. A compari- 
son of the possible indivisible fractions will readily convince any 
one of the theoretical advantages possessed by the simpler multi- 
plication by eights. The practical application of this theory, how- 
ever, will be a problem for future generations to solve. 

Altogether it must be said that Alfred Bower Taylor was not 
alone an able pharmacist, who was always ready to take advantage 



134 



Biographical Sketches. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1903. 



of scientific progress, he was also a scientist, who had at heart the 
development and advance of the human family. 

The concluding year of Mr. Taylor's life included periods of great 
physical suffering and mental privation ; his eyesight failed him, 
depriving him of one of his most cherished pastimes — that of read- 
ing. He left behind him an unsullied record for constant and unre- 
mitting devotion to the best interests of his chosen profession. 

MAURICE W. ALEXANDER. 

The largest class that had ever graduated from the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, up to that time, gathered at Musical Fund 
Hall, on April 18, 1854. According to the reporter of those days 
this class had the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy conferred on 
them by the then presiding officer of the College, Henry C. Blair, 
Esq. The ceremony was gone through with in the presence of a 
large and respectable audience, and was followed by a valedictory 
address by Prof. Robert P. Thomas. 

Among the names of the twenty-six graduates we find a number 
that have become well known in the pharmaceutical world, their 
respective bearers having attained a considerable degree of success 
in their chosen profession. 

The first name on the class roster is that of Maurice W. Alex- 
ander, who had chosen as the subject of his thesis one of the less- 
known plants belonging to the Labiatae — " Melissa." 

After graduating from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Mr. 
Alexander went to St. Louis, Mo., where he soon established him- 
self as the proprietor of one of the best-known and most successful 
retail pharmacies. 

Mr. Alexander took an active interest in all attempts to improve 
the status of the retail pharmacist, as is evidenced from his active 
interest in both the National as well as State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciations. He was also, for several years, a member of the State 
Board of Pharmacy of Missouri. 

Mr. Alexander was particularly well known as an active member 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association. He joined that body 
at the St. Louis meeting in 1 871 , and for nearly thirty years was 
one of the most regular attendants at its annual gatherings. His 
wide experience gave him an opportunity of contributing much 
valuable advice, particularly in connection with the administration 
of the business affairs of the Association. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1903. J 



Biographical Sketches. 



135 



That his exertions for the welfare of the Association were appre- 
ciated, is evidenced from the fact that he was elected as second vice- 
president at the meeting in Providence, in 1886; first vice-president 
in the following year at Cincinnati, and at the Detroit meeting the 
next year he was elected president. 

This steady progression is the more remarkable, as Mr. Alexander 
is the only president that was successively elected to these various 
offices, any one of which is usually considered sufficient honor for 
any particular services rendered the Association. In this connection 
it should also be remembered that all of these honors came to Mr. 
Alexander in cities more or less remote from his home, and must 
theretore be considered as being a tribute of appreciation for his 
work, from comparative strangers. 

As President of the American Pharmaceutical Association, he had 
the honor ot presiding over what is often spoken of as one of the 
most interesting as well as most successful of meetings — that at San 
Francisco, in 1889. Mr. Alexander also had the honor of being one 
of the incorporators of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
the charter for which was taken out under the laws of the District 
of Columbia, at Washington, in 1888. 

Maurice W. Alexander died at his home in St. Louis, on June 6, 
1898, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. The feeling of loss that 
pervaded his fellow members of the Association is voiced in the 
sentiment expressed by the Secretary ot the Committee on Mem- 
bership who, in his report for that year, when referring to the death 
of Mr. Alexander said, " We cannot but miss the pleasant counte- 
nance of that dear old friend, who scarcely ever was absent from 
our annual meetings and whose high social standing won him the 
love and esteem of all. He was a man of unusual courage and his 
sound advice will be ever fresh in our minds. The extension of the 
good work of our Association, for which he labored so indefatigably, 
should never be forgotten but stand as a mark, by way of encourage- 
ment to others to do likewise." 



136 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



j Am Jour. Pharm. 
X March. 1903. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING ADVANCES 
IN PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

By M. I. WlI,BERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The New Fifth Edition of the Russian Pharmacopceia has just 
been issued. According to the reviews of the same in the German 
pharmaceutical journals, it is far from being an ideal or perfect phar- 
macopceia, but it is nevertheless quite an improvement on any of 
the editions that have preceded it. Unfortunately perhaps for the 
general reader, outside of Russia, the Revision Committee has fol- 
lowed the example of other pharmacopoeias, and has given all of 
the directions and descriptions in the vernacular. As Russian is a 
language that has interested but comparatively few scholars it will 
be seen that this pharmacopceia will not be readily available for 
reference, study, or comparison. 

Assay processes are included for several of the drugs of organic 
origin. Cinchona is to be estimated gravimetrically, and is to con- 
tain at least 3-5 per cent, of alkaloids. Opium is to contain from 
10 to 12 per cent, of morphine, also estimated gravimetrically. 
Many of the organic drugs are described in the powdered form. This 
will no doubt be appreciated by the practical druggist, as it furnishes 
him with an authoritative guide for the examination of powders as 
to their identity and purity. 

This is the first national pharmacopceia that has been published 
since the meeting of the International Congress for the unification 
of potent remedies. According to the Apotheker Zeitung no changes 
have been made in the strength of galenical preparations, so that 
all of the preparations, for which international standards have been 
proposed, are practically included as they were in the last or fourth 
edition. These it will be remembered corresponded closely to the 
standards proposed by the International Congress. 

International Standards. — In reference to the proposed inter- 
national standards it may be said that Prof. Dr. August Ritter von 
Vogl, in his report to the Austrian Government, says that the pro- 
gram as proposed by the Belgian Government and as finally adopted 
by the International Conference, agreed in all particulars with the 
proposed and fundamental principles as already adopted by the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1903. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



137 



Revision Commission for the new eighth edition of the Austrian 
Pharmacopoeia; there was therefore no occasion for the Austrian 
delegates to take a very active part in the discussion. 

The report of the British delegate, Dr. MacAllister, to the Gen- 
eral Medical Council is also very promising, considerable satisfaction 
being expressed at the conservative way in which the International 
Congress was conducted, and the concessions that were gladly made 
to the demands of the British delegate. There appears to be no 
doubt that the British Pharmacopoeia in its next edition, or possibly 
in an addendum, will incorporate the essential features of the pro- 
posed international standards for potent remedies. 

As time rolls on the indications are more and more in favor of 
the general adoption of the recommendations of the International 
Congress. 

Atomic Weights. — The International Atomic Weights Commis- 
sion has recently published the revised table of atomic weights for 
1903. (Zeitschr.f. angewandte Chemie, 1902, page 1305.) In view 
of the fact that considerable difference of opinion exists as to the 
practicability of the Oxygen or Hydrogen standard, the table is 
published in parallel columns based respectively on O = 16 and 
H — I as standard. 

Among the new additions to the list of elements is Radium. This 
has been given the symbol Ra and the atomic weight of 225. The 
elements of the Argon Group have been reconsidered. Krypton is 
now given as having an atomic weight of 81 -8 instead of 45, as 
given in a previous table. 

Xenon is given an atomic weight of 128 instead of 65. 

Of the elements more or less directly of interest to pharmacists 
the following have had their atomic weights redetermined or recon- 
sidered : 

Antimony: this is given as 120-2 instead of 120. 
Iron: this is 55-9 instead of 56. 
Mercury is 200 instead of 200-3. 

Uranium, according to recent determinations of Richards and 
Merigold, should be 238-5 instead of 239-5. 

Tin, according to the work done by Bongartz and Classen, should 
be 119 instead of 118-5. All of these atomic weights are given on 
the basis of O = 16 being equal to H = 1008. 

Weights and Measures. — The possible misunderstandings that 



133 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



( Alp. Jour. Pharm 
March, 1903. 



may arise from and the incongruities of the system of weights and 
measures in use in English-speaking countries are well illustrated 
by the controversy that has been carried on in the Pharmaceutical 
Journal (London, 1902) as to what should be dispensed when a solid 
is prescribed by writing 5j \ several of the correspondents assert an 
ounce of 437-5 grains is intended, while others maintain that 480 
grains is the only ounce to which the 5 sign is applicable. 

Test-Papers. — The Pharmaceutische Centralhalle (1902, page 416) 
describes a new test-paper, made by Dietrich, that has red and blue 
litmus in strips on the same paper. It is said to be prepared on 
a specially designed machine, and to prevent the possibility of the 
acid litmus affecting the blue strip, the two are separated by an 
isolating body like ceresin or paraffin. 

The advantages of such a paper are, of course, that the two tests 
are made simultaneously. It is further suggested that the same 
idea could be so elaborated that three or more test-papers could be 
combined, m this way facilitating the testing of a number of 
solutions. 

Detection of Curcuma in Powders. — For this Albert E. Bell 
[Pilar. Jour, 1902, page 551) recommends the use of diphenylamine 
as a reliable test, curcuma giving with this test a reddish. purple 
color not given by any other vegetable substance, so far as known 
to the writer. Bell prepares the test-solution as follows : 

Diphenylamine, I gramme; alcohol, 20 c.c; sulphuric acid, 
25 c.c. 

One drop of the reagent is put on a slide, placed under the micro- 
scope and then, by means of a glass rod, a small quantity of the 
powder to be tested is added. As little as 1 in 200 of curcuma in 
rhubarb and I in 100 of curcuma in mustard were detected by Mr. 
Bell. 

Ointments. — The Pharmaceutische Centralhalle (1902, page 605) 
calls attention to the separation of ointments containing insoluble 
ingredients, especially ointments made with petrolatum. On stand- 
ing these ointments have a tendency to separate ; it is advisable, 
therefore, that ointments should be repeatedly mixed, especially 
before dispensing, so as to insure their homogeneity. 

Mercuric Ointment. — To determine the amount of mercury in 
this ointment G. Pegurier [Phar. Zeitg., 1902, page 956, from L Union 
P/iar.) recommends weighing an accurately measured quantity of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1903. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



139 



the ointment and then weighing the same quantity of the ointment 
base, or of a mercuric ointment of known mercury content ; the 
difference in weight would indicate the per cent, amount of mercury. 

For testing the non-volatile materials, used as adulterants, such 
as powdered slate or powdered coal, the same writer heats a portion 
of the ointment to redness in a porcelain dish. Genuine mercuric 
ointment is completely volatile. 

Formaldehyde in Milk, test for.— Manget and Marion (Jour, de 
Phar. et de Chem. y 1902, page 532) say that if a minute quantity of 
amidol or diamidophenol be sprinkled on the surface of the sus- 
pected milk it will assume a bright-yellow color, while pure milk 
assumes, after a few moments, a salmon pink. This reaction is said 
to be a sensitive one, as little as 1 in 50,000 of formaldehyde still 
giving the reaction very distinctly. 

Sulphurous Acid in dried fruits. Marpmann (Sud. Deutsch. 
Apothek. Zeitg., 1902, page 881) gives the results of a number of 
examinations of dried fruits immediately after being opened, two 
days later, and also after being exposed to the air for eight days. 
He also gives the results of another series of experiments before and 
after washing with water. Marpmann concludes that the addition 
of sulphur fumes does not injure the fruit — on the contrary tends to 
preserve it. By prolonged exposure to air or through washing in 
water it is possible to eliminate all traces of the acid or its salts. 
The thorough washing of dried fruits is recommended in all cases. 

Fictitious Mace. — At a recent meeting of the Liverpool Chem- 
ists' Association Mr. J. H. Wardleworth (Chem. and Drug., 1902, 
page 1002) exhibited a sample of fictitious mace which had been 
cleverly treated with aniline dye to make it resemble the genuine. 
This fictitious or Malabar mace shows very little difference in struc- 
ture microscopically, but is entirely devoid of taste or odor. 

Arsenic in Potassium Carbonate. — C. E. Carlson (Phar. Central- 
halle, 1902, page 617) reports that a lot of crude potassium carbonate 
that he examined contained appreciable quantities of arsenic. The 
salt was of German origin, and was supposedly obtained from the 
wool washeries. In view of the extensive use of potassium car- 
bonate by bakers and others the possible dangers are self-apparent. 

Occurrence of Arsenic in the Animal Organism. — Gautier 
(Compt. Rend., 1902, page 1434) reports finding arsenic in various 
organs and parts of animals, particularly in those portions contain- 



140 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



C Am. .Tonr. IMiarm. 
( March, 1903. 



ing keratin, such as the bristles of the hog, feathers of geese, horns 
of oxen and the hair and nails of dogs. 

The arsenic content appears to be cumulative, particularly when 
accompanied by keratin, as Gautier demonstrates that the various 
portions of older animals contain more arsenic than the younger. 

Cineol Arsenate. — This is said to be a stable combination, made 
by adding an aqueous solution of arsenic acid to oil of eucalyptus. 
When freshly prepared it is white, with crystalline characteristics. 
Gradually heated cineol arsenate melts at 95 ° C. It is soluble in 
alcohol or ether, but decomposed into its constituents by water. 
[Phar. Centralhalle \ 1902, page 651.) 

Hopogan. — According to the Chemist and Druggist (1902, page 
846) this is but another tradename for magnesium dioxide or biogen. 

Dermogen is the corresponding salt of zinc, consisting of a vari- 
able mixture of zinc oxide with zinc dioxide. It is recommended 
as a local application, as a dusting powder or in ointments. 

Helmitol. — This is a formaldehyde compound that has been 
recommended as an improvement on hexamethyltetramin. Chemi- 
cally, it is said to be the methylencitrate of hexamethyltetramin. 
It is to be given in doses of 1 gramme two or three times a day. 
(Apothek. Zeit., 1903, page 43.) 

Methylatropine Bromide. — This is said to possess several 
advantages over simple atropine ; it is soluble in water or dilute 
alcohol. Two drops of a 1 per cent, solution instilled into the eye 
are said to dilate the pupil, and that the effect of this dilation wears 
off within four hours. 

Doses of 0-005 to o-oio, given once a day, are said to control 
the nightsweats of phthisis without any of the secondary effects 
noticeable with atropine or any of the other preparations of bella- 
donna. [Apoth. Zeit., 1903, page 42.) 

Oxygen. — An apparatus for generating chemically pure oxygen 
from tablets or pastilles of sodium dioxide is figured and described 
on page 672 of the Pharmaceutische Centralhalle (1902). 

This apparatus is being put on the market by an Austrian firm, 
under the tradename, oxygenophor (oxygen generating apparatus). 
It is quite simple of construction, consisting of a metallic vessel 
having three divisions, the lower of which contains the sodium 
dioxide, the middle one containing water, and the upper one also 
containing water with which to wash the liberated gas. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Marcb, 1903. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



141 



In operation a needle-valve allows a minute quantity of water to 
drop from the middle division onto the sodium dioxide contained 
in the lower compartment ; this liberates a corresponding amount of 
oxygen gas, which passes up through a vent-tube into the upper 
compartment where it is cooled and washed by passing through 
the contained water. Each 25 grammes of the sodium dioxide 
liberates 3-5 litres of oxygen. 

Hydrogen dioxide solution may be made according to Paul Leon 
Hulin (Zeitschr. f. angew. Chemie, 1902, page 600) by adding, with 
caution and at a low temperature, sodium dioxide to a solution of 
fluoric acid, producing hydrogen dioxide and sodium fluoride. This 
solution is then treated with aluminium fluoride, thus producing 
insoluble cryolite, the well-known double fluoride of aluminium and 
sodium. 

Hydrogen dioxide as an addition to cosmetics and creams. H. 
Kuhl (Apoth. Zeit., 1903, page 81) gives a number of formulas. 
Among others, for a toothpaste, precipitated carbonate of lime 25, 
powdered soap 5, glycerin and solution of hydrogen dioxide of each 
sufficient to make a paste ; perfume with oil of bergamot, oil of pep- 
permint, or oil of lavender. 

Glycerin mixture ; glycerin 40, rose-water, solution of hydrogen 
dioxide of each, 20. (A more efficient, certainly more economical 
preparation would be obtained by adding sufficient tragacanth to 
make a jelly-like paste.) 

For a skin-cream, Kuhl recommends to saturate lanolin with 
solution of hydrogen dioxide. 

Hydrogen Dioxide as a Depilatory. — L. Gallois (Med. Presse, 
1902, page 438) finds that the simple application of hydrogen dioxide 
solution is a simple and efficient way of removing superfluous hair. 
A piece of absorbent cotton moistened with the solution is repeat- 
edly applied to the region to be epilated. The hair at first becomes 
bleached, finally becomes brittle and breaks off. This method 
appears to offer many advantages over the means usually employed, 
such as shaving, electrolysis or caustic applications. Its simplicity 
and comparative harmlessness would appear to warrant a trial in 
cases where a depilatory would be applicable. 

Theobromine in leaves of Theobroma cacao. — J. Decker {Schweiz. 
Wochens.f. Chemie u. Phar. y 1902, page 569) has examined a number 
of leaves of cacao and found that old leaves contain but a trace of 



142 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/Am. .lour. Pharru. 
I March, 1903. 



theobromine, while the younger leaves contain from 29 to 55 
per cent, of the alkaloid. 

Decker also examined a number of leaves of the Kola tree ; he 
found no caffeine in the old leaves, while young leaves contained as 
much as 049 per cent, of caffeine and o-ioi per cent of theobro- 
mine. 

Rhein from Emodin. — Oesterle {Schweiz. Wochens. f. Chemie u. 
Phar., 1902, page 600) publishes some further experiments he has 
made with di- and trioxymethyl-anthraquinone, emodin and chryso- 
phanic acid, respectively. From the emodin, di-oxy-methyl-anthra 
quinone he claims to have made a crystalline principle analogous to 
Rhein, tetra-oxy-methyl-anthra-quinone. 

Colombo, Alkaloids in. — Dr. Gadamer (Apoth. Zeit., 1902, page 
690) says that Colombo root contains at least two alkaloids somewhat 
resembling, but not identical with, berberine. These Colombo 
alkaloids are yellow and are readily reduced to colorless hydro 
compounds, which are soluble in ether. Berberine itself is not 
found in Colombo. 

These Colombo alkaloids are said to be quarternary bases, while 
the reduction compounds, or hydro combinations, are tertiary. 

Red Mercuric Oxide, a new wet method of preparing. — R. Dufan 
contributes the following: 125 grammes of potassium carbonate are 
dissolved in 500 grammes of water and heated to boiling; 100 
grammes of mecuric chloride are dissolved in 1,875 grammes of 
water. This latter solution is gradually added to the boiling alkali 
solution without discontinuing the heat. 

The resulting amorphous powder is then washed, to free it from 
chlorides, and finally dried. The process gives an orange-yellow 
crystalline powder that is said to combine the good properties of 
both red and yellow oxides, without any of their disadvantages 
[Suddeut. Apoth. Zeit., 1902, page 836, from Rep. d. Phar.) 

Antiseptic Hemostatic. — The German pharmaceutical journals 
publish the description of a patent granted to R. Rhode, Breslau, 
for a preparation having the following composition: 50 grammes 
of powdered alum, 10 grammes of borax. 10 grammes of glycerin, 
5 grammes of zinc oxide and 10 grammes of formaldehyde solution 
are melted together and poured into suitable molds. The combi- 
nation, it is asserted, gives an efficient hemostatic that is at the 
same time antiseptic and promotes healing. 



An M J a°rch, Sot. rm ' } Reviews and BibliogrcipJiical Notices. 143 

Aluminium Vessels Platinized. — A. Gawalowski [Zeitschr. f. 
Anal. Chem., 1902, page 618) describes a method of readily platiniz- 
ing aluminium vessels so as to make them available for evaporating 
water for chemical analysis. To the bright, polished inner surface 
of aluminium vessels he applies an alkaline solution of platinum pre- 
prepared by adding sufficient of a caustic potash solution to a 5 or 
10 per cent, solution of platinum chloride until the latter is slightly 
alkaline in reaction, to phenolphtalein solution. 

Platinized aluminium vessels should not be cleaned by scrubbing 
with sand, but may instead be rinsed with a 5 or 10 per cent, solu- 
tion of oxalic acid. 

Aluminium, increase in density and ductility of. — According to 
a German patent, granted to W. Rubel, the addition of from 3 to 15 
per cent, of phosphorous to metallic aluminium changes the physical 
properties of this metal to such a degree that it becomes applicable 
to quite a variety of purposes, for which, on account of its soft char- 
acter, it has not been used. 

Phytotherapy, — According to the Suddeutsche Apotheker Zeitung 
(1903, page 39J this is the latest pseudo-medical fad, and according 
to its promoters, embodies the most recent methods of combating 
• diseases by means of non-poisonous plant extracts. 

" Not only do these plant extracts eliminate all natural poisons 
from the human organism, but also remove or counteract the 
havoc made in the human body by the poisonous medicines used 
by allopathic physicians." 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Die RoJistoffe des Pflanzenreiches. Versuch einer Technischen 
Rohstoffelehre des Pflanzenreiches unter Mitwirkung von Prof. Dr. 
Max Bamberger in Wien ; Dr. With. Figdor in Wien ; Prof. Dr. 
F. R. v. Hohnel in Wien ; Prof. Dr. T. F. Hanausek in W r ien ; Prof. 
Dr. F. Krasser in Wien ; Prof. Dr. Lafar in Wien ; Dr. Karl Lins- 
baur in Wien; Prof. Dr. K. Mikosch in Briinn ; Prof. Dr. H. 
Molisch in Prag ; Hofrat Prof. Dr. A. E. v. Vogl in Wien; Prof. 
Dr. K. Wilhelm in Wien und Prof. Dr. S. Zeisel in Wien, von Prof. 
Dr. Julius Wiesner in Wien. Leipzig : Verlag von Wilhelm Engel- 
mann. 2 Bde. pp. 1865, M. 60; gebunden M. 66. 

The second edition of Wiesner's " Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches " 



144 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { A VarckSra™' 

has been finally completed with the issuance of parts 1 1 and 12 and 
the index of the entire work, which have just come to hand. Pro. 
fessor Wiesner has written the introductory as well as the chapters 
on gums, resins, starches and fibres ; all the remainder has been the 
work of a dozen colleagues connected with the various German 
universities and who are well known for their researches on various 
raw materials of the vegetable kingdom. 

It may be useful to mention briefly the contents of this important 
work on " raw materials of the vegetable kingdom." Part I con- 
tains an able introduction by Dr. Wiesner and also a chapter on 
gums by Wiesner and Zeisel, in which are considered the natural 
history, physical and chemical characteristics, constitution, origin in 
the plant, enumeration of plants yielding gums and a special con- 
sideration of ten important commercial gums. 

Chapter II is devoted to the consideration of resins by Wiesner 
and Bamberger, which is characterized by the same thorough detailed 
and interesting treatment as the chapter on gums, twenty-two im- 
portant commercial resins being considered in detail. Chapter III 
is on the caoutchouc group and is the work of Molisch, who treats 
of the caoutchouc-yielding plants, the nature of milk-vessels and 
milk-juices, and especially considers caoutchouc, guttapercha and 
balata. Opium and aloes have been exhaustively considered by 
Vogl in Chapters IV and V, and Molisch has taken up the subject 
of indigo in Chapter VI, which is one of the most interesting chap- 
ters in the work. Mikosch, in Chapters VII, VIII and IX has 
written upon the catechu group, including catechu, gambir and 
kino, and the vegetable fats and waxes. The latter subjects are 
particularly instructive, as they are considered not only in a chemi- 
cal sense, but in their botanical relationships. The chapter on 
camphor by v. Vogl, while it might have been enlarged, neverthe- 
less contains considerable authentic information. Chapter XI is 
devoted to the consideration of starches by Wiesner and Zeisel and 
is a treatment of the origin and constitution of starch, the prepara- 
tion of commercial starches, including the special study of twenty-one 
different commercial starches. Lafar has an interesting chapter on 
yeasts. Krasser considers in Chapters XIII and XIV the economi- 
cal algse and lichens. Chapter XV embodies an interesting mono- 
graph on galls, including their origin, natural history, chemical 
characteristics and a detailed study of the galls on species ot 



AB ^SS;SSf m -} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 145 

Quercus, Pistacia, Rhus and Tamarix. The barks are treated by v. 
Hohnel in Chapter XVI, and he has devoted over fifty pages to the 
detailed study of twenty-one different commercial barks. While phar- 
macists will be particularly interested in the treatment of cinchona, 
cinnamon and quillaja, others will be as much so in the information 
on the barks of various oaks, hemlocks and other coniferous trees. 

The chapter on woods by Wilhelm is one of the most complete 
and thorough in the book, and this, together with the chapter on 
barks, furnishes an excellent preparation for the study of Chapter 
XVIII, which is devoted to the consideration of fibres by Wiesner. 
The 750 pages devoted to the woods, barks and fibres form prob- 
ably the most instructive monographs on these subjects, and will be 
referred to for years to come by all those who are able to compre- 
hend the exhaustive scientific researches pertaining to these sub- 
jects and their application in every industrial operation in which 
these materials or their products may enter. 

Chapters XIX-XXIII are devoted to the consideration of roots 
and rhizomes by v. Vogl; leaves and herbs by Krasser; flowers and 
parts of flowers by Linsbauer, and seeds and fruits by Hanausek. 
All of these are of particular interest to the pharmacist, as in these 
chapters are exhaustively considered, among other commercial prod- 
ucts, calamus, ginger, orris root, Spanish saffron, cloves, insect 
flowers, rose petals, jasmin flowers, nutmeg, mace, tonka, flaxseed, 
ricinus, vanilla, hops, illicium, etc. 

This new edition of Wiesner's " Die Rohstoffe " is no doubt the 
most important technical work in this line that has appeared in recent 
years. It is a new book, modernized in every essential and written by 
men who have thoroughly comprehended the importance of scientific 
researches in the study of every product of the vegetable kingdom 
that is utilized in the arts. Those who are interested in woods, barks 
and fibres ; or gums, resins, starches, fats, waxes, caoutchouc prod- 
ucts and the like; or tannins, opium, aloes, indigo, yeasts, etc.; or 
products to be used for foods, medicine, perfumery, as well as other 
economic purposes, will find the book invaluable. No reference 
library of a pharmaceutical school, medical college, or technological 
institution will be complete without this book, and when we con- 
sider the low price at which it is offered, viz : fifteen dollars, we 
may say that every one who is utilizing products of the vegetable 
kingdom ought to possess the book for ready reference and careful 
perusal whenever opportunity affords. 



146 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { AD MLreh,Sol! fm ' 

A Text-Book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By Frank 
Julian. Octavo 600 pages, illustrated. The Ramsey Publishing 
Company, P. O. Box 3, St. Paul, Minn. $6. 

In this work the author aims to consider the principles underlying 
quantitative analysis, it being devoted to the consideration of the fol- 
lowing subjects: Part I. Introduction, sampling, preparation of 
the sample for analysis, the balance and weights, the operations of 
analysis, weighing the sample, solution, evaporation, distillation, 
precipitation, separation, filtration, washing precipitates, ignition, 
volumetric analysis, gasometry, attributive methods, calculation of 
analyses, errors and precautions. Part II. Reagents, exercises in 
the analysis of alcohol, lead carbonate, ferrous sulfate, sodium chlo- 
ride, coffee, ginger, cast-iron, ether, standard acid and alkali, vinegar, 
lemon-juice, chloral hydrate, acetic acid, hydrastis, guarana, stand- 
ard permanganate, potassium chlorate, forge scale, chrome-yellow, 
metol, sodium thiosulfate, steel, galena, barium chloride, lard, 
potassium permanganate, air, ammonium sulfate, nickel-copper alloy, 
wollastonite. Part III is devoted to special methods and technical 
analysis and includes colorimetry, the fire assay, electrolysis, the 
metals and common acids, ultimate organic analysis, proximate 
organic analysis, chlorimetry, iron and steel, iron-ores, coal, natural 
water, fertilizers, the alcohols, glycerol, the alkaloids, the tannins, 
the carbohydrates, the oils and fats, soaps, milk and butter, urinalysis 
and the organic dyestuffs. 

In Part III is also considered the analytical behavior of a number 
of articles ot commercial importance. Part IV contains notes on the 
methods ot analysis, and the appendix contains tables, notes on 
technical and industrial analysis and an index. 

The subjects are well presented and free from ambiguity. The 
book is full of valuable information and one to be commended to 
analysts and students alike. 

Suggested Standards of Purity for Drugs and Foods. By 
C. G. Moor. London: Balliere, Tindall and Cox. 8 Henrietta 
Street, Covent Garden, 1902. 

This work of Mr. Moor's embodies an interesting discussion of ana- 
lytical results and has primarily to do with their interpretation. In 
the consideration of the drugs and preparations of the British Phar- 
macopoeia the pharmacopceial definition is given, but instead of giv- 



A Va?ch,MJo3. rm *} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 147 

ing the B. P. description, the author discusses prominent character- 
istic features and the analytical standards suggested, supplementing 
the latter with tables showing the results by various investigators. 
Citations to important literature are given in connection with the 
various subjects taken up. 

In addition to the drugs and preparations of the British Pharma- 
copoeia, the work is devoted to the consideration of various foods, as 
butter, coffee, flour, ice-cream and ices, infant foods, jam, meat 
preparations, preservatives, vinegar, aerated water, etc. In the treat- 
ment of these subjects, as of drugs, the author has shown good 
judgment and his suggestions are particularly valuable. 

There are a number of works treating of analytical methods and 
which contain the results of analyses, but this work is unique and 
supplies a most important want in the correlation of the works of 
various investigators, together with a discussion of the standards 
suggested. 

Notes on Pharmacognosy. Second edition, revised and enlarged 
by Otto A. Wail, Ph.G., M.D. St. Louis : Aug. Gast Bank Note 
and Litho. Company, 1902. 

The author states in his preface that " these notes are intended 
to take the place of notes which a diligent student might possibly 
write down for himself, so that during lectures he can give undi- 
vided attention to the words of the leccurer and to the illustrations 
and specimens shown." The author further states that " these 
notes serve as a skeleton of the science of pharmacognosy, present- 
ing only those main facts which a student should make an effort to 
remember." " The system adopted is based on the general princi- 
ples of modern pharmacognosy as established and first published in 
Europe by Schleiden and Berg, and in this country by Maisch, but 
in many details the arrangement is original." 

After a general consideration of the subject the author gives an 
outline of the classification of drugs according to physical character, 
istics and, beginning with animal drugs, he proceeds to the consid- 
eration of various cryptograms, then to roots, etc., until finally vari- 
ous constituents, as acids, juices, extracts, etc., are taken up, In the 
introduction to vegetable drugs the author considers some of the 
principles underlying botany and microscopical technique. A large 
number of illustrations are distributed throughout the text, and 
these are largely the work of the author. 



148 



Obituary. 



f Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
1 March, 1903. 



A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology. Com- 
prising all organic and inorganic drugs which are or have been offi- 
cial in the United States Pharmacopoeia, together with important 
allied species and useful synthetics, especially designed for students 
of pharmacy and medicine, as well as for druggists, pharmacists and 
physicians. By David M. R. Culbreth. Third edition, enlarged 
and thoroughly revised, with 473 illustrations. Philadelphia and 
New York : Lea Brothers & Co. 

This book has been favorably reviewed on two former occasions 
in this Journal and needs no extended review now. The third edi- 
tion has been revised and some new matter has been added. Sev- 
eral new illustrations have been made, as of cola, cereus, scopola, 
saw-palmetto, etc., thus bringing the work up to the new additions 
of the 1900 U.S.P. The book has been carefully edited, and is like 
a condensed dispensatory containing information of all kinds on the 
vegetable, animal and chemical drugs considered. It is one of the 
few books that treats of the origin of generic and specific names, 
information concerning which students and others are not infre- 
quently desirous of ascertaining. The work is bound in garnet and 
as a whole is pleasing in appearance. 



OBITUARY. 

The death of Mr. Jacob L. Smith, on the twenty-eighth day of last 
December, removed the oldest member of the College. He was born 
in the latter part of the year 1822 and educated at the school of 
Charles Keyser, the Friends' school now known as the Penn Charter 
School. He learned the drug business with Messrs. Samuel & 
William P. Troth, and was graduated by the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy in 1843. He immediately connected himself with the 
College, and in the following year he was elected a member of the 
Board of Trustees, serving until the year 1861. In the year 1849 
he entered the employment of Messrs. Rosengarten & Denis and 
continued with the house, now Rosengarten & Sons, Inc., until his 
death, a period of fifty-three years and eight months. He was the 
" beloved friend of three generations of the Rosengarten family." 
Mr. Smith was a member of the Episcopal Church and was a vestry- 
man for over fifty years, and actively engaged in the Sabbath 
schools of this Church during this long term. T. S. Wiegand. 



An M^?ch,f903. ^In, } Pharmaceutical Meeting. 149 

PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular monthly pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, February 17th, Mr. E. M. 
Boring, a member of the Board of Trustees, acting as chairman. 
Considering the practical value of the papers presented, the meeting 
was one of the most interesting of the present series. 

The first paper on the program was on " Inferior Drugs and Artful 
Methods of Deception," by Lyman F. Kebler, chief of the new 
drug laboratory of the Department of Chemistry of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. The speaker first alluded to the varia- 
tion in quality of drugs, collected at different seasons of the yean 
and of these he mentioned podophyllum, and sanguinaria. He then 
considered a number of specific instances of inferiority. Mr. Kebler 
said that large quantities of the siftings of a number of drugs as 
cinchona, senna and cinnamon are available, and these are utilized 
chiefly in the manufacture of powdered drugs. A number of drugs 
lose their active principles on keeping. He found, for instance, that 
pilocarpus, which assayed 0-2 1 per cent, of alkaloids in May, 1901* 
was nearly devoid of any alkaloids a year and a half later. Sandal- 
wood chips appear to be another drug in which the time-element 
is of importance. The old chips he found in one instance to yield 
but 1-2 per cent, of volatile oil, whereas a sample of fresh material 
yielded 5-5 to 6-0 per cent, of oil. 

Mr. Kebler said that he recently had met with a sample of bees- 
wax which closely resembled the genuine article, but which proba- 
bly contained no beeswax at all. It had specific gravity 0963, 
melting-point 64 C, acid number 6*1, ether number 134. He 
said that much of the beeswax on the market was composed of cere- 
sin or paraffin, and that recently a flavoring liquid had been intro- 
duced to give these an odor of beeswax. In conclusion the speaker 
alluded to a reprehensible practice among some dealers in that they 
deliver goods which are either entirely different or much inferior 
in quality compared to the original samples submitted. Another 
unfortunate condition is, that the public have been educated to 
expect articles to have a certain appearance, as coated ginger, silvered 
cochineal, limed nutmegs, etc., and that they will not accept or 
are prejudiced against the genuine article. 

In discussing the adulteration of beeswax Mr. H. J. Watson said 
that about 95 per cent, of the apiarists use artificial foundations, 



150 Pharmaceutical Meeting. | Am Ma5ifr 

which would account to a certain extent for the inferiority of the 
beeswax obtained direct from the hives. Mr. Kebler also called 
attention to the tact that he always found stearic acid in certain 
brands of beeswax. Mr. Boring emphasized the desirability of the 
pharmacist labeling all articles correctly, as for instance when cotton- 
seed oil is supplied instead of genuine olive oil, etc. 

Dr. L. Napoleon Boston presented a paper on u The Microscopic 
Study of Urine, Technique for Permanent Mounts and Method of 
Making Records," and a number of microscopic slides were exhib- 
ited in connection therewith (see page ill). Dr. Boston said inci- 
dentally, that the time was coming when every pharmacist will be 
expected to be able to make microscopic examinations of urine. He 
said that books with plates are of little value in this connection, and 
that it is better to make permanent mounts and study them. 

A resume of the advances in pharmacy and allied subjects during 
the last three months was given by M. I. Wilbert (see page 136). 

Mr. Fred. W. Haussmann read a paper on " Notes on Syrups " (see 
page 108). In the discussion on this paper Mr. Matusow said if we 
follow the directions of the U.S.P. in the preparation of syrup of 
iodide of iron that it will eventually darken, whereas the presence 
of a small amount of hypophosphorous acid would prevent this; he 
therefore did not entirely agree with the statement of the speaker 
in regard to the darkening of the syrup as being due to carameliza- 
tion. In speaking of salts of the hypophosphites, Mr. Kebler said 
that they were quite variable and sometimes contained impurities 
not recognized by the U.S.P. 

On behalf of Dr. William J. Schieffelin, Professor Remington 
presented a very large specimen of crystals of cocaine hydrochlo- 
rate. Williams, Brown and Earle made an exhibit of a number of 
slides by means of their new projection lantern with polariscopic 
attachment. In this connection Professor Remington showed some 
colored lantern slides which he had received from Prof. Otto A. 
Wall, St. Louis, which had been prepared by the Misses A. C. Boefer 
and C. A. Burkart. A hearty vote of thanks was tendered the 
speakers and those presenting specimens. H. K. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 




X\0^ 

STANDARDS FOR FLAVORING EXTRACTS. 
By Wilbur L. Scoviixe. 

There are standards and standards. Some are positive and defi- 
nite, more are variable. Our title is one of the latter class. 

To the man who " lives to eat," a standard in flavoring extracts 
is one thing ; to the man who " eats to live," it is quite another. 
The first calls himself an epicure, and prides himself on a capability 
for fine discrimination in taste and an appreciation of the more sub- 
tile effects in palate-tickling. The other has his attention occupied 
by other things, and asks only that his food shall be acceptable to 
an unabused palate. 

Like most standards, this is a matter of education. The epicure 
is simply one who has enjoyed the finest opportunities of culinary 
art, and by attention thereto has learned to appreciate them. He 
frequently gets to the point where he would rather invent " a new 
dish " than be President. The non-epicure may have lacked either 
the opportunity or the needed attention to train his palate to a fine 
discrimination, and there are many grades of him. Attention plays 
a more important part than opportunity in all phases of education. 

Then the harmonies of life enter into the question. Man is 
instinctively harmonious in his habits — in eating, in dress, in recrea- 
tions, in all his tastes. Harmony more than quality determines the 
enjoyment of the table. A course of poorly seasoned or highly 
seasoned meats and vegetables is not in accord with a delicately 
flavored pudding, however fine the flavor may be. Cooks are rarely 
artists, and if the seasoning of the soups, meats and vegetables does 
not match that of the pastry, the latter, following, may appear flat 

(151) 



152 Standards for Flavoring Extracts. { Km -l^\\Mi! m ' 

or coarse, as the case may be. So the softness of the pastry-flavor 
is largely determined by the seasoning and quality of the more sub- 
stantial foods. 

This is, perhaps, the reason why a true vanilla flavor is so little 
appreciated. It follows after the coarser cuts of meat, or a habit of 
high seasoning, and the delicacy is mistaken for flatness or weakness 
of flavor. It is not to be wondered at that the heavier tonka is 
needed in part to make a satisfactory impression on the gustatory 
nerves. The flavors must match. So the expert who declares that 
only a high-grade vanilla-bean extract is the standard for a vanilla 
flavor, is speaking only for the most fortunate or attentive classes 
of eaters, and the great bulk of the public, with their unfortunate 
culinary restrictions, is ignored. 

Tonka is wholesome; why should it be interdicted? It is purely 
an individual question, and the individual has rights. To say that 
tonka is not vanilla and should not be called by that name is quib- 
bling. The public knows that particular character of flavor by that 
name, and is well aware that the quality varies. Just how and why 
it varies the public cares little so long as its diversified palate is 
satisfied and the extract is wholesome. 

And for the synthetic bodies now so rapidly increasing in use — if 
the public finds that the distinction between vanilla and vanillin is 
too subtile for the average discrimination, and that vanillin holds its 
flavor better in cooking, why should the epicure object to the non- 
epicure enjoying it ? And if it wishes a heavier flavor, made by the 
combination with cumarin, is this objectionable to others? 

Taste is self-regulative. There is no danger of its going too far 
toward coarseness. No law is needed to prevent the use of rotten 
eggs in cooking, and in the absence of unwholesome or injurious 
ingredients, no law is needed to regulate the standards of flavors. 
At the present time there is no evidence to show that any deleterious 
substances are being employed in these. Vanilla extracts, for 
instance, are made from vanilla beans of various grades, from the 
most delicate Mexican bean to the " pure " but coarse Tahiti beans 
or the rank " Vanillons." They are combined or not, according to 
demands, with tonka, vanillin or cumarin to suit the wants of buyers. 

There is a great difference in delicacy of flavor between a fine 
Mexican vanilla bean, a Bourbon, a Tahiti and a Vanillon bean. 
The last two are strong and rank, and combinations of the better 



Am Ap°rn r ;i903 arm '} Standards for Flavoring Extracts. 153 

vanillas with tonka or cumarin are often preferable to a " pure " 
extract of a rank vanilla bean. And to the non-expert a substitu- 
tion of the synthetic bodies, vanillin and cumarin, will yield a more 
uniform, and generally quite as satisfactory flavor. In fact, these 
principles are to be preferred when uniformity in strength and flavor 
is particularly desired. Thus it is that " Vanilla Extract " is supplied 
by manufacturers at prices varying from $1 to $30 per gallon, and 
that agents are instructed to take orders at any desired price. 

Beside the diversities in taste, there are considerations of use that 
must be regarded. Flavoring extracts are largely employed in bev- 
erages, ice-creams, confectionery, etc., as well as in cooking. Each 
use demands particular qualities in its extracts. Beverages and 
ice-creams, as a rule, require higher qualities of flavor than for other 
purposes, partly because the sense of taste is more acute on chilled 
substances than on warm, and partly because the flavors, not being: 
cooked, remain unchanged or undiminished by heat. But they also 
need to be soluble in, or miscible with water, in order to make the 
beverages or cream presentable to the eye as well as to the palate . 
Probably the most difficult problem the manufacturer has to meet is 
the supplying of nice but " soluble " extracts. Vanilla offers no 
difficulties in regard to solubility, but a white extract is often desired > 
tor the suggestion that the eye makes to the palate is important. 

As soon as the particular desire of the buyer is understood, the 
problem of supply is easy. Is his purpose epicurean ? give him an 
extract of best Mexican beans. Is he prejudiced for a "pure ,v 
vanilla, but wants it " strong ? " make his extract from Tahiti beans 
with, perhaps, a trace of Vanillons. Does he prefer tonka, or are 
his prejudices only partial ? give a mixture of vanilla and tonka. 
Or is he seeking only a satisfactory flavor, and wishes it at as low 
cost as possible? a combination of vanillin and cumarin is likely to 
please. 

Lemon extracts are more difficult of adjustment, because the 
available flavors of this class are more restricted, and the problem 
of making them soluble and at the same time preserving a good 
quality, is greater. 

They differ mainly in the quality and character of the oils from 
which they are made. The nicest are made by direct extraction 
from the fruit, or from selected oil, with addition of some of the 
lemon-peel. But the oil is extremely variable in quality and purity 



154 Standards for Flavoring Extracts. { Am jf££l'my; rm ' 

and is not easily miscible with other substances. The " soluble " 
extracts are now made from the so-called " concentrated " or " sol- 
uble " or " terpeneless " oils of lemon, which vary widely in all their 
qualities, and need to be toned with lemon-peel, unless of the best 
grade. Citral, the chief but not sole flavoring principle of the oil, 
is employed largely, but mainly in the cheaper grades, because its 
coarseness is not easily covered. The cheaper extracts are further 
toned with the heavy oils of lemon-grass or of limes, strong both in 
flavor and odor. Unless lemon-peel is used, the extract must be 
colored. The possible combinations are legion, and none of these 
bodies are injurious in the quantities in which they are employed, 
with the possible exception of the coloring matters, and here the 
danger is remote. 

Orange extracts correspond to lemon in composition and quali- 
ties, and are quite as inconstant. Other flavors, being less used, 
are in diminished variety, but similar opportunities for modifica- 
tions exist, and are utilized according to demands. 

Formulas are scarcely necessary, at least to one moderately 
familiar with what is being employed as ingredients of the various 
flavors. Formulas designated as " standard " may, in fact, be mis- 
leading or detrimental to the man in business. Does the pharma- 
cist or manufacturer wish to build up a business in flavoring 
extracts? If he seeks the trade of the large user he must become 
acquainted with the desires and ideas of the buyer. If he aims to 
supply the kitchens, let him go to the meat markets and provision 
dealers of his prospective customers and learn what cuts of meat 
are most in demand, and what qualities of vegetables and spices 
are preferred. He will find this information far more reliable as a 
cue to his customers' desires than the opinion of the expert as to 
what is " best." If he can harmonize his extracts with the rest of 
the table, his extracts will satisfy. 

The only standard that can be legally applied to flavoring ex- 
tracts is that of wholesomeness. The delicacy, the correctness of 
the flavor, and the other qualifications must remain with the 
desires of the individual. 

Who is to say that the poor man, obliged to content himself with 
cheap foods unskilfully prepared, crudely seasoned and ungarnished, 
must use only the more delicate and true flavors or go without any ? 
Or, on the other hand, that the epicure must vex his cultivated 
palate with a heavy flavor because, forsooth, it is " standard ?" 



ABn Ap°ri[:ifo b 3 arir '} Some Notes on Essential Oils. 155 

One has only to look back a few years and note how the demand 
for the rank ether-composed fruit-flavors has almost disappeared to 
see that the popular standard for flavors is and must be a variable 
one, and can be relied upon to regulate itself in accordance with 
the progress of art and science in improving upon the old and the 
better opportunities for better foods and cooking in general. 

Boston, Mass., March 1, 1903. 



SOME NOTES ON ESSENTIAL OILS. 

By M. I. Wii^ERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Among the various substances official in our national pharmaco- 
poeia, few have attracted more attention, as a class particularly, than 
have the essential oils. Volumes have been written on the subject, 
and years of patient work and study on the part of a small army of 
investigators have been spent in studying the physical properties 
and determining the chemical composition of the different com- 
pounds usually classed under this head. 

From the point of view of the practical pharmacist, essential oils 
are of interest in that with them, more than with any other class of 
compounds, he is largely it not entirely at the mercy of the dealer 
or manufacturer. 

It is true that the pharmacopoeia gives descriptions of the physi- 
cal properties, and usually also chemical tests, for the identification 
of the different oils, but even then it is quite possible for almost 
any one of these oils to conform to a number of the pharmacopoeiai 
requirements and still be adulterated or debased to a very consider- 
able degree. 

To be positive of the genuineness or purity of almost any one of 
the essential oils, it would be necessary that the pharmacist be a 
specialist in this particular branch of chemistry, and have at his 
command intricate and expensive pieces of apparatus for determining 
the specific gravity, boiling-point, congealing-point, optical rotation 
and refraction of an oil, to say nothing of fractional distillation or 
the chemical determination of the different constituents by means of 
saponification, esterification, acetylization or any one of the other 
procedures that have been devised for separating, or recognizing the 
nature of, the various compounds of which the essential oils are 
composed. 



156 Some Notes on Essential Oils. {^ m ±^\xm! m ' 

The following table of specific gravities, taken from the different 
authoritative works mentioned in the first column, will give a very- 
fair idea of the differences of opinion that exist on this one and 
most important physical property. 

TABLE GIVING VARIATION IN SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF DIFFERENT ESSENTIAL OILS, AT 
15 CENTIGRADE UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



United States : British 
Pharmacopoeia. Pharmacopoeia. 



German ^ T imits °\ 

Pharmacopoeia. ^IZfii, 



Oil of 



Sitter Almonds 
Cinnamon 1 . . . 

Cloves2 

Eucalyptus . . , 
Juniper Berries 
Lavender . . . . 
Mustard . . . . 
Peppermint . . 

Rose3 

Rosemary . . . 
Sandalwood . . 
Wintergreen . . 



i '060-1 -070 
1-055-1-065 
1 "o6c— 1 '067 
0-915-0-925 
0-850-0-890 
0-885-0-897 
I"oi8-i"029 
0-900-0 920 
0*865-0-880 
0-895-0-915 

0- 970-0-978 

1- 175-1-185 



1-025-1-035 
Not below 1-050 
0-910-0-930 

0- 865-0-890 
Not below 885 

1- 018-1-030 
0-900-0-920 
0-856-^*860 
0-900-0-915 
0-975-0-980 



1-055-1-070 
1-072-1-074 

0-865-8-880 

0- 885-0-895 

1- 018-1-025 
0-900-0-910 

Not under -900 
0-975-0-985 



1-043-1 070 
1-025-1-070 
1-030-1-074 
o 900-0-930 
0-840-0-911 

0- 870-0-948 

1- 010-1-030 
0-840-0 975 

0- 830-0-954 
o e 88o-o'9i5 
o'96o-o'990 

1- 175-1-188 



Gildemeister 
and 
Hoffmann. 

1-052-1-096 
1-050-1 -070 
1-045-1-070 
0-910-0-930 
0-865-0-882 
0-885-0-895 
roi6-ro22 
0-895-0-926 
0-855-0-870 
0-904-0-913 

0- 975-0-980 

1- 180-1-187 



1 British Pharmacopoeia specifies Ceylon cinnamon. 

2 German Pharmacopoeia recognizes only eugenol. 

3 This is at 20 centigrade, with the exception of the British Pharmacopoeia, which specifies 30 . 

A careful study of the above table will convince almost any one 
that there is still much to be learned, or definitely determined, in con- 
nection with these interesting compounds. It must be remembered, 
too, that this is but one of a number of points on which there is a de- 
cided difference of opinion. But what is stranger still is the fact that 
this difference of opinion is justified by the difference in composition 
of the same oil coming from different localities, or at times even from 
the same locality, depending on atmospheric conditions or methods 
of procedure in the production of the oil. 

It is also true, however, that a large amount of original work is 
being done on the essential oils at the present time, and it is prob- 
able that in the near future the variations in the physical properties 
will be thoroughly investigated and the reasons for their variation 
definitely determined. 

It is only necessary to mention the names of Wallach, Tiemann, 
Beckmann or Gildemeister in Germany; Parry, Holmes or Umney in 



Am. Jonr. Pbarm. 
April, 1903. 



} 



Some Notes on Essential Oils. 



157 



England; or Kremers, Kleber or Kebler in our own country, to call 
to mind a host of valuable contributions on this subject that have 
already done much toward making the subject of the essential oils 
one of the most advanced in the realm of organic chemistry. 

The semi-annual reports of Schimmel & Co., of Leipzig, Germany, 
contain a fund of practical as well as theoretical information on the 
essential oils, and it was a casual perusal of their latest (October- 
November, 1902) number of this report that prompted the compila- 
tion of the following notes and ideas. Much of the information 
contained in the following pages was culled from this report, and 
where not otherwise accredited, it may be assumed that any actual 
information given is from this source. 

Before passing to the consideration of the various essential oils in 
detail, there is one other phase of the question that should be con- 
sidered. It is well known that, as a direct outcome of original 
chemical investigation, the chemical constituents of the active, or at 
least the more important, ingredients of a number of essential oils 
have been recognized. Some of these constituents have been repro- 
duced synthetically from other products much more economically, 
and in several cases more uniform in composition, than the natural 
product. 

These synthetic products or imitations promise to play a very 
important part in future discussions on essential oils. They should 
not be confounded, however, with the so-called mixtures, blends or 
compounds with which the market is flooded at the present time. 
These compounded oils are adulterations pure and simple, and 
while labeled correctly by the manufacturer or wholesale dealer, 
are willingly and knowingly sold to deceive. 

It may be of interest to introduce here some approximate com- 
parison of the present prices of the synthetic and natural oils: 



BITTER ALMONDS. 



Oil of bitter almonds, true . . . 
Oil of bitter almonds, natural . 
Oil of bitter almonds, synthetic 



10 



CINNAMON. 



Oil of cinnamon, cassia ordinary 
Oil of cinnamon, cassia prime . 
Oil of cinnamon, artificial . . . 
Oil of cinnamon , Ceylon . . . 



10 

40 
15c 



5 



158 Some Notes on Essential Oils. {^ m 'l%T\\]vm* m ' 

MUSTARD. 

Oil of mustard, essential true 50 

Oil of mustard, synthetic 30 

ROSE. 

Oil of rose, geranium 2 to 10 

Oil of rose, artificial 20 to 40 

Oil of rose, good . . 50 to 60 

Oil of rose, best . 80 to 100 

WINTERGREEN. 

Oil of wintergreen, true 30 

Oil of wintergreen, sweet birch 15 

Oil of wintergreen, synthetic 5 

These comparative prices, while of themselves interesting, open up 
the very grave as well as important question of substitution or adul- 
teration. It will readily be appreciated that a synthetic oil of 
bitter almonds, for instance, that is approximately one-third the price 
of the so-called natural and only one-sixth the price of the true, may 
be and often is substituted for one or the other. 

This feature will be referred to again under the headings of the 
different essential oils. 

Oil of Bitter Almonds. — Gildemeister and Hoffmann say that 
but a very small proportion of the so-called natural oil is made from 
bitter almonds. It is more frequently made from apricot and peach 
kernels. The amount of hydrocyanic acid in the natural oil, accord- 
ing to the same authorities, may vary from i-6o to 11-4 per cent, 
with a corresponding specific gravity of from 1*052 to 1*096. 

It would appear from the above quoted authorities that natural 
or true oil of bitter almonds varies very considerably in physical 
properties, as well as chemical composition. It would further 
appear from current literature that it is practically impossible to find 
an absolutely pure natural oil on the market at the present time. 

Edward Kremers, in a review of oil of bitter almond (Fhatm. Rev., 
1902, page 127), gives some interesting data on the subject, and 
among other interesting points reports the systematic examination 
of twenty-six commercial specimens of oil of bitter almonds. Twenty- 
one of these twenty-six commercial specimens contained chlorine, 
only nine of the specimens contained any trace of hydrocyanic acid, 
only four of the nine having more than 2 per cent. The specific 
gravity varied from 1-0015 to 1-0779, tne benzoic acid from 0-91 to 
12-02 per cent. 



Am :i°rn r ; ] P 9!)3 arm '} Some Notes on Essential Oils. 159 

Inquiry among manufacturers' agents elicited the assertion that it 
was quite feasible to furnish, at a reasonable price, chemically pure 
benzaldehyde, absolutely free from any trace of chlorine. 

In view of the fact that natural oil of bitter almonds contains a 
variable amount of a very poisonous chemical — hydrocyanic acid — 
and which, in this country at least, is never taken into considera- 
tion when using preparations made from the oil, would it not be in 
keeping with modern ideas of progress to adopt synthetic oil of 
bitter almonds, or rather purified benzaldehyde, as oil of bitter 
almonds in future editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia ? 

If a physician wishes to prescribe hydrocyanic acid he can readily 
add any desired amount of the official diluted acid, while as a culi- 
nary flavor an alcoholic solution of benzaldehyde would certainly be 
preferable to an essence containing a variable amount of a very active 
poison. As for pharmacopoeial tests, it should be less difficult to 
describe and give tests for a definite chemical compound of known 
and fixed composition than for the present variable natural product. 

Oil of Cinnamon. — What is sold in commerce as oil of cinnamon 
varies from a very cheap grade of oil of cassia to the finest oil of 
Ceylon cinnamon, the latter costing fully thirty times as much as 
the former. By far the greatest amount of what is sold in the drug 
trade as oil of cinnamon, is Chinese oil ot cassia, the official U.S P. 
oil. 

The general quality of this oil has been much improved in the last 
decade, largely due to the fact that it is now generally bought and 
sold in the wholesale trade at prices based on the actual cinnamic 
aldehyde content. Schimmel & Co. say that the bulk of the avaiL 
able oil is even at the present time of medium quality, with a cin- 
namic aldehyde content of from 65 to 75 per cent. Oils having an 
aldehyde content of from 80 to 85 per cent, are readily obtainable, 
however, and represent about one-fourth the total exports from 
China. 

The use of oil of Ceylon cinnamon is largely restricted to perfum- 
ers and manufacturers of soap. It is official in the British Phar- 
macopoeia, but has no evident advantage over oil of cassia. The 
latter, on account of the higher amount of cinnamic aldehyde pres- 
ent has, if anything, more value from a medical point of view. 

Oil of cinnamon offers the anomalous condition that owing to the 
present depressed market conditions the artificial product is unable 



160 Some Notes on Essential Oils. {^'Iv^vm^' 

to compete with the natural oil. According to one manufacturer's 
statement the cost of production cannot be reduced beyond a certain 
limit; this is at the present time much beyond the price of a good 
natural product. The artificial oil does compete, however, to a limited 
extent, with Ceylon oil of cinnamon, the constant composition, light 
color and sweet delicate flavor making it if anything superior to the 
best Chinese oil. 

In this connection it would appear feasible to obtain absolute, or 
nearly absolute, cinnamic aldehyde, and if, as has been asserted, this is 
the active ingredient of the commercial oil, there could be but little 
objection to its introduction in medicine. 

It might be mentioned here that, owing no doubt to the very 
low price of oil of cinnamon, or rather oil of cassia, little or no com- 
plaint is being made of any wholesale adulteration. 

Oil of Cloves. — Schimmel & Co. say that the market in this oil 
must be considered to be in a demoralized condition ; only experts 
could estimate the real value of any of the present oils. 

Ten samples of oil of cloves, examined by Schimmel & Co. re- 
cently, varied in specific gravity from 1-0287 to 1-066, and in phenol 
content from 73 to 98-75 per cent. 

Gildemeister and Hoffmann give the specific gravity of a true oil 
of cloves as varying from 1*045 to I,0 75» according to the method 
of preparation. The eugenol content varies from 70 to 85 per cent. 
According to Kremers [Phar. Rev., 1902, page 499) some manufac- 
turers collect the distillate from cloves in fractions. From these 
fractions a mixture is made to conform to the desired U.S.P. article 
for medicinal use. The latter takes but a comparatively unimpor- 
tant portion of the total oil produced. 

Professor Kremers, at the last meeting of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, called attention to the wide variation in the 
specific gravity of an oil of cloves, the total product of distillation. 
Kremers pointed out that if the U.S.P. intended to include the total 
product, greater variation in the permissible specific gravity were 
necessary. 

In addition to eugenol, oil of cloves has a number of constituents, 
among them a small quantity of methyl alcohol, about 3 per cent, 
of acet eugenol, a sesqui-terpene (caryophyllin), acet salicylic acid, 
ester of eugenol, methylamylketone, vanillin and furfurol. It is to 
the latter of these compounds that the gradual darkening of oil of 



Am A P °rn r ;nS , 3 arm '} $ ome Notes on Essential Oils. 161 

cloves is usually ascribed. This latter point has not been generally 
accepted however. 

The uses lor oil of cloves outside of medicine are varied. Chief 
among them probably is the use of eugenol as a base for other com- 
pounds, vanillin, (or instance; and the use of different fractions of the 
oil in perfumes, or as additions to other odoriferous compounds. 

It is well known that the German Pharmacopoeia, under oil of 
cloves, designates the oxygenated portion of oil of cloves or eugenol. 
This has at least the one advantage of restricting the physical con- 
stants of specific gravity, as well as the boiling-point within certain 
well-defined limits, the former being given as from 1-072 to 1*074, 
while the latter is Irom 251 to 253. 

In this connection it would appear that the simplest solution of 
the oil of-cloves problem, so far as the United States Pharmacopoeia 
is concerned, would be to restrict the title to the oxygenated portion, 
or eugenol, giving appropriate tests for detecting admixtures. 

Oil of Eucalyptus. — According to Schimmel & Co. the Algerian 
distillers have the upper hand in the distillation of the globulous 
species; they supply a faultless quality at such a low price that the 
Australian manufacturers have been compelled to withdraw their 
competition. The Australian oils of Eucalyptus are said to contain 
appreciable quantities of phellandrene. 

Eucalyptol or cineol, which was introduced into the 1890 edition 
of the United States Pharmacopoeia, fully maintains its popularity 
as an addition to the materia medica. The medicinal virtues of 
eucalyptol are gradually becoming better known in Europe, particu- 
larly as an addition to antiseptic washes or sprays. 

With improved methods of separating eucalyptol from the different 
available oils, it will no doubt be found that any discrepancy in price 
will gradually disappear. Gildemeister and Hoffmann recount no 
less than twenty-three Eucalyptus species giving an oil containing 
cineol or eucalyptol in appreciable quantities. 

The oil from Eucalyptus odorata is said to be particularly rich in 
cineol. 

The separation of eucalyptol or cineol is described in a recent 
number of the Pharmaceutische Centralhalle \ 1903, page 10. It may 
be separated from the accompanying compounds by agitating the 
oil with strong phosphoric acid. A crystalline combination of the 
cineol separates out; from this combination the cineol may be lib- 



1 62 Some Notes on Essential Oils. { Am A P %^ 3 arm ' 

erated by simply diluting with water. By concentrating the phos- 
phoric acid again to the proper consistency, it may be used again 
for the same purpose. Merck & Co. have patented a process which 
depends on the use of arsenic acid for the same purpose and used 
in the same way. This latter process is said to be more economical 
in that the resulting solution of arsenic acid may be concentrated 
in ordinary porcelain vessels. 

Oil of Juniper Berries — Reports from the districts producing 
this oil are uniformly unfavorable and prices are likely to be con- 
siderably higher. The source of this oil, or of the berries, appears 
to be centred in Hungary and Italy. By far the greater amount of 
the available supply of oil of juniper berries is said to be obtained 
as a by-product in the preparation of juniper brandy in Hungary m 
The reason why these two southern countries supply the bulk of the 
available oil and berries is probably due to the fact related by Gilde- 
meister and Hoffmann, that " the berries of northern countries are 
comparatively poor in oil, the Swedish berries containing as little as 
0*5 per cent., while the southern, particularly the Italian, usually 
^ive upward of I or 1-5 per cent, of oil. 

Oil of Lavender Flowers — This is another oil, the price of 
which appears to have an upward tendency, owing to the unfavor- 
able reports of the chief producing districts. 

There appears to be a considerable difference of opinion among 
experts in essential oils as to the value of the ester-content test for 
lavender. E. Parry {Chemist and Druggist, 1902, page 168) argues 
that while tests for ester content are of value they are not neces- 
sarily an index of the quality or value of an oil of lavender from 
the perfumer's point of view. 

This statement is vigorously attacked by Schimmel & Co. in their 
November report. They do, however, admit that the odor test is of 
considerable importance, and will always retain its place with any 
possible chemical tests. 

In this connection it may be of interest to note that Schimmel & 
Co. in their April report say that a sample of oil of lavender that 
came under their observation contained 1-5 per cent, of benzoic acid. 
J. E. Weber, of Cincinnati, reports (Chem. Zeitung, 1902, page 875) 
finding 1 per cent, of salicylic acid in oil of lavender. Both of the 
adulterants had been added to increase the apparent ester number 
of the respective oils. 



Am Ap O rii r ,'i903 arm '} S° me Notes on Essential Oils. 163 

Oil of Mustard. — This substance appears to be more extensively 
used in Europe than in this country. Oil of mustard was introduced 
into the United States Pharmacopoeia of 1880, but does not appear 
to have met with favor as a rubefacient or counterirritant. This 
may be partially accounted for, no doubt, by the fact that the oil as 
well as the vapor arising from it are acrid and particularly irritating. 

Synthetic oil of mustard is being produced on a large scale. 
Chemically there is no available means of differentiating it when of 
good quality. The contaminating addition sometimes found is car- 
bon disulphide, but this has been found in the natural as well 
as the artificial oil. Under careless methods of manipulation the 
natural oil may contain appreciable quantities of allyl cyanide, and 
in this one feature at least the artificial oil appears to have some 
advantage over the natural. 

Oil of Peppermint. — The available supply of this oil is decidedly 
below the average, and in addition to this, speculative purchasers have 
driven the price of the American product up to unheard-of figures. 
Schimmel & Co., in their report, give a list of quotations for this 
article, during the past twelve years. Beginning on October 1st, 
1890, with $2.50 per pound, the price rose to $3 in 1892, and then 
declined steadily, reaching the abnormally low figure of 80 cents in 
1899. This was of course much below the normal cost of produc- 
tion and resulted in the discontinuance of production on the part of 
many American farmers. With a corresponding decrease in the 
available supply prices gradually advanced, reaching the $2 mark 
on October 1, 1902. From this the price, due to speculative influ- 
ences, reached the abnormally high quotation of $5 a pound before 
the end of the year. 

The production of Japanese as well as English oil of peppermint 
has also been rather below the average, while the demand has been 
steadily increasing. 

Germany has entered the field as a producer of oil of peppermint, 
furnishing a considerable quantity of oil of very fine quality. 
According to Schimmel & Co. the Saxon oil of peppermint has 
reached the highest degree of perfection and should be able to com- 
pete with the English distillate. 

An Italian oil of peppermint has also been offered on the 
European market. Schimmel & Co. say this was formerly con- 
sumed in that country and not much exported. The oil has rather 



Some Notes on Essential Oils. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1903. 



a low menthol content (52-5 per cent.) and does not congeal when 
placed in a freezing mixture. 

The price of menthol has, of course, also increased, in sympathy 
with that of oil of peppermint, and the combination has in turn had 
a very marked influence on the tendency to cheapen or adulterate 
both products. This, of course, again illustrates the oft-repeated 
truism that an article with a marked upward tendency is very liable 
to be adulterated, one reason being the repeated attempts of 
dealers to neutralize probable loss by the addition of a cheaper 
grade of material. In this connection a statement of J. A. S. Wood- 
row {Druggists' Circular, 1903, page 63) is of interest. He reports 
on two lots of oil of peppermint which he had examined and found 
adulterated with oil of sassafras or oil of camphor. 

The more popular, or rather more frequently practised method of 
cheapening oil of peppermint is to rob it of the contained free-men- 
thol. E. J. Parry, in a recent number of the Chemist and Druggist, 
reports examining ten samples of oil of peppermint. The specific 
gravity of the ten samples varied from o-88o to 0*904 ; not one of 
them dissolved in three volumes of 90 per cent, alcohol, and none 
separated out any menthol when cooled to io° C. with the addition 
of a few crystals of menthol. 

Oil of Rose. — -This is the most variable of all the essential oils. 
The statement has been repeatedly made that it is practically impos- 
sible to get an absolutely pure oil of rose anywhere. E. J. Parry 
(Drug. Circ., 1902, page 102, from Chem. and Drug.) considers pure 
otto of rose obtainable even at the present time, and simply a mas- 
ter of price. According to Parry, oil of rose is more largely adulter- 
ated by middlemen than by the actual producers. 

The adulteration of this article has, of course, become what might 
be termed a fine art, some of the adulterants being extremely diffi- 
cult to detect. A rather novel adulterant is reported on by Schim- 
mel & Co. It consists of oil of rose-geranium to which a mixture 
of salol and antipyrine has been added, with a view of bringing the 
congealing point up to the desired degree. It is said that this com- 
bination has the property of bringing the congealing point of the 
resulting mixture up to any desired height. 

When suspected, the adulteration is, of course, readily detected 
by the appropriate chemical tests. 

The repeated attempts of improving on the primitive methods of 



Am A P °rn r ;i903 arm '} Some Notes on Essential Oils. 165 

the Bulgarian rose-distillers have, so far at least, been but partially 
successful. There appears to be a considerable difference of opin- 
ion on the success or failure ot a recent attempt to concentrate the 
manufacture of the oil in central factories, or large distilleries. 
There can be no doubt, however, that with improved appliances and 
greater care a much more economical and better paying process 
might be devised. 

Artificial oil of rose has been an article of commerce for some 
time, and has met with considerable success. There are several 
manufacturers who are putting out an artificial oil, with or without 
an additional trade name. The composition of these mixtures 
differs very materially, the majority of them resembling oil of rose 
only in the odor and not in any of its other physical properties, 
though at least one concern is putting out an oil of rose having a 
stearoptene; but this firm does not recommend its use. It is said 
that in the manufacture of perfumes these artificial oils or mixtures 
are particularly applicable on account of the constant composition 
and ready solubility in alcohol. 

Oil of Rosemary. — There are two commercial varieties of this 
oil: the so-called French, which is usually considered the finest and 
brings the highest price, and the Italian or Dalmatian ; this is pro- 
duced on several islands off the coast of Datmatia. The product 
from these islands usually comes into the market through the Aus- 
trian port, Trieste, and in this country this oil is usually designated 
as oil of rosemary, Trieste. 

Schimmel & Co. have obtained as high as 2 per cent, of oil from 
rosemary leaves. According to the same authority, oil of rosemary 
varies in specific gravity from 0-900 to 920. 

Oil of Sandalwood. — The East Indian oil has materially in- 
creased in price on account of a report from Mysore that a disease 
had broken out among the sandalwood trees, which was rapidly 
spreading and had already killed off a number of trees. 

According to a letter published by Schimmel & Co., the disease 
first made its appearance a little more than two years ago in Coorg, 
an adjoining province. So far no satisfactory means of preventing 
the spread of the disease have been devised, and if further informa- 
tion should confirm these statements, the price of sandalwood oil 
would probably reach a much higher figure in the near future. 

Oil of Wintergreen. — This oil presents rather a complicated 



1 66 Modification of Nessler s Tube. { Am Ap°rii r ;i?o h 3 arm - 

problem. In addition to the crude adulterants, such as oil of tur- 
pentine and carbolic acid, there is available a substance that is actu- 
ally better from a chemical point of view than genuine oil of winter, 
green. From the comparative prices given above it will be seen 
that synthetic oil of wintergreen, as well as oil of sweet birch, are 
much lower in price than the pure oil of wintergreen. In addition 
to this, the content of methyl salicylate is in inverse ratio to the 
price. Opinions as to the therapeutic efficiency of the different oils 
differ very materially, several observers asserting that natural oil of 
wintergreen contains an irritant body that is objectionable, while 
others maintain that the natural oil is much more efficient than the 
artificial. 

If, however, as is fair to suppose, methyl salicylate is the thera- 
peutically efficient portion of oil of wintergreen, and if, as has been 
generally conceded, it is quite feasible to produce an absolute 
methyl salicylate, practically chemically pure, would it not be reason- 
able to give this the preference, and allow it to demonstrate its 
merits, instead of furnishing it, or rather buying it, at a very material 
advance under another name ? 

From a casual survey of the essential-oil question, as it presents 
itself at the present time, it would appear to be advisable to favor 
the adoption of active principles of the essential oils, wherever possi- 
ble; and in cases where these essential or active principles are 
obtainable of as good or even better quality, made synthetically, 
there would appear to be no substantial reasons why they should 
not be given the preference. 



MODIFICATION OF NESSLER'S TUBE. 

By Herbert J. Watson, P.D. 

The " Nessler " jar is one of the most useful and indispensable 
articles in the laboratory. Its value to the sanitarian is almost equal 
to that of the mortar and pestle or graduate to the pharmacist. 
The hours spent with this simple apparatus are long and tedious, 
especially when trying to secure the desired shade by pouring back 
and forth the liquid in the comparison tube. The principal use of 
the " Nessler " jar is in the determination of free and albuminoid 
ammonia and the estimation of nitrites in water. The determina- 
tion of free and albuminoid ammonia, in bacteriological researches, 
is another extensive field for its use. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1903. 



} Modification of Nesslers Tube. 



167 



The process for determining ammonia may here be described tor 
the benefit of those having a limited, or no use for the jar. The 
Wanklyn's method employs 200 c.c. of ammonia free water with 
about 10 c.c. of saturated sodium carbonate solution to clean the 
apparatus. After two 50 c.c. jars have passed through the condenser, 
500 c.c. of the suspected water is added to the remaining 100 c.c, 
plus the sodium carbonate solution in the flask. Three 50 c.c. tubes, 
containing the free ammonia, are collected, and then the 50 c.c. of 
the alkaline potassium-permanganate solution (200 grammes of 
potassium hydrate and 8 grammes potassium permanganate to the 



I — I A\ 



50 c*. 1 




Modified Nessler's Tube. 

litre) is added to the flask and the distillation continued until 
three tubes of the albuminoid ammonia are collected, and then the 
entire six are nesslerized. Two c.c. ol Nessler's reagent is also added 
to the standard tubes containing *oi milligramme, 02 milligramme 
and higher strengths of the ammonia. The strength of the different 
tubes is calculated in parts per million. 



1 68 Modification of Nessler s Tube. { Am Ap?ii"iS arm - 

The " Nessler " jar used in the above analysis is about 6 inches 
in length, but a jar designed by Hehner, containing IOO c.c, with a 
stopcock, is also on the market. The Hehner tube is too wide and 
costs entirely too much. The objection to the diameter of these two 
jars is overcome by the tube mentioned below, which is the same as 
that of the one devised by Dr. Leffmann. This jar is very much more 
delicate in colorimetric work than the shorter jars (50 c.c.) in use in 
many laboratories. 

The jar (which is illustrated in an accompanying cut) is 12 inches 
in length, ^ inch in diameter, about 9 inches from base to top 
mark (50 c.c), and graduated in 5 c.c. with dashes for the I c.c. 
graduations. There is a small tube projecting from the side at the 
base, which may be either plain or have a stopcock. A number of 
plain tubes similar to the above (50 c.c. graduation) are necessary 
to collect the distilled ammonia. 

The method, originated by Professors Chester and Robin, of using 
this side-necked " Nessler " jar, consists of connecting the side tube 
with a burette by a small rubber tube. The three tubes of free and 
albuminoid ammonia are collected from the condenser and " nessler. 
ized " in the usual manner and mixed together, causing a similar 
shade in each. One of these tubes is placed beside the one con- 
necting with the burette containing the standard ammonia solution, 
and moved with a vertical movement. The liquid in the standard 
column is made to increase and decrease at will, and the number of 
cubic centimetres is always visible. 

The cost of the small " Nessler " jars now in use is 50 cents, 
while the Hehner tube costs $4.50. The Leffmann tube with the sin- 
gle graduation can be obtained for 75 cents, although we have had 
them manufactured for 40 cents. The jars with the side neck cost 
$1.75, and the one with the stopcock costs $2.50. 



Am Ap O rn r ,'i903 arm "} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 169 
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON. 1 

MEETING OF INCORPORATORS OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF 
WASHINGTON. 

By President Daniel C. Gilman. 2 

The meeting of the Incorporators of the Carnegie Institution was 
held at the office of the Secretary of State, Washington, D. C, 
January 4, 1902, at 10 o'clock a.m. 

Present : Hon. John Hay, Secretary of State ; Justice Edward D. 
White, Dr. Daniel C. Gilman, Dr. John S. Billings, Hon. Carroll D. 
Wright and Dr. Charles D. Walcott. Mr. Hay was chosen chair- 
man of the meeting and Mr. Walcott secretary. 

On receipt of notice of the filing of the Articles of Incorporation, 
Mr. White moved that the incorporators proceed to ballot for trus- 
tees. This was done, and the following persons were unanimously 
elected : 

Ex officio. — The President ot the United States, the President of 
the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Secre - 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, the President of the National 
Academy of Sciences. 

Grover Cleveland, New Jersey; John S. Billings, New York; 
William N. Frew, Pennsylvania ; Lyman J.Gage, Illinois; Daniel 
C. Gilman, Maryland ; John Hay, District of Columbia ; Abram S, 
Hewitt, New Jersey ; Henry L. Higginson, Massachusetts ; Henry 
Hitchcock, Missouri; Charles L. Hutchinson, Illinois; William 
Lindsay, Kentucky; Seth Low, New York; Wayne MacVeagh, 
Pennsylvania; D. O. Mills, New York; S. Weir Mitchell, Pennsyl- 
vania; William W. Morrow, California; Elihu Root, New York; 
John C. Spooner, Wisconsin ; Charles D. Walcott, District of 
Columbia; Andrew D. White, New York; Edward D. White, 
Louisiana ; Carroll D. Wright, District of Columbia. 

FIRST MEETING OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

The Trustees assembled in the Diplomatic Room, Department of 
State, Washington, D. C, Wednesday, January 29, 1902, at half- 
past 2. They were called to order by Hon. Abram S. Hewitt, 

Abstracts from the Year Book, No. 1, 1902. 

2 Owing to the great interest attaching to the work of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington, the report of the president is reprinted from Science, Janu- 
ary 30, 1903, for the benefit of our readers. 



170 Carnegie Institution of Washington. { Am Aprif;i^* ri11 " 

who nominated for temporary chairman Hon. John Hay, who was 
unanimously elected and took the chair. Mr. Hewitt then nomi- 
nated Dr. Charles D. Walcott as temporary secretary, and he was 
unanimously elected. 

The secretary then read the minutes of the meeting of the incor- 
porators and presented the Articles of Incorporation, after which 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie was introduced by the chairman, and made 
the remarks which have been printed. 

The following resolution was presented and unanimously adopted : 

" In addition to the personal and individual expressions extended 
to Mr. Carnegie for what he has done for the world to-day : 

il Resolved, That the chairman of this meeting be requested to draft 
a lecter addressed to Mr. Carnegie expressing the views of the 
Trustees concerning this magnificent gift and the purposes for 
which it is to be applied as set forth in the letter and other docu- 
ments which have just been read." 

Attention was called to the vacancy on the Board caused by the 
declination of Hon. Grover Cleveland, who had not found it possible 
to accept a place on the Board on account of his health. The 
Board balloted for a trustee to fill a vacancy thus arising, and Mr. 
William E. Dodge, of New York, was unanimously elected. 

A proposed code of by-laws was then presented, discussed, 
amended and adopted. 

Election of officers was then held with the following result : 

Chairman of the Board of Trustees — Abram S. Hewitt. 

Vice-Chairman of the Board of Trustees — John S. Billings. 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees — Charles D. Walcott. 

President of Carnegie Institution — Daniel C. Gilman. 

Relative to the acceptance of the trust created by Mr. Carnegie, 
it was 

Resolved, That the Board of Trustees, acknowledging the gen- 
erosity of the gift of Mr. Carnegie, in the foundation of the Institu- 
tion, desire to express the concurrence of the Trustees in the scope 
and purpose stated in his deed of trust, and hereby formally accept 
the donation and the responsibilities connected with it. 

It was also voted that the resolution just adopted be forwarded 
to Secretary Hay, to be by him sent to Mr. Carnegie, with a 
letter expressing the views of the Trustees on the gift. Mr. Hay 
subsequently transmitted the resolution and with it the following 
letter : 



Am Ap°riLi903 arm "} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 171 

Department of State, 

Washington, March 7, 1902. 

Hon. Andrew Carnegie, 

5 West Fifty-first Street, New York City. 

Sir : — The Trustees of the Carnegie Institution, which you have recently 
founded in the city of Washington, formally accept your gift, by the adoption 
of the appended resolution. 

At the same time they requested me, as the presiding officer at the first meet- 
ing of the Board, to convey to you by a letter an explanation of their hearty 
appreciation of your munificence, and also their admiration of the noble pur- 
pose and the liberal spirit which distinguish your foundation. 

For the advancement of knowledge and the education of youth there are 
already in this country many strong institutions, learned societies, universities, 
government bureaus, libraries and museums. With all of them the Carnegie 
Institution can co-operate, while it has a field of its own, carefully indicated in 
your deed of gift, and more fully explained by the remarks which you addressed 
to the Board. 

Every one of those whom you have chosen as Trustees will regard it as a 
sacred duty and a pleasure to uphold the lofty ideal that you have set before 
them, and to impart to those who come afterward the spirit of confidence and 
enthusiasm with which the work has begun. 

I am, Sir, 

Very respectfully yours, 

John Hay. 

Dr. Gilman, the elected president, then addressed the Board, 
explaining, so far as they were known to him, the circumstances 
which preceded the incorporation of the Carnegie Institution. His 
remarks were extemporaneous and intended to acquaint the Board 
with his attitude and that of the gentlemen with whom, at Mr. 
Carnegie's request, he had been associated in these arrangements 
which preceded the meeting of the Board. He expressed his appre- 
ciation of the honor conferred upon him by his selection as presi- 
dent of the Institution, and he indicated in broad outlines the prob- 
able methods of procedure. At an early day experts in many 
branches of science will be selected by the Executive Committee to 
whom all applications for encouragement and aid will be referred. 
These experts will be requested to add their own suggestions, and 
present their recommendations in writing. Meanwhile, the Execu- 
tive Committee will gather information in respect to endowments 
and establishments for promoting science, at home and abroad, in 
order that this experience may be at the service of the Trustees, 
and that there may be co-operation, and not conflict, with other 
institutions in any plans that may be adopted. 



172 Carnegie Institution of Washington. { Am A$[;X rm - 

After discussing nominations the following named persons were 
elected members of the Executive Committee : John S. Billings, 
Daniel C. Gilman, Abram S. Hewitt, S. Weir Mitchell, Elihu Root, 
Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright. 

The following resolutions were then considered and adopted : 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee is requested to prepare 
a report upon the work which should be undertaken by the Carnegie 
Institution in the near future, such report to be submitted to the 
Board of Trustees at its next meeting, and to be accompanied with 
estimates for expenditures required. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee, when it shall have 
formulated plans of the work which should be undertaken by the 
Carnegie Institution, shall have the same printed and a copy for- 
warded to each Trustee prior to the annual meeting in November, 
1902. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee is requested to consider 
the question of a proper administration building for the Carnegie 
Institution, to be located in Washington, including both a proper 
site and plans tor the same. 

SECOND MEETING OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

The meeting was held in Washington, at the New Willard Hotel, 
on Tuesday, November 25, 1902, at 10 a.m. 

The president of the Institution, Mr. Gilman, made a general 
statement of the work of the Executive Committee and referred to 
the report of the committee, which had been printed and distributed 
to the Trustees in advance of the meeting. 

The secretary made a brief report, referring principally to the 
financial transactions of the Institution. 

Consideration of the Executive Committee's report was then 
taken up, and a long discussion followed on the various recommen- 
dations made by the committee. 

At the second session the Board resumed its discussion of policy 
and the recommendation of the Executive Committee, especially the 
purchasing of a site. As the outcome a motion to postpone till the 
next annual meeting the decision on the question of site was made 
and carried. 

The Board then considered and adopted the following resolution: 
Resolved, That from the available income of the Institution 



Am Ap r U n;S rm "} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 173 
$50,000 is hereby appropriated for administrative expenses, $200,000 
for grants for research during the fiscal year 1902-03, $40,000 for 
a publication fund, the expenditures to be made under the direction 
of the Executive Committee, and that $100,000 ot the available 
income of the Institution be set apart for a reserve fund during the 
fiscal year 1 902-03. 

Amendments to the by-laws were then considered, and the date 
of the annual meeting was changed from November to the second 
Tuesday of December, beginning with the year 1903. By-laws 
were also adopted providing that the fiscal year of the Institution 
shall be from November 1st to October 31st, inclusive, and that 
there shall be a finance committee consisting of three members of 
the Board, to be elected by the Board and to hold office until their 
successors are elected. The duty of such finance committee shall 
be to consider and recommend to the Board of Trustees such meas- 
ures as it may believe will promote the financial interests of the 
Institution. The Board then proceeded to the choice of a finance 
committee, and elected Messrs, Gage, Mills and Higginson. 

The following minute relative to the death of Mr. Henry Hitch- 
cock was presented by Mr. Higginson and adopted by the Board : 

The death of Mr. Henry Hitchcock has deprived this Board of 
Trustees of a cultured and wise counsellor, a progressive leader and 
a valued associate. Mr. Hitchcock stood for all that was noble in 
manhood and the development of man. His every effort was to 
serve any cause with which he was connected with all the power 
and ability he possessed. We tender to the members ot his bereaved 
family sincere sympathy, and place this resolution in our minutes as 
a permanent record of our appreciation and esteem. 

The Board then proceeded to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
of Mr. Hitchcock. Mr. Ethan Allen Hitchcock was nominated and 
unanimously elected. 

PROCEEDINGS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Organization. — At its first meeting the committee organized by 
electing Mr. Gilman chairman and Mr. Walcott secretary. At the 
same time lots were drawn for the terms of service of members, 
three to expire with the annual meeting in 1903, two in 1904 and 
two in 1905. The result of the drawing was as follows: 

1903, Gilman, Mitchell, Wright; 1904, Billings, Walcott ; 1905, 
Hewitt, Root. 



174 Carnegie Institution of Washington. { k ™\l^\m™ m ' 

Advisory Committees. — As soon as it was organized the Execu- 
tive Committee, in compliance with the instructions of the Trustees, 
began an investigation to determine what work should be entered 
upon, in the immediate future, by the Institution. Its first step con- 
sisted in the appointment of advisory committees. Eighteen such 
committees were appointed, as follows : 

Anthropology. — William H. Holmes, Chief, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, and Head Curator, Department of Anthropology, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C, Chairman ; Franz Boas, 
Curator, Department of Anthropology, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, N. Y.; George A. Dorsey, Field Colum- 
bian Museum, Chicago, 111. 

Astronomy. — E. C. Pickering, Professor of Astronomy and 
Director of Harvard Observatory, Cambridge, Mass., Chairman; 
Lewis Boss, Director of Dudley Observatory, Albany, N. Y.; George 
E. Hale, Director of Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis.; S. P. 
Langley, Secretary Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C; Simon 
Newcomb, late Superintendent of Nautical Almanac, Washington, 
D. C. 

Bibliography. — Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Chairman; Cyrus Adler, Librarian Smithsonian 
Institute, Washington, D. C; J. S. Billings, Director New York 
Public Library, New York, N. Y. 

Botany. — Frederick V. Coville, Botanist, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C, Chairman; N. L. Britton, Superintendent 
New York Botanical Garden, New York, N. Y.; John M. MacFarlane, 
Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Gifford Pinchot, Forester, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Chemistry. — Ira Remsen, Professor of Chemistry and President of 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., Chairman ; T. W. 
Richards, Professor of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass.; Edgar F. Smith, Professor of Chemistry, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Economics. — Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner of Labor, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Chairman ; Henry W. Farnam, Professor of Political 
Economy, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; John B. Clark, Pro- 
fessor of Political Economy, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

Engineering. — R. H. Thurston, Director of Sibley College, Cor- 



Am Ap O ri^'l903 a^m ■} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 175 

nell University, Ithaca, N. Y., Chairman; William H. Burr, Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering, Columbia University, New York, N. Y ; 
George Gibbs, Consulting Engineer, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; George S. Morison, Civil Engineer, 49 Wall 
Street, New York, N. Y.; Charles P. Steinmetz, Electrician, General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

Geography. — William M. Davis, Professor of Geology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Geophysics. — [Joint Committee on Geology and Physics.] 

Geology. — T. C. Chamberlin. Head of Geological Department and 
Director of Museum, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., Chairman ; 
Charles R. Van Hise, Professor of Geology, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis.; Charles D. Walcott, Director of Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 

History. — J. Franklin Jameson, Head of Department of History, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., Chairman ; Charles Francis 
Adams, Boston, Mass.; Andrew C. McLaughlin, Professor of Ameri- 
can History, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Mathematics. — E H. Moore, Head Professor of Mathematics, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., Chairman ; Frank Morley, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; 
Ormond Stone, Professor of Astronomy and Director of Leander 
McCormick Observatory, Charlottesville, Va. 

Meteorology. — Cleveland Abbe, Professor of Meteorology, U. S. 
Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Paleontology. — Henry F. Osborn, DaCosta Professor of Zoology. 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y., Chairman; Henry S. Wil- 
liams, Professor of Geology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Physics. — R. S. Woodward, Dean of School of Pure Science and 
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematical Physics, Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York, N. Y., Chairman ; Carl Barus, Professor of Physics, 
Brown University, Providence, R. L* A. A. Michelson, Head Pro- 
fessor of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Physiology (including Toxicology). — S. Weir Mitchell, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Chairman ; H. P. Bowditch, Professor of Physiology, Har- 
vard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass.; William H. Howell, Dean 
of Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Md. 

Psychology. — J. Mark Baldwin, Professor of Psychology, Princeton 
University, Princeton, N. J. 



176 Carnegie Institution of Washington. { Am x^\m* m ' 

Zoology. — Henry F. Osborn, DaCosta Professor of Zoology, 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y., Chairman ; Alex. Agassiz, 
Curator Natural History Museum, Cambridge, Mass.; W. K. Brooks, 
Professor of Zoology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; C. 
Hart Merriam, Chief U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C; 
E. B. Wilson, Professor of Zoology, Columbia University, New 
York, N. Y. 

These advisers were requested to give the committee their views 
on various important suggestions received by the Institution, as well 
as independent recommendations originating in the committees. 
The following is a copy of the letter appointing the advisers and 
inviting suggestions and recommendations : 

March ii, 1902. 

Dear Sir : — The Executive Committee of the Carnegie Institution has been 
requested by the Trustees to prepare, in the course of the summer, a plan of 
procedure, and in the meantime to engage in preliminary studies of the prob- 
lems committed to them, by consultation with acknowledged authorities at 
home and abroad. 

The plan of the Institution includes the appointment rom time to time of 
counsellors, or advisers, to whom the committee may refer important sugges- 
tions, and from whom they may receive independent recommendations. You 
are invited to act as one of these advisers until the annual meeting of the 
Trustees, in November next. It is the purpose of the Institution to provide 
liberally for any expense that may be incurred in clerical service and in travel 
by those whom they may consult. If it is agreeable to you to accept this invi- 
tation, a more personal communication will be addressed to you at an early 
day. An immediate answer is requested. 

Respectfully, 

D. C. Guzman, President. 

The reports received from the Advisory Committees, so far as they 
relate to scope and plan, are printed in Appendix A. 

A circular letter was also prepared and sent to nearly 1,000 scien- 
tific men and investigators of prominence, mainly in the United 
States. This was accompanied by a pamphlet that included the 
articles of incorporation, the founder's address and a list of the offi- 
cers. The circular letter is as follows: 

Letter to the Heads of American Institutions and to Others Interested in the 
Work of Investigation. 

The Carnegie Institution sends you herewith a copy of Mr. Carnegie's deed 
of gift and other information in respect to the organization of the new founda- 
tion. 



Am Aprn r ( 'i903 arm *} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 177 

Some of the ablest thinkers and investigators in the country have already 
called attention to important lines of inquiry. Their communications will be 
referred to special committees in different departments of knowledge — astronom- 
ical, physical, chemical, biological, geological, archaeological, philological, 
historical, bibliographical, economical, etc. — and the referees will be requested 
to add their own suggestions and to report to the Carnegie Institution such 
methods of procedure and the names of such investigators as they deem likely 
to advance with wisdom the great purpose of the foundation. 

No large appropriations can be made at present, as there will be no income 
from the fund before August. The summer will be chiefly devoted to a careful 
study of the problems of scientific investigation, at home and abroad, and in 
the autumn definite plans of procedure will be formulated. 

Any member of the Executive Committee will be glad to receive from you at 
any time, suggestions, opinions and advice as to fields that the Carnegie Insti- 
tution ought to occupy and the best methods for carrying forward its work in 
those fields ; but in order that important papers designed for official considera- 
tion may be properly recorded and filed, they should be addressed to the Presi- 
dent of the Carnegie Institution, T439 K Street, Washington. D. C. 

Daniel C. Gilman, Chairman, 
Chari.ES D. Walcott, Secretary, 
John S. Billings, 
Abram S. Hewitt, 
S. Weir Mitchell, 
Elihu Root, 
Carroll D. Wright, 
March, 1902. Executive Committee. 

For its guidance, the committee has formulated and adopted the 
following statements as to its purposes, principles, organization and 
policy : 

Purposes — In connection with the determination of the policy ol 
the Institution, it is necessary to clearly define its purposes and to 
adopt some general plan for organization and administration. The 
purposes are declared by the founder to be : 

" To found in the city of Washington an institution which, with 
the co-operation of institutions now or hereafter established, there or 
elsewhere, shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage 
investigation, research and discovery- — show the application of 
knowledge to the improvement of mankind, provide such buildings, 
laboratories, books and apparatus as may be needed, and afford 
instruction of an advanced character to students properly qualified 
to profit thereby." 

And he adds : 

" That his chief purpose is to secure, if possible, for the United 
States of America, leadership in the domain of discovery and the 
utilization of new forces for the benefit of man." 



178 Carnegie Institution of Washington. { Am A P O rii:i903 arm ' 

The trust deed enumerates several aims, all of which may be 
grouped under two heads, viz.: 

(A) To promote original research. 

(B) To increase facilities for higher education. 
Under (A) may be grouped : 

(a) The promotion of original research "as one of the most im- 
portant of all subjects." 

(b) To discover the exceptional man . . . and enable him to 
make the work for which he seems specially designed his life-work. 

(c) The prompt publication and distribution of the results of 
scientific investigation. 

Under (B) may be grouped : 

(a and b) The increase of facilities for higher education by in- 
creasing the efficiency of the universities and other institutions, 
either by utilizing and adding to their existing facilities, or by aid- 
ing teachers in various institutions in experimental and other work. 

(c) To enable such students as may find Washington the best 
point for their special studies to take advantage of the facilities there 
for higher education and research. 

Principles. — It is the judgment of the Executive Committee that 
the aims enumerated can be best carried into effect under the follow- 
ing principles, which are to be departed from only in very excep- 
tional cases. 

The Institution proposed to undertake — 

(A) To promote original research by systematically sustaining — 

(a) Projects of broad scope that may lead to the discovery and 
utilization of new forces for the benefit of man, pursuing each with 
the greatest possible thoroughness. 

(b) Projects of minor scope that may fill in gaps in knowledge of 
particular things or restricted fields of research. 

(c) Administration of a definite or stated research under a single 
direction by competent individuals. 

(d) Appointment of research assistants. 

(B) To increase facilities for higher education by promoting — 

(a) Original research in universities and institutions of learning 
by such means as may be practicable and advisable. 

(b) The use by advanced students of the opportunities offered for 
special study and research by the Government bureaus in Washing- 
ton. 



Am Ap°rii r ."i9o^ arm '} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 179 

The Institution does not propose to undertake — 

(a) To do anything that is being well done by other agencies. 

(J?) To do that which can be better done by other agencies. 

(c) To enter the field of existing organizations that are properly 
equipped or are likely to be so equipped. 

(d) To give aid to individuals or other organizations in order to 
relieve them of financial responsibilities which they are able to carry, 
■or in order that they may divert funds to other purposes. 

(e) To enter the field of applied science except in unusual cases. 
(/) To purchase land or erect buildings for any organization. 

(g) To aid institutions when it is practicable to accomplish the 
same result by aiding individuals who may or may not be connected 
with institutions. 

(h) To provide for a general or liberal course of education. 
Organization. — The Executive Committee, keenly realizing the 

importance of thoroughly investigating and fully considering every 
proposed action before recommending it to the Trustees, has given 
much time and thought to the subject of organization, and at the 
several meetings has discussed the suggestions received from indi- 
viduals and from the Advisory Committees. It is hoped and expected 
that the Institution will set a high standard for research. This, the 
committee believes, can be best attained and maintained by estab- 
lishing such laboratories and facilities, not found elsewhere, as are 
necessary when dealing with problems. 

The committee is of the opinion that organization in Washington 
should be provided for by — 

(a) Purchasing in the northwestern suburb of the city a tract of 
ground suitable for present and future needs. 

(b) Erecting thereon a central administration building, to serve 
as the administrative headquarters of research work conducted, 
directed or aided by the Carnegie Institution. 

(c) Establishing such laboratories from time to time as may be 
deemed advisable. 

(d) Employing the best qualified men that can be secured for 
carrying on such research work as it may be decided to undertake 
in Washington. 

(e) Continuing and developing the present office organization as 
the Executive Committee may find it necessary to do in order to 
properly conduct the work of the Institution. 



i8o Carnegie Institution of Washington. { Am A P ° r "f; S arm * 

The only organization outside of Washington to be provided for 
at present should be such advisers and advisory committees as may 
from time to time be found necessary in connection with the develop- 
ment of the research work of the Institution. It is the opinion of 
the committee that such persons and committees should be largely 
advisory and not executive in their function. Executive work 
should be in charge of paid employees of the Institution. These 
may be officers, research associates and special employees. 

Policy. — Soon after the Executive Committee began its investiga- 
tions it became evident that two lines of policy were open, namely : 

(a) To sustain broad researches and extended explorations that 
will greatly add to knowledge. 

(b) To make small grants. 

Research may be defined as original investigation in any field, 
whether in science, literature or art. Its limits coincide with the 
limits of the knowable. In the field of research the function of the 
Institution should be organization, the substitution of organized for 
unorganized effort wherever such combination of effort promises the 
best results ; and the prevention, as far as possible, of needless 
duplication of work. Hitherto, with few exceptions, research has 
been a matter of individual enterprise, each worker taking up the 
special problem which chance or taste led him to and treating it in 
his own way. No investigator, working single-handed, can at 
present approach the largest problems in the broadest way thor- 
oughly and systematically. 

With an income large enough to enter upon some large projects 
and a number of minor ones, it appears to be wiser, at the begin- 
ning, to make a number of small grants and to thoroughly prepare 
to take up some of the larger projects. With this in view the 
Executive Committee recommended to the Trustees that there be 
placed at its disposal for the fiscal year 1 902-03, $200,000 for aid 
to special researches in various branches of science, and $40,000 for 
the publication of the results achieved. During the year plans will 
be perfected, data secured and experience gained that will be of 
great service in formulating recommendations for the ensuing year. 

In the opinion of the committee, the most effective way to dis- 
cover and develop the exceptional man is to put promising men 
upon research work under proper guidance and supervision. Those 
who do not fulfil their promise will soon drop out, and by the su:- 



Am A P O r U ii;i?03! rm '} Carnegie Institution of Washington. 181 

vival of the fittest the exceptionally capable man will appear and be 
given opportunity to accomplish the best that is in him. When the 
genius is discovered, provide him with the best equipment that can 
be obtained. 

In making grants, the wisest policy appears to be to make them 
to individuals for a specific purpose rather than to institutions for 
general purposes. 

Grants. — Under the authority conferred upon it by the Trustees 
at their first meeting, the Executive Committee made three grants, 
as follows: 



March 25, 1902. To the Marine Biological laboratory, Woods 

Hole, Mass., for general support $4,000 

April 15, 1902. To Dr. J. McK. Cattell, Columbia University, 
New York, for preparing a list of the scientific men of the 
United States 1,000 

April 15, 1902. To Dr. Hideyo Noguchi and Professor Simon 
Flexner, Philadelphia, Pa., for continuation of their studies 
of the toxicological actions of snake-venom and allied poi- 
sons 1,000 

Total $6,000 

Since the second meeting of the Trustees, on November 25, 1902, 



the Executive Committee has made the following grants in the sev- 
eral departments of science mentioned ; anthropology, mathematics 
and other branches will be acted upon later : 



Astronomy $21,000 

Bibliography 15,000 

Botany 11,700 

Chemistry 3,000 

Economics 15,000 

Engineering 4,500 

Exploration 5, 000 

Geology 12,000 

Geophysics 8,500 

History 5, 000 

Investigation of project for southern and solar observatory . . 5,000 
Investigation of project for physical and geophysical labora- 
tories 5,000 

Investigation of natural -history projects 5, 000 

Marine biological research 12,500 

Paleontology 1,900 

Physics 4,000 

Carried forward , . $134,100 



182 



Carnegie Institution of Washington. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1903. 



Brought forward 

Physiology 

Psychology 

Publications 

Research assistants 

Student research work in Washington 
Zoology 



$134,100 



5,000 
1,600 
5,500 
25,000 
10,000 
4,000 



Total 



• • • • $185,200 

Charles D. Wai.co'Tt-, 

Secretary. 



SUMMARY. 



As a convenient summary of the plans and methods thus far 
agreed upon, the following minute is approved : 

The methods of administration of the Carnegie Institution thus 
far developed are general rather than specific. 

The encouragement of any branch of science comes within the 
possible scope ot this foundation, but as the fund, munificent as it is, 
is inadequate to meet the requests for aid already presented, not to 
mention others which are foreseen though not yet formulated, atten- 
tion has been concentrated upon a selection of those objects which, 
at this time and in our country, seem to require immediate assis- 
tance. 

Efforts have been and will be made to secure co-operation with 
other agencies established for the advancement of knowledge, while 
care will be exercised to refrain from interference or rivalry between 
them. Accordingly, ground already occupied will be avoided. For 
example, if medical research is provided for by other agencies, as it 
appears to be, the Carnegie Institution will not enter the field. 
Systematic education, abundantly provided for in this country by 
universities, colleges, professional schools, and schools of technology, 
will not be undertaken. Nor will the assistance of meritorious stu- 
dents in the early stages of their studies come within the scope of 
this foundation. Sites or buildings for other institutions will not be 
provided. 

Specific grants have been and will be made, for definite purposes, 
to individual investigators, young or old, of marked ability, and for 
assistance, books, instruments, apparatus and materials. It is under- 
stood that such purchases are the property of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion and subject to its control. The persons thus aided will be 
expected to report upon the methods followed and the results 



Am A P °rn r ;5o3 arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 183 

obtained. In the publication of results it is expected that the writer 
will say that he was aided by the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, unless it be requested that this fact be not made known. 

In order to carry out the founder's instructions in respect to bring- 
ing to Washington highly qualified persons who wish to profit by 
the opportunities for observation and research afforded by the vari- 
ous scientific bureaus of the United States Government, a certain 
sum is set apart for this purpose. 

In addition, the Carnegie Institution will appoint from time to 
time a number of persons to be known as research assistants, who 
may or may not reside in Washington, and who shall undertake to 
carry on such special investigation as may be intrusted to them by 
the Institution. The appointments will be made for a year, and 
may be renewed in any case where it seems desirable. Permission 
may be given to go abroad, if special advantages not accessible in 
this country can thus be secured. 

Publication is regarded by the founder as of special importance. 
Accordingly, appropriations will be made for this purpose, espe- 
cially for the printing of papers of acknowledged importance, so 
abstruse, so extended or so costly that without the aid of this fund 
they may not see the light. 

With respect to certain large undertakings involving much ex- 
pense, which have been or may be suggested, careful preliminary 
inquiries have been and will be made. 

In order to secure the counsel of experts in various departments 
of knowledge, special advisers have been and will be invited from 
time to time for consultation. Valuable suggestions and counsel 
have already been received from such advisers. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

THE COMPOSITION OF INDIA-RUBBER. 

At a recent meeting of the Northwestern section of the American 
Chemical Society at Boston, Mass., Dr. C. O. Weber, of Manchester, 
England, gave an account of researches on rubber. India-rubber, 
no matter from what source, is, when freed from albuminous and 
resinous substances, composed of two substances: one, amounting 
to 4 per cent, or less, is insoluble in all solvents, and corresponds to 
the formula C 30 H 68 O 10 ; the other is a hydrocarbon, nC 10 H 16 . On 



1 84 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy,. {^l™^™™* 

dry distillation the hydrocarbon gives isoprene, inactive limonene 
and heveene. Isoprene, on standing, polymerizes into rubber. Re- 
cently nitro-derivatives have been obtained from rubber, which 
being produced quantitatively and soluble in many liquids, are useful 
in the examination of rubber, and will aid in further elucidating its 
composition. The bodies are, empirically, C 10 H 16 N 2 O 3 and C 10 H 16 N 2 O 4 . 
Rubber is probably a polymerized unsaturated hydrocarbon, with 
an open chain and three double bonds for C 10 H 16 . Kondadoff 
obtained, synthetically, a compound that seems to be a methyl- 
derivative of rubber, thus making an important step in the synthesis 
of this product. Vulcanization consists solely in the addition of 
sulphur when pure rubber is used. The condition of rubber can be 
materially changed by manipulation between rollers : it then becomes 
more easily acted on by oxydizing agents. The proportion of 
sulphur taken up on vulcanization ranges from that required for the 
formula C 100 H 160 S to that required for C 100 H 160 S 20 . — Science, January 
2 3» I9Q3- Henry Leffmann. 

GINSENG CULTURE. 

Bulletin 62, of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Experiment 
Station, gives an account of some studies made at the station to 
determine whether ginseng can be grown profitably as a cultivated 
crop. The demand for it by the Chinese seems to be unabated and 
the wild supply is annually diminishing. The Pennsylvania experi- 
ments have been going on for five years, and have resulted success- 
fully. The best crops were obtained from the planting of two-year- 
old plants obtained from a professional cultivator of ginseng. The 
total yield of the station's work was 5 pounds and 1 ounce of dried 
root, for which a dealer paid at the rate of $8.50 per pound. Fig- 
uring on this basis, it is estimated that in five years an acre would 
yield a profit of $15,000, which does not include any allowance for 
the cost or rental of land. The cultivated roots are larger than 
those of the wild plants. As yet, no insect injurious to the plant 
has been noticed, but a fungus present in the soil of woods is at 
times very serious. A ground-worm is also an enemy. The 
details of cultivation and preparation for the market are given in 
the bulletin. H. L. 

NOTES ON ESSENTIAL OILS. 

While we are frequently reminded of the purity of synthetic prod- 
ucts and of the cheapness of synthetic perfumes, as compared to 



Am / P °rn r ;i903 arm *} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 185 

the natural ones, nevertheless there is a certain satisfaction in 
knowing that the cultivation of perfume plants is still a fruitful 
industry and one which is receiving the closest scientific attention, 
as set forth in the Scientific and Industtial Bulletin of Roure-Bettrand 
Fils of Grasse. (Series 1, No. 6, October, 1902.) 

Messrs. Charabot and Hebert are conducting a series of " Chemi- 
cal Investigations on the Vegetation of Perfume-Yielding Plants,'" 
and in this number they consider the chemical variations in a plant 
subjected to the influence of sodium nitrate. Under the head of 
" Contributions to the Study of Essential Oils," it is reported that 
the oil of mandarine leaves {Citrus madurensis) contains about 50 
per cent, of methyl methylanthranilate, which substance has hith- 
erto been found in small proportions in only a few essential oils. 
In this same paper it is also reported that Russian otto of rose, as 
compared to the German and Oriental products, contains a greater 
proportion of rhodinol than geraniol, whereas the reverse is true 
with the others, a difference probably due to climatic conditions. 

A useful feature of this number of the Bulletin is the review of 
recent publications on the perfumes and essential oils. Here atten- 
tion is called to the fact that Von Baeyer and Villiger (Ber. y 34, 
2679) have introduced into the chemistry of the terpenes the idea of 
the tetravalency ot oxygen, which the recent researches of Fosse 
tend to confirm. It appears that in cineol (eucalyptol) C 10 H 18 O, the 
oxygen atom behaves as a tetravalent element, and in this way 
combines, by addition, not only with phosphoric and arsenic acids, 
but also with hydroferrocyanic, hydroferricyanic and hydrocobalti- 
cyanic acids. 

In a summary of the recent papers relating to the oils of eucalyp- 
tus, it is pointed out that R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, 35) have established a relation between the 
anatomical characters of the leaves of eucalyptus and the chemical 
composition of the oils which they elaborate ; and it is thought that 
these observations, if continued, will be fruitful of philosophic gen- 
eralizations. F. Yaple^ 

ASSAY OF CANTHARIDES. 

In December, 1 901, Puran Sing presented to the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Japan an interesting paper dealing with the chemical 
properties of cantharidin, the form in which it occurs in the insect 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Ptaarrn. 
April, 1903. 



powder, and finally the methods used in its isolation and estimation. 
These latter the author found defective, and he proposed a simple 
method whereby the powder was saponified with sodium hydrate, 
and the sodium cantharidate thus formed was extracted with alum 
solution, this extract yielding, on concentration, crystals of can- 
tharidin and a basic salt of alum. 

Since then {Jour. Pharm. Soc. Japan, No. 244, June, 1902) Mr. 
Sing has modified this method (called Dr. Nagai's Method, out of 
courtesy) somewhat, and he now recommends first extracting the 
lat and cantharidin with a solvent like chloroform, after which the 
saponification is effected. 

Still another method, which he calls the " nitric-acid process," 
yields even better results. Twenty-five grammes of the powder are 
treated with 10 c.c. of strong nitric acid diluted to 200 c.c, the 
whole evaporated to dryness by the use of a little gypsum and the 
residue extracted with chloroform. The solution yields an abun- 
dance of crystals which are accompanied by a very yellow, heavy, 
oily substance that can be removed by the use of a very small 
amount of ether. The cantharidin is then re-crystallized. By this 
process Japanese cantharides yielded 1-9591 per cent, of canthari- 
din, melting at 207-2 io° C. F. Y. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

UNITED STATES PHARMACOPCEIAL AFFAIRS. 

Dear Editor : — The following circular letter, under date of 
March 18th, from Prof. Jos. P. Remington, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, to the 
members of the committee, may prove of interest to your readers. 

Very truly, 

H. M. Whelpley, 
St. Louis, March 23, 1903. Secretary U.S. P. Convention. 

Meeting of the Diphtheria Antitoxin Committee. — This special 
^committee had its first meeting at 1832 Pine Street, on March 7, 
1903, the following members being present: Dr. Theobald Smith, 
'Chairman, Forest Hills, Boston, Mass.; Dr. E. M. Houghton, 
Detroit, Mich.; Dr. Joseph J. Kinyoun, H. K. Mulford & Co. Lab- 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
April, 1903. 



C orrespondence. 



187 



oratories, Glenolden, Pa.; Dr. Wm. H. Park, Department of Health, 
Borough of Manhattan, New York; Dr. Herbert D. Pease, New 
York State Department of Health, Albany, N. Y. ; Dr. M. J. Rose- 
nau, Director of the Hygienic Laboratory, Marine Hospital Ser- 
vice, Washington, D. C; Dr. H. A. Hare, 1801 Spruce Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Surgeon Thomas C. Craig, U. S. N., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

"The session lasted eight hours, with one hour's intermission for 
dinner. The subject of the propriety of introducing diphtheria anti- 
toxin into the United States Pharmacopoeia was discussed in all its 
bearings. Every member of the committee was desirous of seeing 
diphtheria antitoxin introduced into the next revision, but the dif- 
ficulties of agreeing upon a suitable test proved to be a question that 
consumed much time. It was universally conceded that if it were 
possible to organize a central testing station, either by the Govern- 
ment or under some authority which would be regarded as capable, 
one of the great difficulties would be removed. But it was 
pointed out that if such a station was located at Washington, the 
question of transportation to and fro would be a serious one. Then 
again, the risks incurred in shipping, through breakage and 
exposure to high temperature, would also have to be taken into 
account. The question of having expert official testers visit the 
laboratories, and place the authoritative seal on the product, was 
also discussed. 

" The bacteriological experts at the meeting expressed their satis- 
faction at having the opportunity to meet and confer together, and 
although the question cannot be considered as settled, your Chair- 
man desires to express his satisfaction with the outcome of the meet- 
ing at this stage. Each member of the Special Committee was 
imbued with a desire to give the utmost assistance to our General 
Committee. It was recognized that some method of standardizing 
serum products must be devised, so as to prevent the possibility of 
weak, inefficient, fraudulent or contaminated preparations coming 
upon the market. The method adopted by the German Pharma- 
copoeia of recognizing the standard of the Konigiich preuszische 
Institut flir experimentelle Therapic zu Frankfort a M., and com- 
pelling diphtheria antitoxin to be tested by this authority, was con- 
ceded to be the best method yet proposed. Erlich's test, or one 
equivalent to this, is now generally adopted by manufacturers of 



1 88 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { ^^f; S 3 arm - 

diphtheria antitoxin; but it must be remembered that the distances 
from the manufacturers' laboratories in Germany to the Imperial 
Institute at Frankfort are trifling as compared with the magnificent 
distances to be encountered in the United States, so that the 
question of transportation in this country presents a marked 
contrast. 

" The use of a preservative, whether phenol, tricresol, or some 
other, was discussed, and it was shown that there was a lack of uni- 
formity among the manufacturers in this respect. The question of 
deterioration and limitation labels was also discussed. The meeting 
adjourned, after arranging to meet again on May 1 2th, in Wash- 
ington." 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Revue des Medicaments Nouveatjx et de quelques medications 
nouvelles. Par C. Crinon, Pharmacien de premiere classe. Membre 
de la Societe de Pharmacie de Paris et de la Societe des Therapeu- 
tique. Directeur du Repertoire de Pharmacie et des Annales de 
Chimie analytiques. io e edition, Revue et augmentee. Paris : 
Rueff et Cie, Editeurs, 106 Boulevard Saint-Germain, 1903. 

This, the tenth edition of this popular French handbook on the 
newer remedies, has just come to hand. From an American point 
of view the first impression of the book is rather one of disap- 
pointment. 

This is due to the fact that a number of pages of advertisements 
are bound in with the book. This is, fortunately, a feature that has 
not been adopted by the more progressive (?) publishers in this 
country, and it is to be hoped never will. 

Outside of this objectionable feature the book has a number of 
novel and meritorious points of vantage. It contains upward of 400 
closely printed pages and includes practically all of the newer reme- 
dies that have been introduced in France. In addition to this, the 
book also contains a number of titles of drugs and chemicals that, 
while they cannot be classed among the newer remedies, are not 
included in the official French standard, the Codex. 

Among the newer remedies that have been included in this the 
tenth edition, we find adrenalin, arrhenal, bismutose, cypridol, 



Am Aprii;i903! ruJ '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 189 

histogenol, hypnopyrine, mesotan, rheumatin, saloquinine and 
ulmarene. 

The general plan has evidently been to give for each preparation, 
where possible, the mode of preparation, its physical properties and 
chemical tests where any are known, the most desirable forms of 
dispensing or administering the remedy followed by its physiologic 
and therapeutic properties and the dose. 

The arrangement of the contained matter is alphabetical, and this 
is supplemented by a very complete index covering fourteen double- 
column pages and containing upward of 1,200 references. 

The amount of useful and practical information, coupled with the 
price, which is only 4 francs, should make this book popular with 
all pharmacists who are conversant with the French language. 

M. I. Wilbert. 



Anleitung zur Erkennung und Prufung aller im Arzneibuch 
fur das Deutsche Reich (Veirte Ausgabe) aufgenommenen Arz- 
neimittel. Von Dr. Max Biechle. Elfte vielvach vermehrte und 
verbesserte auflage. Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1902. 

The popularity of this interesting little book is evidenced by the 
fact that this, the eleventh edition, was needed within a year of the 
publication of the tenth, which was noticed in this Journal for Feb- 
ruary, 1902, page 85. 

The book itself comprises 490 pages, and contains a description 
and explanations of the uses of all the tests given in the last edition 
of the German Pharmacopoeia. In addition to this it also contains 
some general directions, a number of tables copied from the Phar- 
macopoeia, a list of reagents and volumetric solutions, a table of the 
melting and boiling points of a number of substances enumerated 
in the German Pharmacopoeia, also another giving the solubility, in 
a number of solvents, of the official chemicals. In addition to this 
we find a resume of the iodine number of the fatty oils, also the 
acid, ester and saponification numbers for a number of substances, 
and a list giving the required fineness of the powder of a number of 
vegetable drugs, with an indication of the preparations in which 
they are to be used. 

Altogether the contained material has been arranged in such a 
way that it is not alone readily available for reference, but is par- 
ticularly valuable for comparison and study. M. I. W. 



190 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am A J P O rn r ;i903 arm ' 

A Guide to the Practical Examination of Urine, for the use 
of physicians and students. By James Tyson. Tenth edition. 
Revised and corrected, with a colored plate and wood engravings. 
Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1012 Walnut Street. 1902. 
Price, $1.50 net. 

Tyson's " Guide to the Practical Examination of Urine " is prob- 
ably better known to pharmacists and physicians than any other 
analytical work. Other books of merit there are, but Tyson's was 
the first to appear that presented the subject with conciseness and 
authority, and while primarily written for the busy physician, has 
also been utilized by the practising pharmacist in his work as the 
analyst for the physician. The present work has been carefully 
revised and some matter expunged. The part treating of the micro- 
organisms found in urine might be enlarged upon as modern path- 
ology would seem to indicate. 

A Handbook of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 
Including the physiological action of drugs, the special therapeutics 
of disease, official and practical pharmacy, and minute directions for 
prescription-writing. By Samuel O. L. Potter. Ninth edition. 
Revised and enlarged. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 
1012 Walnut Street. 1902. Price, $5 net. 

It is only a year since the eighth edition of this handbook was 
reviewed in this Journal. The following articles have been re- 
written : Adrenal Extract, Argentum, Cinchona, Coca, Coffee, 
Digitalis, Dulcin, Ergot, Ferrum, Ipecacuanha, Myrrha, Sacchari- 
num and Veratrum viride. The new matter includes paragraphs 
on Actol, Airol, Argentamin, Argentol, Argonin, Chinosol, Creosotal, 
Dionine, Dormiol, Equinine, Eucaine, Eudoxin, Glycerophosphates, 
Heroine, Holocaine, Iodomuth, Iodothyrin, Itrol, Largin, Mirvanin, 
Nosophen, Orphol, Orthoform, Passiflora, Pellotine, Peronine, Phlo- 
ridzin, Piperidin, Protarzol, Tuberculin.R, Urotropin, Xeroform and 
Zinc stearite. 

In the section on Therapeutics new articles were inserted on Local 
anesthesia, Beriberi, Dhobic itch, Tropical fevers, Heat stroke, 
Hemoglobinuric fevers, Lymphadenoma, Miliaria, Bubonic plague, 
Spine, Tinea imbricata, Tinea versicolor and Toxemia. Thirty-two 
articles have been rewritten and the text of many articles have been 
expanded, by the incorporation of more than 300 items from current 



Am A J p°rn r ;i903 arra '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 191 

medical literature and from the author's personal experience in 
practice. 

This interesting and valuable work is only marred by the author's 
frequent reference to " the objectional practises of pharmaceutists," 
which appears to be based on some prejudice rather than on good 
reason. Dr. Potter says, " many dispensing pharmaceutists are in 
the habit of making infusions from concentrated alcoholic tinct- 
ures or from fluid extracts. It is a very reprehensible practice, 
especially in those cases where the active ingredients are of a resin- 
ous nature, and therefore precipitate when the alcoholic solution is 
added to water." The infusions he mentions are of cinchona, digi- 
talis, wild cherry and compound senna. None of these drugs con- 
tain resins, and, we may add, there are many apothecaries that we 
know throughout the United States who would not think of making 
these or other infusions except directly from the drug. 

On page 554 Dr. Potter says, " the drug store of the present day 
has degenerated so much from its legitimate business that ere long 
physicians will be compelled in self-defense to dispense their own 
medicines, thereby protecting themselves and their patients from 
the patent-medicine vending, the counter-prescribing and the many 
other nefarious methods which have degraded the pharmacist from 
his old professional position to that of a mere trader in drugs and 
nostrums." Again, on page 546, Dr. Potter says, " it is doubtless a 
fact familiar to every observer that the old-time confidential rela» 
tions between the professions of physician and pharmacist have 
almost passed into oblivion. In fact, the tendency of pharmacy 
nowadays is toward the position of mere money-making trade, 
instead of in the exalted direction of a profession. The indis- 
criminate renewing of prescriptions, the open sale of quack nos- 
trums and homeopathic pellets, the readiness with which counter- 
prescribing is indulged in, the insinuations too frequently made over 
the drug-counter in reflection on physicians, and many other similar 
practices, have caused the non-combatant pro'ession to regard the 
average druggist with suspicion." All these statements seem very 
strange and irrelevant in a text-book, and were they in accord with 
facts we would admit it to be a lamentable condition of affairs; 
but it is hard to believe that they can exist in any part of the 
United States other than in the mind of him who writes, and we 
cannot help but believe that Dr. Potter is either misinformed or he 



192 



Obituaries. 



( Am. Jour. Pharni. 
X April, 1903. 



has some prejudice against a class of men who are eager to serve 
the medical profession and who want to live as nearly professional 
lives as physicians do. We do not think that such insinuations do 
credit to either the author or the profession which he represents. 



OBITUARIES. 

PROF. J. J. B. ARGENTI. 

Jerome Jean Baptiste Argenti was born in Baltimore in 1861, his 
father being an Italian and his mother an American. When he was 
four years old the family removed to San Francisco, where he was 
educated at St. Mary's College, receiving the degree of B.A. He 
then entered the pharmacy ot Leon Di Nola, where he devoted his 
spare time chiefly to the study of botany. He afterwards attended 
the California College of Pharmacy, graduating with honors in 1881. 
About this time he was made Instructor in Botany in his alma 
mater, and was employed as pharmacist by W. M. Searby. After a 
few years he was appointed Instructor in Materia Medica. As he 
was expert in microscopic work and a skilful photographer, he was 
appointed Professor of Microscopy, Vegetable Histology and Phar- 
macognosy, when the College first began to instruct its students in 
the use of the microscope. On the resignation of Dr. H. H. Behr 
from the chair of Botany, Professor Argenti was at once chosen, at 
Dr. Behr's request, to fill the vacancy. Again, in 1897, when Prof. 
W. M. Searby was called to the chair of Pharmacy in the same 
College, his work in materia medica was given to Professor Argenti 
and held by him up to the time of his death. All of these positions 
he filled very ably, being a patient, painstaking teacher, and having 
the esteem of his students. 

Professor Argenti was a man of unusual natural ability, apparently 
learning with ease anything to which he applied himself. He was 
of a modest and retiring disposition ; so much so that he was always 
reluctant to take a prominent part in public. He was active in the 
affairs of the Alumni Association of the California College of Phar- 
macy, of the Microscopical Society and of the Camera Club, in all 
of which he held important offices at various times. In college 
affairs he was stanch in his advocacy of high standards of entrance 
and graduation. He passed away in the prime of life, having been 
engaged in his professional duties only a few days before his death, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1903. 



Obituaries. 



193 



which is believed to have been caused by an embolism following a 
surgical operation. He leaves a wife and two children — both quite 
young. W. M. Searby. 

ERNST BILTZ. 

Ernst Biltz, a corresponding member of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, died at Erfurt, Germany, on January 10, 1903, in his 
eighty- first year. 

From the laudatory expressions of one who.knew him, and had 
come directly under his influence, it would appear that Ernst Biltz 
was one of those singularly gifted characters that have ideas and 
ideals far above the wants and needs of their immediate surround- 
ings. Biltz was truly one of the pioneers of modern scientific phar- 
macy ; his rare gitts as a fluent speaker, a skilled experimenter and 
a facile writer, combined with his originality of thought and genial 
disposition, made him an actual incorporation ot the ideal of the 
German apotheker. His abilities and efforts have been generally 
recognized, both at home as well as abroad. In his native city he 
was repeatedly honored, active as well as honorary offices having 
been given him from time to time. 

On the occasion of his celebrating his fiftieth anniversary as an 
apothecary, the University of Marburg bestowed on him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Ernst Biltz was a member of a number of scientific societies, 
among others of the Royal Academy at Erfurt, in which he had 
the rare honor of being able to celebrate his fiftieth anniversary as 
a member in 1 900. Among other scientific bodies he was elected 
an honorary member of the Thliringer Botanical Society, the 
German Pharmaceutical Association and the German Society of 
Apothecaries. 

Ernst Biltz was born in Erfurt, Germany, on July 26, 1822. After 
attending the local schools he went to Berlin to attend the lectures 
at the University. In 1847 he became the proprietor of the Griine 
Apotheke in Erfurt, succeeding his father, who had received the 
concession in the early part of the last century. 

The life of Ernst Biltz was not alone a long one, it was also a par- 
ticularly active one up to the time of his death. In addition to 
taking an active interest in the development of pharmacy along 
scientific lines, he was also a liberal contributor to various scientific 
societies on matters pertaining to other branches of natural science, 
particularly botany. 



i 9 4 



Obituaries, 



Am. .Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1903. 



His widespread and thorough knowledge, his thoroughness in the 
practice of his profession and his love and devotion for the advance- 
ment of scientific truths will insure his name being cherished and 
held in esteem by the more progressive members of the pharmaceu- 
tical profession throughout the world. 

M. I. Wilbert. 

GEORGE W. SLOAN. 

Dr. George W. Sloan, the head of the Sloan Drug Company, of 
Indianapolis, Ind., died at his home in that city on February 15, 
1903. For several years he was a lecturer on Pharmacy in the 
Indiana Medical College, which institution conferred on him the 
honorary degree of M.D. Purdue University, in recognition of his 
services to pharmacy, honored him by conferring on him the title 
of Doctor of Pharmacy. 

Dr. Sloan was born in Harrisburg, Pa., in 1835, from which place 
his parents removed to Indianapolis in 1837. After attending such 
schools as that Western city had to offer sixty years ago, young 
Sloan entered the drug store of his uncle, David Craighead, as an 
apprentice. In the fall of 1856 he entered as a student in the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, but only attended one course of 
lectures. 

Dr. Sloan always took a deep interest in matters pertaining to the 
advancement of pharmacy as a profession. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1857, and in 
1879 was elected its president. He also served the Association in 
other official capacities : as a member of important committees, a 
member of Council, and as local agent for Indianapolis. 

Dr. Sloan was also an active member of his State Association, 
being one of its ex-presidents. For a number of years he was a 
member of the Indiana State Board of Pharmacy, and at the time 
of his death was secretary of the same. 

Outside of his chosen profession Dr. Sloan took an active interest 
in public and educational affairs, and was well known to, and highly 
respected by, the citizens of Indianapolis. M. I. W. 

MAHLON K. SMITH. 

Mahlon K. Smith, the president of the Smith, Kline & French 
Company, died at his home in Philadelphia on March 4, 1903. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1903. 



Obituaries. 



195 



Mr. Smith was born in Salfordville, Montgomery County, Pa., 
December 22, 1830. He learned the drug business with his uncle, 
George K. Smith, and later became associated with him under the 
firm name of George K. Smith & Co. The firm had extensive busi- 
ness connections throughout the Southern States. During the Civil 
War this trade was of course entirely cut off, and the firm discon- 
tinued in 1862. 

Mahlon K. Smith then formed a partnership with George G. Shoe- 
maker. Several years later the firm name was changed to Mahlon 
K. Smith & Co., and about 1870 was again changed to Smith, Kline 
& Co. The business of this firm rapidly increased and in 1887 they 
removed to their large new building, 429-435 Arch Street. The 
concern was incorporated in 1888 as the Smith, Kline Company. 

Several years later, 1891, Mr. French was associated with the 
company and the title changed to 4< The Smith, Kline & French 
Company." Up to within a few weeks of his death Mr. Smith took 
a keen interest in the affairs of the company and, despite the fact 
that he had not been actively engaged in the details of the manage- 
ment for several years, it was his practice to spend at least a few 
hours each day at the office of the company. M. I. W. 

W, NELSON STEM. 

W. Nelson Stem, who for four years had acted as registrar at the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, died suddenly in the library of 
that institution on the afternoon of Saturday, March 14, 1903. 

Mr. Stem was born in Fredericksburg, Va., May 12, 1849. After 
attending Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., he entered as a student at 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, graduating in 1873. F°r 
many years he was one of the most active members of the Alumni 
Association, serving successively as one of its directors, vice-presi- 
dents and president. He was elected president in 1890. He also 
served on a number of important committees and for several years 
was business manager of the Alumni Report. He was elected a 
member of the College in 1889, and in 1899 was elected recording 
secretary. Several years later he was made secretary to the Board 
of Trustees. Among other services rendered the College it may be 
mentioned that in 1899 he was one of a committee appointed to 
revise the by-laws. A widow and one son survive him. 

M. I. W. 



196 



Obituaries. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 April, 1903. 



GEORGE W. KENNEDY. 

George W. Kennedy, a life-member of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy and one of the best-known members of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, died December 22, 1902, at his home 
in Pottsville, Pa., after an illness of only two days. 

Mr. Kennedy was born in Philadelphia, February 22, 1843. After 
attending rather a limited number of terms in the public schools of 
his native city he was apprenticed to an apothecary to learn the art 
and business. At the beginning of the Civil War young Kennedy 
thought it his duty to join the Army of the North, and on September 
15, 1862, he enlisted in Company G, 3d Pennsylvania Reserves. 
He was wounded on December 13th of the same year and sent to a 
Government hospital in Philadelphia. During convalescence he 
found opportunity to attend the lectures at the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy. 

He re-enlisted again the following year (1863) and served through 
the remaining years of the war, being mustered out with his regi- 
ment in 1865, having served the last two years as Hospital Steward. 

Several years later he found opportunity to re-enter the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy as a student and graduated in 1869. His 
sense of duty as a pharmacist is well illustrated in the fact that in 
this same year (1869) he also joined the American Pharmaceutical 
Association and became a member of this College. 

Well equipped and with high ideals, it would be surprising indeed 
if he had not succeeded in a business way. After graduating from 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy Mr. Kennedy served a short 
time in a drug store in Pottsville and then opened a store on his 
own account in Mahanoy City. This he sold later and returned to 
Pottsville, where he opened the business which has flourished so well. 

Mr. Kennedy had ideals above the mere accumulation of wealth ; 
he was always willing and anxious to share the results of his prac- 
tical experiences with others. This is well illustrated by the 
numerous papers, of a practical nature, to be found in the files ot 
the American Journal of Pharmacy or the volumes of the " Pro- 
ceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association ; " these, 
together, number upward of half a hundred. 

Mr. Kennedy was also ready and willing to serve his fellow- 
pharmacists in an official capacity. This is shown by his service as 
secretary to the Council of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion and the Committee on Membership. 



Am Ap°rii r ;im rm -} Obituaries. 197 

In the State Association he was also a leader and one of the 
foremost workers. 

As a member of the State Board of Pharmacy, particularly as its 
president, he has done much to put the practice of pharmacy in the 
State of Pennsylvania on a higher professional plane. 

As a citizen of the State, or of the city of his choice, it may be 
said that his integrity and probity were highly appreciated ; he was, 
for several terms, a member of the State Legislature, and was 
deeply concerned in nearly every educational and philanthropic 
movement in Pottsville. His connection with these charitable and 
benevolent institutions made him endeared to his fellow- citizens, 
who deeply regret his loss. 

He leaves a widow and four children. Two of the sons are phy- 
sicians in the service of the United States. 

The appreciation of his work, and his efficiency as an officer cf 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, is well illustrated in the 
preamble and resolution adopted by the council. 

M. I. W. 

T. MORRIS PEROT. 

T. Morris Perot, a prominent and well-known citizen of Philadel- 
phia, died at his home, 1810 Pine Street, on November 15, 1902, 
after a long and lingering illness. Of Mr. Perot it may be truly 
said that he was one of those broad-minded, public -spirited 
individuals who consider it a duty to take an interest in all 
that pertains to the advancement or the welfare of their fellow- 
citizens. 

Born in Philadelphia, May 8, 1828, he was the son of the lafe 
Francis Perot, a descendant of a French Huguenot family that 
came to this country about 1685. After the usual preliminary 
schooling of the early days, young Perot was apprenticed to the 
drug firm of Jenks & Ogden. He later entered the employ of Chas. 
Ellis & Co., and was for some time foreman of their laboratory. 

The story of this store and laboratory has been recently told by 
Evan T. Ellis (American Journal of Pharmacy, 1903, page 57). 

After leaving Ellis & Co. Mr. Perot engaged in business for him- 
self, being located at 621 Market Street, and doing business unde r 
the firm name of T. Morris Perot & Co., until about 1869, when his 
place of business was destroyed by fire. 



198 



Obituaries. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1903. 



Mr. Perot attended the lectures at the College of Pharmacy, and 
graduated in 1849, writing his inaugural dissertation on chloroform, 
then a comparatively new drug and one that was attracting consid- 
erable attention. 

Mr. Perot was elected a member of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy in 1856, and in 1859 was nominated and elected a mem- 
ber of its Board of Trustees, in which capacity he served uninter- 
ruptedly to the time of his death. For more than twenty years he 
has acted as chairman of the Board. 

He was also a life member of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, joining at the second meeting in Philadelphia in 1857. 

In addition to these associations, that were, of course, more or 
less closely connected with his business or professional training, 
Mr. Perot also took a deep interest in the municipality and its citi- 
zens. From an early date he was connected with a number of 
charitable or benevolent institutions. It may be well to mention a 
few of the institutions with which his name was connected, just to 
show the catholicity of his philanthropic spirit. 

For more than thirty-five years he was president of the Woman's 
Medical College of Pennsylvania, the oldest institution of its kind 
in this country if not in the world. 

In 1 861 Mr. Perot was elected president of the Mercantile Library 
Company, then situated at Fifth and Library Streets. Under his 
administration this institution has flourished and has done much to 
spread knowledge and learning among the inhabitants of the city. 
For nearly half a century Mr. Perot was the treasurer of the 
Friends' Charity Fund Association, and of the Northern Soup 
Society. In addition to these he was connected with the Society to 
Protect Children from Cruelty, the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, and the Maternity Hospital. 

Mr. Perot also took an active interest in all attempts to improve 
local government. 

During its existence, he was a member of the celebrated Com- 
mittee of One Hundred, and later became prominently identified 
with the Citizens' Municipal Association. 

He was also a member of the Union League and the Society of 
the Sons of the Revolution. 

In 1 870 Mr. Perot succeeded to his father's business, the Francis 



Am Ap°r , ii r ;So h 3! rm *} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 199 

Perot's Sons Malting Company, one of the oldest business houses 
in this country. 

As a business man Mr. Perot was eminently successful, up to 
within a few years ago, when his health became impaired and his 
eyesight affected. He was a particularly active man. In addition 
to his very flourishing malt business he was also interested in the 
United States Security Life Insurance and Trust Company, as well 
as a number of manufacturing concerns. Mr. Perot leaves one son, 
T. Morris Perot, Jr. M. I. W. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular monthly pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held Tuesday afternoon, March 24th, the 
meeting having been postponed for one week on account of the 
death of the Registrar of the College, W. Nelson Stem. James T. 
Shinn, the Treasurer of the College, presided. 

The first paper on the program was one by Professor Wilbur L. 
Scoville, of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, and was entitled 
" Standards for Flavoring Extracts." It was read, owing to the 
absence of the author, by Mr. Freeman P. Stroup (see page 151). 
In discussing the paper, Prof. C. B. Lowe cited several instances 
showing how the sense of taste varies in different classes of people, 
and accorded with the views stated by Professor Scoville. He also 
emphasized the necessity of keeping vanilla extract some time before 
using it. Mr. Stroup stated that at one time in his experience he 
made up a number of grades of vanilla extract, and that the ex- 
tracts containing tonka bean sold better than those made from 
vanilla alone. 

Herbert J. Watson, of Wilmington, Del., read a paper on "A 
Modification of Nessler's Tube " (see page 166), and demonstrated 
the manner of using the apparatus. He also exhibited some paraffin 
stoppers which are intended for use in bacteriological work, the 
object being to prevent the evaporation ot moisture and to lessen 
the contamination of cultures with fungi. 

Mr. Wilbert said that he had preserved syrup of iodide of iron by 
covering a cotton plug with melted paraffin. Mr. Stroup asked if 
paraffin corks would answer this purpose, to which Mr. Watson re- 
plied that they were not satisfactory. 



200 



Notes and News. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
Apiil, 1903. 



M. I. Wilbert, apothecary at the German Hospital, read a paper 
entitled "Some Notes on Essential Oils" (see page 155). The 
paper was accompanied by a large number of specimens which were 
furnished by Messrs. Fritzsche Brothers, of New York, as fol- 
lows: Oils of peppermint, mustard, clove (artificial), sweet birch, 
bitter almonds, cassia, cassia (artificial), sandalwood and oil of rose 
(artificial). Dr. Clemens Kleber, of the Heyden Chemical Works, 
Garfield, N. J., sent a sample of synthetic oil of wintergreen. Fries 
Brothers exhibited several of their synthetic products, as follows : 
Lavendol, rhodinol, cimandrol, etc. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

A. B. Prescott, professor of chemistry in the University of Michigan, has 
recently had conferred upon him the degree of LIv.D. by Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. — The Pro- 
ceedings of the third annual meeting, which was held at Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 12-15, I 9° 2 > have just been issued. The address of the President, Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, is devoted, in the main, to the consideration of the 
question of securing legislation in the various States whereby Boards of Phar- 
macy shall require candidates for examination to possess a college diploma. 
The question was embodied in a resolution which was subsequently adopted 
by the Conference. 

The officers for the ensuing year are : President, Edward Kremers, Madi- 
son, Wis.; Vice-President, Henry H. Rusby, New York City ; Secretary -Treas- 
urer, Wilbur L. Scoville, Boston. Members of Executive Committee: J. H. 
Beal, Charles Caspari, Jr., Oscar Oldberg, Lucius E. Sayre and Edsel A. Rud- 
diman. 

The American Electro-Chemical Society is to hold its third general 
meeting in New York City on April 16, 17 and 18, 1903. A comprehensive 
program has been arranged and a large attendance is expected. The meetings 
will be held in the large assembly hall of the Chemists' Club, 108 West Fifty- 
fifth Street. By courtesy of the Chemists' Club, its club-house, including the 
library of the American Chemical Society, will be open for use of members and 
visitors. By courtesy of the German Liederkranz, its club-house, 111-119 
East Fifty-eighth Street, will also be open to members and guests during the 
convention. Membership buttons will secure admittance. 

The Fifth International Congress of Applied Chemistrv will be 
held in Berlin, beginning May 31st, this being the first time it has been held 
in Germany. The President of the Congress is Professor Dr. Otto N. Witt, 
and the work will be done in eleven sections. Dr. H. W. Wiley, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, is the Chairman of the American 
Committee of Organization. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MAY, igoj. 



COMMERCIAL ALOES * 

By Martin I. Wii,bert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The widespread use and general popularity, as well as the com- 
mercial importance, of aloes are indicated by the fact that this drug 
is official in every known national Pharmacopoeia. 1 There is, how- 
ever, quite a difference of opinion as to the therapeutically most 
desirable or most active variety of aloes. There also appears to be 
considerable confusion or misunderstanding as to the origin or 
sources of the existing commercial varieties of the drug. 

With a view of collecting some reliable data as to the differences 
in quality or source of origin of the aloes sold under the varying 
trade names at the present time, a systematic study of a number of 
available samples was undertaken. 

For these samples, as well as for a number of valuable sugges- 
tions, I am indebted to wholesale druggists, drug brokers, importers 
and manufacturers in different parts of the country, and also to Messrs. 
Gehe & Co., Dresden-Neu-Stadt, Germany ; Mr. Elias W. Cheney, 
U. S. Consul, Curacao, Dutch W. I. ; and Mr. S. A. Macallister, 
U. S. Consul, Barbadoes, W. I. The uniformly courteous replies to 
letters of inquiry, or to requests for samples, indicate a spirit of 
willingness to foster and aid any inquiry that has for its object the 
collection and dissemination of legitimate information. 



* A thesis presented to the Dean of the Faculty of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy for the degree of Master of Pharmacy in course, April, 1903. 

(201) 



202 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



HISTORY. 

The history of the early use of aloes is decidedly meagre. 
According to the editors of the Pharmacographia, 2 the earliest 
reliable references to this drug are to be found in The Natural His- 
tory of Pliny, and in the Materia Medica of Dioscorides. There 
can be no doubt, however, that aloes had been in use for a very long 
time before the days of either Pliny or Dioscorides. 

This opinion would appear to be corroborated by Dragendorff, 3 
who states that aloes is included among the drugs mentioned in the 
papyrus discovered by Ebers in Egypt. 

The plant was cultivated and the drug produced in southern 
Europe, along the shores of the Mediterranean, at an early date. 
Treumann, 4 in his monograph on aloes, mentions a number of refer- 
ences that would appear to bear out this statement, and also indicate 
that as late as the sixteenth century a very good quality of aloes 
was being produced, at least in Spain. 

The aloes mentioned in the Bible is of entirely different origin, 
and was used for a different purpose. In the East this ahaloth, or 
aloe wood, is used even at the present time as an ingredient in the 
sweet-smelling incense used in connection with religious cele- 
brations. 4 

The more interesting portion of the history of aloes is that con- 
nected with the development of the various trade varieties of the 
drug. 

This more recent history is given in considerable detail in the 
Pharmacographia, 2 Fluckiger's Pharmacognosies Pereira's Materia 
Medica, 6 and also in an interesting article by Prof. J. Uri Lloyd, 
published in the Western Druggist} 

We shall have occasion to refer to some of these authorities again 
later, when we come to consider aloes under the different trade 
names. 

It may be interesting here to review these different trade names 
as they appear in works of reference at different periods during the 
nineteenth century. 

The American Dispensatory, 8 at the beginning of last century, 
gives a description of four available varieties of aloes. These were : 

" (i) Cape Aloes. — Cheap; imported into England in large quan- 
tities, chiefly for use of porter-brewers. 

" (2) Socotrine Aloes. — From the Island of Socotra, usually wrapt 
in skins. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



203 



" (3) Barbadoes or Hepatic Aloes. — From the West Indies. 

" (4) Fetid, Caballine or Horse Aloes. — An inferior and grossly- 
adulterated variety of the drug." 

This same classification, or rather these same trade names, have 
come down to us with but slight changes. The first three are used 
extensively even at the present time and, as we shall see later, more 
often as a matter of convenience, or as a designation for a certain 
physical quality than as an indication of the geographical source or 
origin of the drug. 

Pereira, in his Materia Medica, 6 states that he had met with eight 
varieties of aloes in trade at that time. 

Of Socotrine aloes he says : " This was formerly brought by way 
of Smyrna and is still called ' Turkey aloes.' It is now imported 
almost exclusively from Bombay." Pereira also notes that this kind 
of aloes varied considerably in consistence and color, and that it 
usually came in skins, which he supposed were skins of gazelles. 

Genuine Hepatic Aloes. — This Pereira describes as liver-colored 
Socotrine aloes. This also came to the London markets by way of 
Bombay, and was often called Bombay or East-Indian aloes. 

Barbadoes Aloes. — Aloes in gourds weighing from 60 to 70 
pounds. It was usually of a dull opaque liver-color, and was not 
infrequently called hepatic aloes. 

Cape aloes, Pereira says, " comes in chests or skins ; it has a shin- 
ing resinous appearance." 

Fetid, horse or caballine aloes was thought by Pereira to be an 
impure or cheap grade of aloes, without any specific origin. 

Mocha aloes was said to be another species of cheap aloes often 
adulterated with sand, strings, etc. 

Indian Aloes. — Of this Pereira says there were several kinds. 
That from Northern India was black and brittle, somewhat resem- 
bling Barbadoes aloes. 

Guzerat aloes resembled the above, but was not so brittle. 

Salem aloes was dark, but more gummy. 

Trichinopoli aloes resembled Cape aloes in brittleness, odor and 
color, but was more opaque. 

Curacao Aloes — Pereira says : " While not commercial in London, 
is used to some extent in Holland. It is said to resemble Cape 
aloes more than that from Barbadoes." The United States Dispen- 
satory 9 of about the same period describes but four varieties of the 
drug. These were Cape, Socotrine, Hepatic and Barbadoes aloes. 



204 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Dr. Squibb, 10 in a report on the state of the drug market during 
the early years of the Civil War, says: " The better grades of aloes 
have been scarce, while the inferior grades of aloes, such as Cape, 
Curacao, Bonaire and Barbadoes, have been quite abundant." This 
appears to be one of the early references to Bonaire aloes as a dis- 
tinct variety. 

Professor Maisch, u in his Materia Medica, mentions Socotrine, 
Barbadoes, Cape, Mocha, Caballine and Natal aloes. The latter is 
described as " light yellowish gray-brown, dull and opaque, crystal- 
line under the microscope." 

The United States Dispensatory of about the same date mentions 
Natal aloes as a variety of Cape aloes. 12 

At the present time the different national Pharmacopoeias recog- 
nize but three separate kinds of aloes : 1 

Socotrine, official in the United States, 14 British, 15 Roumanian and 
Portuguese Pharmacopoeias. 

Cape, a glossy, transparent variety, is official in all the European 
Pharmacopoeias. 

Barbadoes, official in the United States, 14 British 15 and several of 
the European Pharmacopoeias. 

In addition to these official varieties, we find the following names 
mentioned either in the price-lists of wholesale druggists or in con- 
temporary pharmaceutic literature : Curacao, Bonaire, Uganda and 
Jaffarabad. These different trade names will be referred to more in 
detail in a later portion of this paper. 

BOTANICAL ORIGIN AND SOURCES. 

Engler and Prantl, in their exhaustive work on the useful plants, 
say: "There are more than eighty-five species of Aloe, of which 
uoward of sixty are found in Cape Colony and are indigenous to it. 
There is but one variety on the island of Socotra (Aloe Perryi, 
Baker), and this is usually mentioned as the source of the so-called 
Socotrine aloes." 

The most northern species of aloes (Aloe Vera, Lin., Aloe Barba- 
densis, Miller) is probably indigenous to the northern shore of 
Africa, and from there has gradually spread to the southern shores 
of Europe, to Syria, Arabia, the East Indies, and later to the islands 
of the West Indies, principally Barbadoes. 

Aloe Chinensis, Baker, is regarded by Engler and Prantl as belong- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



205 



ing to this species, slightly modified by cultivation, soil or other 
environments. If this opinion is correct, and the difference between 
Aloe Vera and Aloe Chinensis 17 is merely an acquired one, due to 
soil or climate, it would readily explain the supposed occurrence of 
a modified Aloe Chinensis in the West Indian Islands. 

Aloe Vera, Lin., may be properly regarded, then, as the source 
of the so-called Barbadoes and Curacao aloes. 

Aloe Ferox, Miller, has been definitely determined by Tschirch 18 
to be the source of Cape aloes as well as of the new crown or 
Uganda aloes. 

The source of Natal aloes has never been positively determined. 
Holmes 19 has suggested that this variety of aloes was largely if not 
entirely obtained from Aloe Socotrina, Lam. 

Jaffarabad aloes has been variously said to be obtained from Aloe 
Abyssinica, Lam., Aloe rubescens, D. C, and Aloe Indica, Royle. In 
this connection it would appear desirable that a concerted attempt 
be made to definitely identify the various plants furnishing what is 
now usually sold as Socotrine Aloes. 

SOCOTRINE ALOES. 

The Island of Socotra is usually considered to be the original 
source of the drug aloes. Alexander the Great, 333 B. C, is said 
to have sent a commission to the Island of Socotra 20 to investigate 
the production of aloes. 

Engler and Prantl 16 give an interesting account of the gathering 
of Socotrine aloes. This product, it appears, is called by the natives 
of the Island " Jayef," and by the Arabs, " Scobr." 

The process of gathering is very simple. A depression is made in 
the ground and this -is lined with a goat- or a sheep-skin. The aloe 
leaves being cut off near their base are laid around this depression, 
so that the exuding juice flows into and is retained by the skin. 
From Socotra this watery juice is occasionally exported to Muscat 
and Arabia. The greater portion of the gathered juice, however, is 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously. After a month, when it has 
become quite thick and viscid, it has become decidedly more valu- 
able and is called Jayef Gesheeshah. After continued evaporation 
for several weeks more, when it has become quite hard, it is called 
Jayef Kasahul, and corresponds to the most desirable quality of so- 
called Socotrine aloes. It is known as Aloe lucida, has a decidedly 



206 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 1903. 



glossy appearance, and varies from a grayish-yellow to red in color. 
In thin layers it is transparent and gives a light yellow powder. 

Very little or none of this true Socotrine aloes comes into the 
Western markets. This latter opinion is corroborated by every 
writer that has ever investigated the probable source of Socotrine 
aloes. Lloyd 7 gives several references that bear out this statement* 
Squibb 21 says that the aloes which reaches this market from the 
shipping ports Bombay, Muscat, Aden and Zanzibar are all classed 
as Socotrine aloes, irrespective of their botanic or geographic origin 
or source. Dohme, 22 in referring to this same statement, says that 
the soft, dark and malodorous variety occasionally sold as Socotrine 
aloes is known as Mocha aloes in the East, and comes from the 
interior of Southern Arabia. 

Dr. E. R. Squibb, 21 in speaking of the method of preparing Soco- 
trine aloes, says: "An incidental disadvantage of the Eastern method 
of inspissating aloe juice is the fact that the aloes always contains a 
much larger percentage of foreign matter, such as sand, shreds of 
aloe plants, splinters of various kinds and sizes, nails, bits of leather, 
and even the rude implements used for cutting the leaves." 

A method of purifying Socotrine aloes was introduced into the 
United States Pharmacopoeia in i860, and has been retained through 
three revisions. According to Dr. Squibb, who was instrumental in 
introducing " purified aloes," the loss in purifying and powdering 
Socotrine aloes varies from 7 to 22 per cent. 

CAPE ALOES. 

Aloes has been produced in Cape Colony since 1773 and has been 
an important article of commerce ever since. Cape aloes is recog- 
nized in nearly all of the European Pharmacopeeias; it was dropped 
from the Pharmacopoeia of the United States in 1880, but is still 
used in this country to a very considerable extent, being preferred 
by many medical practitioners, particularly those of German or 
European training, on account of its more reliable, but milder 
action. 20 Genuine Cape aloes, as usually seen, has a glossy, trans- 
lucent appearance ; black in reflected light, reddish to yellowish- 
brown in transmitted light. It is brittle when dry, and can be 
easily powdered, giving a yellowish-green or yellowish-brown pow- 
der, the latter usually having a decidedly greenish tinge. 

According to the German Pharmacopoeia, 24 " aloes should be 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



207 



vitreous, have a conchoidal fracture, dark brown color, peculiar 
odor and bitter taste. It should give transparent splinters that do 
not show crystals under the microscope." 

In addition to these physical properties the same Pharmacopoeia 
also gives a number of tests for identity and purity, some of which 
will be referred to in connection with the discussion on the chemical 
constituents of aloes. 

While it is true that the German Pharmacopoeia does not specifi- 
cally call for Cape aloes, or aloes from Cape Colony, Schneider and 
Siiss, 25 in their commentary, say that Cape aloes is the only avail- 
able variety that corresponds in all respects to the requirements of 
this Pharmacopoeia. 

This restriction to Cape aloes has been extensively commented 
upon, but usually favorably. Of the arguments that have been 
advanced in favor of this variety of aloes, we may mention that 
in 1 Germany this grade of aloes is usually considered the most 
reliable as well as the most active. 20 Then, too, the argument has 
been advanced by drug brokers 26 that Cape aloes is always available 
and usually in sufficient quantities of uniform quality. In the past 
forty years it is said Cape aloes has been scarce but once, while 
other varieties have been repeatedly scarce and sometimes disap- 
peared entirely. 

Despite the fact that Cape aloes has been an article of commerce 
for upwards of 125 years, the botanical source of the drug, as well 
as the exact method of gathering and preparing, has been the subject 
of much controversy. 

Professor Tschirch, in a recent number of the Schzveizerische Woch- 
enschrift}* states that Cape aloes is obtained exclusively from Aloe 
Ferox, Miller. 

The gathering of the juice, it appears from the same article, is 
still carried on in the old primitive method, very much the same as 
that followed on the Island of Socotra ; a depression in the ground 
is lined with a goat- or sheep-skin and the butt ends of the aloe 
leaves are placed so that the exuding juice will flow into the recep- 
tacle so formed. After draining for several hours, the heaps of 
leaves are scattered and the wilted, partially dried ends cut off; 
then the leaves are again placed to drain into the receptacle formed 
by the skin-lined depression ; when this is filled, or when, after 
repeated clippings, the leaves are quite exhausted, the exuded juice 



208 



Commercial Aloes. 



r Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I May, 1903. 



is baled out and subsequently carried to the place where it is evap- 
orated. 

The evaporation is usually done over an open fire and is both 
difficult and disagreeable, the escaping steam is saturated with irri- 
tating fumes that attack the operator, particularly his eyes and the 
mucous membranes of his nose, mouth and throat. Considerable 
care is necessary to avoid burning on the one hand, and to evap- 
orate the juice sufficiently on the other so as to have it set hard and 
solid when poured into the case or box. 

New methods are, however, being introduced, and much of the 
fresh juice is now being sold by the gatherers to manufacturers who 
evaporate the juice by improved methods. Among these, the use 
of steam heat is said to insure a more uniform product. Another 
innovation that is being introduced in South Africa is the spontane- 
ous evaporation of the partially fermented and clarified juice ; this 
method furnishes an aloes that is characteristic in many respects 
and is being marketed as a distinct variety. 

BARBADOES ALOES. 

Barbadoes aloes was first brought to the London market about 
1693. It does not, however, appear to have become a regular 
article of commerce until nearly half a century later. The American 
Gazetteer 11 (1804) enumerates aloes as one of the minor productions 
of the island of Barbadoes. Sir R. H. Shomburgk, 25 quoted by 
Pereira, 6 gives extensive statistics of the exports of aloes from the 
Island of Barbadoes. These statistics cover a period of more than 
100 years; the figures given vary from an average of 327 gourds in 
1745 to upwards of 4,227 gourds in 1843. 

This probably represents the maximum development of the aloe 
industry in Barbadoes, as the figures for 1844 and 1845 show a con- 
siderable diminution. 

A writer in a recent number of the Chemist and Druggist- in 
speaking of Barbadoes aloes, says : " The aloe industry has gradually 
diminished from 1852 to the present time, when a cultivated patch 
of not more than half an acre in extent is all that is left of this once 
flourishing industry." 

The method of gathering the juice in Barbadoes differed materi- 
ally from that followed in Africa. It is given in detail in an article 
by Mr. W. G. Freeman, quoted by the Chemist and Druggist. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
May, 1903. j 



Commercial Aloes. 



209 



Mr. Freeman says : "The aloe flowers in the early part of the year, 
and when the flowers have died and the stalks have withered, reaping 
may commence. The leaves of a plant are cut off right through 
the plant about 6 inches above the base, and the dripping ends 
placed in wooden V-shaped troughs, from which the juice flows to 
the collecting vessel placed under an aperture in the trough. The 
exuded juice is then taken to the boiling-house, where the concen- 
trating takes place in copper pans heated by direct heat. As the 
boiling point is reached, stirring is necessary to prevent charring ; on 
continued boiling the liquid thickens and becomes darker in color. 
The operator determines the proper consistency of the residual 
mass by the appearance of the bubbles that appear on the surface 
of the thick juice. When these bubbles are large and glossy, and a 
film of the removed liquid dries almost at once, the proper degree 
of concentration has been reached, and the thick viscid aloes while 
still hot is poured into gourds holding from 20 to 60 or 70 pounds." 

Despite the fact that no appreciable quantity of aloes has been 
exported from Barbadoes for ten or twelve years, the name itself, 
like the corresponding name of Socotrine aloes, has been firmly 
established and is generally used to designate a variety of aloes 
more or less closely corresponding to what had formerly been sold 
as Barbadoes aloes. 

There has been considerable diversity of opinion in regard to the 
actual disappearance of true Barbadoes aloes from the American 
market. Several American drug firms have inquired closely into 
the availability of Barbadoes aloes, and all reported that no true 
Barbadoes aloes was available at the present time. The Chemist and 
Druggist, September 6, 1902, in its report of the drug market, in- 
cludes seven small tins of Barbadoes aloes that sold at auction for 
295. per cwt. This report appeared at variance with the generally 
accepted ideas, and also with the report of Mr. W. G. Freeman, 30 
quoted above. 

To get some definite information on the subject, a personal letter 
was addressed to the present U. S. Consul, Mr. S. A. Macallister, of 
Barbadoes, asking for information in connection with the present 
status of the aloe industry on the island. 

Consul Macallister, under date of October 31, 1902, writes: 
"Aloes have not been cultivated in Barbadoes for some years past, 
nor has any been exported to my knowledge." He further states 



210 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 1903. 



that aloes are cultivated and exported from the island of St. Vincent. 
This St. Vincent aloes would probably go direct to the London 
market, and is no doubt the true origin of the Barbadoes aloes noted 
by the Chemist and Druggist. The bulk of what is generally sold as 
Barbadoes aloes is bought and sold at first hand as Curacao or 
Bonaire aloes. 

CURACAO ALOES. 

Curacao, and the practically identical variety sometimes called 
Bonaire aloes, comes from the Dutch West India Islands, and, at 
the present time at least, is largely if not exclusively produced on 
the island of Aruba. The aloes from Curacao does not appear to 
have been found on the European markets before the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Pereira mentions it as a distinct variety, 
and says that while he had not seen specimens of it, and none had 
been offered on the London markets, it had been repeatedly seen in 
Holland. 

A description of Curacao aloes was published by Mr. A. Faber, 31 
who states that it is most like Cape aloes, but does not possess the 
greenish color which is sometimes perceived in the latter. From 
the fact that even in Holland it could not be regularly obtained, it 
was supposed that its production at that time was scanty. From 
Faber's description it would appear that the South African method 
of highly heating the juice and boiling until quite viscid was at first 
employed exclusively. 

Curacao aloes appears to have varied considerably in physical 
appearance from time to time, no two of the older descriptions of this 
variety of aloes agreeing in all particulars. 

The source and production of aloes in the Dutch West India Isl- 
ands has also changed to some extent. 

According to an account published in the American Journal of 
Pharmacy 32 (1896), the production in the three islands for the years 
1885, 1886 and 1887 was as follows in kilos: 

1885. 1886. 1887. 

Cura£ao 2*080 "500 

Bonaire 5*821 18*640 2*075 

Aruba 123*115 158*011 189925 

According to a report of the British Consul in Curacao (quoted 
by Gehe & Co., Dresden), the production for 1898, 1899 and 1900 
was as follows in kilos: 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



211 



Bonaire 
Aruba . 



1898. 
4753 
257-518 



1899. 
22-474 
231-365 



27779 
373 '375 



with practically none produced on the island of Curacao itself.* 

These figures are also verified by a communication received from 
U. S. Consul Elias W. Cheney, at Curacao, in answer to an inquiry 
regarding the source and production of aloes in the Dutch West 
India Islands. 

This letter of inquiry was prompted by the fact that at the present 
time several kinds of aloes are met with in the drug trade, all pur- 
porting to be Curacao aloes. Of these we may mention : 

(1) Aloes in gourds ; this is of the so-called livery variety, opaque, 
brittle, crystalline under the microscope and is almost invariably 
sold as Barbadoes aloes. 

(2) Aloes in cases, livery variety, and also corresponding in other 
physical properties to that mentioned above. 

(3) Glossy Curacao aloes, also known as Capey Curacao aloes. 
This also comes in cases, and is evidently being prepared to fill a 
demand for glossy, transparent aloes, particularly from European 
countries. Gehe & Co. report that this variety of Curacao aloes has 
a large sale in European countries, outside of Germany. Capey 
aloes is frequently mentioned in the reports of the London drug 
markets and usually commands a higher price than does the ordi- 
nary or livery variety. U.*S. Consul E. W. Cheney, with the com- 
munication referred to above, kindly forwarded a statement by Mr. 
S. C. Heneigney on the aloe industry of the Dutch West Indies. 
According to Mr. Heneigney, the difference in appearance is due 
largely to the amount of heat applied near the conclusion of the 
evaporation process. 

" For the livery variety, the juice is not evaporated to dryness, 
but is poured into gourds or boxes while still soft ; here on further 
evaporation it sets and becomes hard ; this product is always 
opaque. When the final evaporation is done over the fire the 
resulting aloes is glossy and more or less transparent." 

This same feature, the possible change in the physical properties 
of aloes, due to the amount of heat applied, was noted by Mr. E. 
Robiquet in a paper quoted in the American Journal of Pharmacy 
for 1856. 33 In answer to a question on the methods of preparing or 
evaporating the exuded juice, Mr. Heneigney says: " All juices are 



212 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



evaporated on open fire. At Aruba there is a steam machine for 
its evaporation, but this does not work through vacuum process." 

" In these islands the juice is never evaporated spontaneously." 
This latter statement is also borne out by the fact that Curacao 
aloes never contains any appreciable amount of foreign materials, 
and usually contains a comparatively high percentage of water-solu- 
ble ingredients. The method of gathering the juice is usually 
described as being similar to that employed formerly on the island 
of Barbadoes ; according to some descriptions the V-shaped troughs 
appear to be arranged about a central receptacle for gathering and 
containing the exuding juice. 

UGANDA OR CROWN ALOES. 

In the spring of 1 900 there appeared on the London market what 
appeared to be a new variety of aloes. Some one had given it the 
name Uganda, and as such it was soon widely known and gener- 
ally referred to. This new variety of aloes had many of the physi- 
cal properties of a good quality of hepatic aloes. It differed, how- 
ever, from the ordinary hepatic or West Indian aloes, in that it did 
not give the well-known red color reaction with nitric acid. 

It was afterwards learned that this supposed new variety was true 
Cape aloes, but prepared in an entirely different way. Professor 
Tschirch, in his paper on the origin of Cape aloes, 18 mentions this 
new variety and gives an outline of its preparation. It appears that 
instead of evaporating the exuded juice of the aloe plant over an 
open fire, as is done for Cape aloes, it is allowed to undergo partial 
fermentation, and then the clear juice is decanted from the formed 
precipitate. This clear juice is then allowed to evaporate sponta- 
neously by exposure to the sun. 

Professor Tschirch, in this same paper, also states that the name 
Uganda is a misnomer and has no origin in fact ; where, when or by 
whom it was originated appears to be a mystery, particularly as 
the manufacturers, by stamping a crown on the packages, appear 
to have intended that this particular quality of aloes be known as 
crown aloes. 

Dr. George Weigel, in a paper published in the Pharmaceutische 
Centralhalle^ gives a review of the literature that has accumulated 
on this variety of Cape aloes. He states that it is being produced 
in the neighborhood of Mossel Bay, Cape Colony, and differs from 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



213 



Cape aloes in appearance more than chemical contents. Weigel 
also gives a comparative table of solubility, ash and water content 
of Uganda aloes, compared with some of the other well-known varie- 
ties. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Water-Soluble. Ash. Water. 

Uganda aloes 43'48 072 874 

Cape aloes 66*8o 0*90 9*30 

Curacao \ glossy 72*44 2-40 774 

L hepatic 71*26 1/60 9*32 

This table brings to mind a statement made by Holmes and Fuge 
at the British Pharmaceutical Conference, Edinburgh, 1892: 35 " The 
sooner the exuded juice is evaporated after collection, the larger is 
the proportion of water-soluble matter." 

Uganda aloes does not appear to have met with the popular and 
rapid success that its promoters had anticipated. This is probably 
largely due to the fact that in every European Pharmacopoeia in 
which Cape aloes is official, the requirements are that it be glossy 
and vitreous. This is particularly true of the German Pharmaco- 
poeia, in which considerable stress is laid on this particular physical 
property. 

According to Gehe & Co., it is probable that the process will be 
so modified as to produce a variety of aloes that will conform more 
nearly with the requirements of the German Pharmacopoeia. 

This particular variety of aloes does not appear to have reached 
the American market, as a number of inquiries sent to wholesale 
dealers and drug brokers failed to furnish any clue to even a speci- 
men sample of the new drug. In older works of reference 6 " 12 a modi- 
fied or better quality of Cape aloes is sometimes referred to under 
the name " Bethelsdorp" aloes. This is not now an article o~ com- 
merce, but may have been the antecedent of Uganda aloes. 

JAFFARABAD ALOES. 

This variety of aloes, while not found on the American market, 
has been referred to by several European writers recently, and is 
particularly interesting in connection with some o r the newer work 
on the chemistry of aloes. 

According to Schneider and Suss 25 this Is a vitreous variety rom 
the East Indies. It appears to reach the Euro ( ean markets r rom 
Bombay. Holmes, 36 in describing this variety of aloes, says: 



214 



Medicinal Manganese Dioxid. 



/Am. Jour. Pnarm. 
\ May. 1903. 



" Externally it is of black color, and having a lustre not unlike that 
of pitch, to which at first sight it bears some resemblance. The 
fracture is black and glossy and very slightly porous. The powder 
is of a pale brown hue." 

NATAL ALOES. 

This variety of aloes, while not at the present time an article of 
commerce, has figured so extensively in the pharmaceutic literature 
of comparative recent times that some references to its almost phe- 
nomenal rise and fall in popular favor would not appear out of place. 

According to the Pharmacographia, 2 the first aloes was exported 
from Natal in 1869. From this date the amount rapidly increased 
for several years. The statistics, quoted by the same authority, are 
as follows: 

1868. 1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 

None 38 cwt. 646 cwt. 371 cwt. 501 cwt. 

Therapeutic reports on this variety of aloes were not favorable, 
however, and its popularity waned so rapidly that in 1890 not a 
single person in the neighborhood of Greytown was making or 
gathering aloes, and none was being exported. 37 

At the present time no samples of this variety of aloes are avail- 
able outside of museum specimens. Gehe & Co., in answer to a let- 
ter of inquiry, report that this variety oi aloes, ten to fifteen years 
ago, had quite an extensive sale, being the kind usually supplied to 
their trade when " hepatic aloes " was called for. They have not 
been able to supply this particular kind of " hepatic aloes " for 
upward of ten years. 

( To be continued.) 



A METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF MEDICINAL 
MANGANESE DIOXID. 

By August Gotthki,f, Ph.D. 

The object of the following work, carried out at the instance of 
Professor Coblentz, was to devise a method for the preparation of a 
pure manganese oxid of approximately constant composition 
adapted for medicinal use. With exception of the method adopted, 
all other methods which have been proposed are open to the objec- 
tion of being either beyond the means of the average pharmacist, 
or they yield precipitates which are exceedingly difficult to purify, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Medicinal Manganese Dioxid. 



215 



particularly so when larger quantities are prepared. The process 
described is that proposed by Professor Jannasch (Prakt. Leitfaden 
f. d. Gewichts-analyse, 1897) as a quantitative method for the esti- 
mation of manganese ; the composition of the precipitate, accord- 
ing to this authority, is that of a hydrated manganese dioxid 
(Mn0 2 .2H 2 0). Carnot, who first suggested the method (subse- 
quently worked out by Jannasch), claimed that the precipitate 
formed had the composition of Mn 6 O n (Bull, de la Soc. Chim. de 
Paris (3), 1275, 1889). Freidheim (Zeitschs. f. anal. Ch. 38, 681, 
1899) demonstrated the views of the latter to be incorrect, stating 
that if the precipitation be carried out in the presence of a large 
excess of ammonium salts, the composition of the precipitate more 
nearly approaches that of Mn0 2 . 

According to. my experiments, the precipitate obtained is never a 
pure hydrated manganese dioxid, but always contains some of the 
lower oxids, the percentage of which in the final product depends 
largely on the temperature of drying. 

The method adopted consists in precipitating the oxid from a 
solution of manganese sulphate, through the addition of a mixture 
of ammonia and hydrogen peroxid. 

For this purpose 250 c.c. each of aqua ammonia (10 per cent.) and 
hydrogen dioxid (3 per cent.) diluted to the volume of 1,000 c.c. 
are added, with constant stirring, to a solution of 50 grammes of 
crystallized manganous sulphate (MnS0 4 4H 2 0) in 1,000 c.c. of 
water. After washing several times by decantation, the precipitate 
is then transferred to a filter and the washing continued until free 
from sulphate, and dried at 150 C. 

If the manganese is poured into the alkaline solution, the propor- 
tion of dioxid produced falls below 43 per cent., with a correspond- 
ing increase in the quantity of manganoso-manganic oxid. The 
dioxid in the dry product was determined by means of standard 
oxalic acid and permanganate in the usual manner, while the total 
manganese was found by converting into the sulphate through heat- 
ing with a slight excess of sulphuric acid, repeating the operation 
until all of the oxid has been converted into a white manganous 
sulphate of constant weight. 

It is impossible to remove all of the water of hydration of the 
precipitated oxid; for even at 210 C, a temperature at which the 
precipitate begins to lose oxygen, some water is still retained. It 



216 Oils of Fire weed and Erigeron. { Am May, r i£3. arm * 

was found that a temperature of 150 C. was sufficient to remove a 
greater percentage of the water without danger of converting into 
the manganoso-manganic oxid. The precipitate approximates the 
following composition: 4MnO. 20 to 25 Mn0 2 . 





Manganese 












Total 


as Total Mn 








Temp, of 


Manganese 


MnOo. i 


is Mn0 2 . 


Water. 


o - 5 Gm . =■ 


Approximate 


Drying. 


Per Ct. 


Per Ct. 


Per Ct. 


Per Ct. 


MnS0 4 Gm. 


Composition. 


IOO° C. 


6o*6o 


3578 


59*°5 


n-37 


0-8321 


4Mn0.6Mn0 2 


125° C. 


61-35 


48-80 


79'56 


6-62 


0*8424 


4Mn0.i6Mn0 2 


150° c. 


62-41 


54*6 1 


87-5I 


3-56 


0-8570 


4Mn0.25Mu0 2 


150° c. 


6277 


52 - o6 


82-94 


3.84 


0*8620 


4Mn0.2oMn0 2 



In view of the suggestion of Freidheim that the composition of 
the precipitate more nearly approximates Mn0 2 with the increase in 
the percentage of ammonium salts added, various trials were made 
in which 10 grammes (No. I), 25 grammes (No. II), and 50 grammes 
(No. Ill) of ammonium sulphate were employed, using the same pro- 
portions of usual reagents, with negative results as far as the com- 
position of the precipitate is concerned. Freidheim employed much 
larger quantities of the ammonium salt than we did, which may 
explain differences. 







Total Mn. 


Mn as 


Total Mn 




Number. 


Dried at 


Per Cent. 


MnOo. 


as Mn0 2 . 


Water. 


I 


150° c. 


62-74 


50-85 


8ro6 


4*22 


II 


150° c. 


63-22 


49*63 


78-5I 


3 *95 


III 


150 c. 


62'6o 


5I-26 


81*90 


4'30 



Inasmuch as we are able to obtain a product of fairly constant com- 
position, with some manganous oxid present, which is to its advant- 
age, we considered further experiments in this direction unnecessary. 

The approximate yield in oxid from 50 grammes of manganese 
sulphate is 20 grammes. 



ESSENTIAL OILS OF FIREWEED AND ERIGERON. 

By Lyman F. Kebler and Dr. George R. Pancoast. 

Genuine oil of fireweed, Erechthitis hieracifolia, is comparatively a 
commercial rarity. The chief sources of supply are small distillers, 
composed principally of farmers, whose botanical knowledge is not 
very extensive. The plants are gathered by these men and their 
help, the latter frequently caring little as to the kind of " weeds" 
collected, and when it is remembered that the common name " fire- 
weed " is applied to no less than six different wild plants, it is not 



Am 'M°a U y r ;i903 arru "} Oils of Fireweed and Erigeron. 217 

surprising that very little genuine oil finds its way into the channels 
of trade. This condition, however, does not appear to worry some 
oil dealers, for they boldly fill any order for fireweed oil with erigeron 
oil and label it fireweed oil. Such fraudulent transactions cannot be 
criticised too severely. Let everything be labelled what it is. In 
the course of many years the writers have met with but two con- 
signments that complied approximately with the recognized normal 
constants of oil of fireweed : one, a limited supply at a high price, 
from a large grower and distiller, and the other from a small distiller. 
In 1887 A. M. Todd 1 made a careful study of the oil known to be 
genuine, and a few years later F. B. Power 2 went over the oil again. 
Their results were as follows: 

Source. Specific Gravity. Opt. Rot. 

Todd 0-845 — 0-855 — 4' to -f 4 

Power 0-838 at 18-5° C. — 2 to + 2° 

The two oils mentioned above, as of lairly good quality, tested as 
follows: No. 1, specific gravity 0*8422, opt. rot. -J- i° 32', soluble in 
equal volume of alcohol, no more ; No. 2, specific gravity 0-8244, 
opt. rot. -}- 2° I2 r , insoluble in alcohol. 

The following constants are typical of the products frequently 
supplied for oil of fireweed : Specific gravity 0-859, opt. rot. -f- 66° 48', 
soluble in an equal volume of alcohol. The above data indicate 
erigeron oil, which has been found to possess the following con- 
stants: Specific gravity 850 to 0-870, opt. rot. -f- 52 , soluble in 
an equal volume of alcohol. 

We desire to note in this connection that either the commercial 
erigeron oils are themselves adulterated or they vary materially in 
properties (we incline toward the latter view, as the oil readily resini- 
fies), as the following results show : 

Specific Gravity. Opt. Rot. 

i 0-8904 + + 28 48/ 

2 0-8629 + 84° 28' 

3 0*8963 +48° 

4 0-8604 + 83 42 7 

5 0-8551 + 72 

6 0-8549 4- 72° 

All of the samples examined by us for boiling-point varied from 
172 to 178 C, uncorrected, with a slight residue. 



1 Am. Jour. Pharm., 59,309. 

2 Pharm. Rundschau^ 5, 20J. 



21 8 Some Notes on Essential Oils. { Am -May^i903 arm ' 

SOME FURTHER NOTES ON ESSENTIAL OILS. 

By M. I. WlI/BKRT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

In discussing essential oils from the point of view of the pharma- 
cist, we should not forget that by far the greater portion of the oils 
imported into, or distilled in, this country is used by confectioners, 
perfumers or manufacturers of toilet and laundry soaps, and that 
but a comparatively insignificant proportion of the total product is 
used as medicine, or in the making of medicinal preparations. 

While this fact should and does have considerable bearing on 
the relation that these products bear to their use in pharmacy and 
their recognition in the Pharmacopoeia, it must also be recognized 
as the factor that has played a most important part in the scientific 
as well as commercial development of the essential oils ; for, without 
the tremendous consumption that is made possible by the require- 
ment of the industries enumerated above, there would be little or 
no incentive for the scientific investigations that have been made to 
determine the physical properties and chemical composition of these 
different products. 

It will readily be conceded that the United States Pharmacopoeia 
should not be expected, or for that matter not be allowed, to be a 
standard of authority as to what the confectioner, perfumer or soap 
maker should or should not use in his particular productions. This 
is the more evident when we remember that while in some cases 
the pharmacopoeial standard may fall far short of what would be 
required by a manufacturer, in other cases the same requirements 
would be impracticable on account of the excessive cost of the com- 
paratively high-grade materials. 

From the medical or pharmaceutical point of view, the determin- 
ing factors for recognition in the Pharmacopoeia, or for the standard 
of excellence of the substances recognized, should be largely deter- 
mined by therapeutic efficiency, uniformity in composition and the 
stability of recognized substances under ordinary conditions. These 
requirements suggest two distinct points that we wish to call atten- 
tion to in connection with the following notes on essential oils. 

The first thought suggested is that the United States Pharmaco- 
poeia should not include descriptions and tests for an. essential oil 
that is not used as medicine, or as an addition to a medicinal prepa- 
ration included in the Pharmacopoeia. 



AB M a "]m rni, l S° me Notes on Essential Oils. 219 

The second thought is that wherever practicable the Pharmaco- 
poeia should direct that the active constituent of essential oils be 
used in place of the whole product. 

Bearing these two points in mind, let us first take a survey of the 
following table giving the quantity and average price per pound of 
the more popular oils of the orange group. The accompanying fig- 
ures have been copied from the annual reports of the United States 
Treasury Department, of the imports for consumption, for the fiscal 
years ending June 30th. 

TABLE No. r. 

QUANTITIES IN POUNDS AND AVERAGE PRICE PER UNIT OF QUANTITY OF THE ESSENTIAL 
OILS OF THE CITRUS GROUP IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED STATES DURING 
THE FIVE FISCAL YEARS NOTED AT HEAD OF COLUMNS. 



Oil of 


1902. 


1901. 


1900. 


1899. 


1898. 




99-886 


75'640 


71-937 


66-H2 


31*019 


Per pound 


1.67 


1.90 


1-53 


1.77 


1-59 




39i -485 '5 


268-34I 


261-978 


237-302 


160 264 


Per pound 


.721 


.861 


.808 


•783 


•73 




4-203 


5 904 


3 156 


3-092 


721 




.781 


1.01 


•946 


1.03 


.67 




7762 


4-3I9 


2'250*2 


1-911 


1-535 




8-37 


9.71 


II.QI 


11.86 


12.06 




79-160-5 


72-218 


57-069 


52-378 


33732 




i* 


1.52 


I.67 


1.30 


1-34 



These figures illustrate very well the tremendous increase in the 
use of the essential oils of this particular class. The average price 
is another interesting feature of this table. All of the oils, with the 
single exception of oil of orange flowers, have practically maintained 
their price during the whole period. The gradual decline in the 
price of the oil of orange flowers is largely due to the introduction 
of synthetic products that have been used as substitutes for the nat- 
ural oil. This feature will be referred to again later under the head 
of oil of orange flowers. 

Oil of Bergamot. — This is one of the oils that could well be 
dropped from our Pharmacopoeia on account of not having any well- 
defined therapeutic uses. The physical or chemical properties are 
not thoroughly understood, but it is generally conceded that the oil 
obtained from fruit, at different stages of ripening, has quite a differ- 



220 Some Notes on Essential Oils. j Affi M™y r ;i P £ rm ' 

ent chemical composition and consequently differs in physical prop- 
erties. It has been observed, for instance, that with the ripening of 
the fruit the ester content o r the oil increases while the amount of 
linalool decreases. The amount of terpene also increases, while the 
relation of the limonene to dipentene remains about the same. 

Charabot (quoted by Kremers and Brandel, Pharm. Rev., 1902, 
p. 305) concludes that linalool is first formed and converted by the 
free acetic acid to ester on the one -hand and terpene on the other. 
According to Schimmel & Co., the specific gravity of oil of ber- 
gamot should be from 0-883 t0 0-886. The requirements of the vari- 
ous national Pharmacopoeias vary, according to the Universal Phar- 
macopoeia, from a minimum of 860 in the Austrian to a maximum 
of 0*890 in the National Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland, the limit in 
our own United States Pharmacopoeia being from o-88o to 0-885. 

Gildemeister and Hoffmann describe oil of bergamot as being a 
brownish yellow or honey-colored liquid that is often colored green 
by the presence of copper. It might be stated here that Parry, on 
the other hand, appears to think that the green color is due to 
dissolved chlorophyll. 

Oil of bergamot is said to be frequently adulterated with oil of 
sweet orange or oil of lemon. Either of these oils would have a 
tendency to reduce the specific gravity and at the same time 
increase the angle of optical rotation. The optical rotation of oil of 
bergamot is stated by Schimmel & Co. to be from plus 9 to plus 15. 

An interesting possibility in this connection is the marketing by 
Schimmel & Co. of an 80 per cent, linalyl acetate. Oil of bergamot 
seldom contains more than 40 per cent, of linalyl acetate. 

While the price of the stronger product is at the present time 
almost prohibitive, the manufacturers think that for certain purposes 
it would be of advantage on account of the absence of color and the 
much smaller quantity that would be required. 

Oil of Lemon. — The specific gravity of oil of lemon, according 
to Schimmel & Co., is from 0-858 to o*86i; in this the upper limit 
of the U.S.P. is rather lower, being 0-859. 

The optical rotation is given as from plus 59 to plus 67. Burgess 
and Child (quoted by Schimmel & Co.) say that up to the present 
time the following constituents have been found in oil of lemon : 
pinene, phellandrene, limonene, citral, octyl and nonyl aldehydes, 
geranyl acetate, geraniol, methyl ester of anthranilic acid, citronellol, 



Am M°a U y r ;i9o h 3? rm -} Some Notes on Essential Oils. 221 

citroptene and a resin. The principal odoriferous agent is probably 
citral, while octyl and nonyl aldehydes, though present in only 
small quantities, play a very important part in the aroma. 

For a satisfactory examination of lemon oil the same authors con- 
sider the following data important: 

(1) Specific gravity at 15 C, from 0-856 to o-86o. 

(2) Optical rotation power in a 100 mm. tube fluctuates from 
plus 58 to plus 63. 

(3) Index of refraction at 20 C. by means of Abbe's refracto- 
meter ; this fluctuates from 1-4733 to 1-4830; normal about 
1*4755- 

(4) The determination ol the citral content, or the total content 
of aldehydes in 25 c.c. of the oil: Citral content from 4 to 7 per 
cent. 

(5) Submit the oil to fractional distillation. 

The principal adulterants of oil of lemon are lemon oil terpenes, 
turpentine, lemon grass citral, and occasionally distilled lemon oil. 

Oil of Limes. — This*oil, according to the reports of the Treasury 
Department, is becoming quite an important commercial article. 
There are two distinct varieties of oil of lime ; the one from the 
West India Islands, consisting largely of limonene and citral, has a 
specific gravity of from o-88o to 88 5. This oil is obtained from 
the fruit of citrus medica, var. acida Brandes. 

Italian oil of limes, according to Hoffmann and Gildemeister, is 
obtained from the fruit of citrus limetta, Risso, and is an oil of brown, 
ish-yellow color, having an odor somewhat resembling oil of berga- 
mot. The composition of this oil also resembles oil of bergamot, 
in that it contains linalyl acetate (about 25 per cent.), linalool 
and limonene. Italian oil of limes has a specific gravity of about 
0-872. 

Oil of Orange Flowers. — According to Gildemeister and Hoff- 
mann, the specific gravity of this oil should be between 0-870 and 
o 880. The natural oil contains linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, 
methyl ester of anthranilic acid, geraniol and paraffin. In order to 
obtain an oil of neroli that is at all normal, it is necessary to distil 
the flowers for the oil alone, and not, as is often the practice, collect 
the oil as a by-product in the manufacture of orange-flower water. 

According to recent reports of Schimmel & Co., the quality of the 
natural oil is of much less importance now than formerly. They also 



222 Some Notes on Essential Oils. { Am M°ay?ilo h 3 arm ' 

claim to have perfected their artificial oil to such an extent that the 
natural oil can be completely dispensed with. The product is said 
to replace, not alone the oil, but also the perfume of orange flowers 
made by maceration or extraction. 

In addition to artificial oil of neroli, a substance that has been 
given the name nerolin is used extensively as a substitute for the 
natural oil. Nerolin is met with in commerce as a white crystalline 
powder. It is particularly applicable to the perfuming of soap, not 
being attacked by hot lye. On account of its comparatively low 
price it is used extensively in the manufacture of cheaper grades of 
toilet soap. It is readily soluble in alcohol and essential oils, and 
is said to be a very powerful and lasting perfume. The effect that 
these synthetic and artificial products have had on the price of the 
natural oil has already been mentioned. In addition to the marked 
reduction in price the quality of the natural oil is said to have been 
improved by greater care in its production. 

Oil of Orange.- — The specific gravity of this oil, according to 
Gildemeister and Hoffmann, varies from 0-848 to 0-852. The specific 
gravity as given in the different national Pharmacopceias differs 
from 0-830, the minimum in the Russian, to 0-870, the maximum 
of the Dutch Pharmacopoeia. The optical rotation of this oil varies 
from plus 96 to plus 98. Oil of orange peel is said to vary much 
less in its physical constants than either oil of bergamot or oil of 
lemon. The chief constituents of the oil are limonene and citral. 
In this connection it may be interesting to note that practically all 
of the oils of the citrus group are imported, little or no oil of a satis- 
factory quality being made in this country. 

Oil of Anise. — As is well known, commercial oil of anise is 
derived from two distinct and widely different plants. The true oil 
of anise seed is obtained from the fruit of Pimpinella Anisum, L., an 
annual umbelliferous plant, while what is usually sold as oil of anise, 
in this country particularly, is obtained from the fruit of Illicium 
Verum, Hook., an evergreen shrub belonging to the natui-al order 
Magnoliacese, and indigenous to China. 

The physical properties of these two oils are very much the same, 
though they differ materially in their chemical composition. True 
oil of anise, according to Schimmel & Co., consists of anethol, anise 
ketone and methyl chavicol, while the oil of star anise, in addition 
to anethol and methyl chavicol, also contains pinene, phellandrene, 



Am M™ y ?i903 arm *} Some Notes on Essential Oils. 223 

safrol and the ethyl ether of hydroquinone. While the odor and 
other physical properties depend largely, if not entirely, on the con. 
tained anethol, it will be readily appreciated that on closer examina- 
tion the two oils would present marked differences. To overcome 
any possible misunderstanding between the two oils, the German 
and the Swedish Pharmacopoeias direct that under oil of anise 
only the oxygenated portion of the oil, the anethol, be dispensed or 
used in medicinal preparations. Anethol, according to Schimmel & 
Co., should congeal at from 21° to 22 C; the melting point accord- 
ing to the same authority is somewhat higher, being from 22-5° to 
227 C. 

The German as well as the Swedish Pharmacopoeia gives the 
congealing point of anethol as from 20° to 21 C, the specific 
gravity from 0*984 to 986, and the boiling point from 23 2° to 
234 C. 

In view of the fact that anethol is commercially available, at a 
price little above that of good oil of anise seed, it would appear as 
though the Pharmacopceial Revision Committee would be justified 
in restricting the title of oil ot anise to the oxygenated portion, or 
anethol. 

Oil of Caraway. — This is another of the essential oils that dif- 
fer in composition and physical properties. Kremers, in comment- 
ing on oil of caraway (Phar. Rev., 1 902, p. 467), asks: " What should 
be recognized as oil of caraway by the U.S. P., the crude oil the rec- 
tified oil, the twice rectified oil or carvone ? All of them are said 
to be articles of commerce, and all of them differ in their chemical 
constituents and physical properties. 

Here again the German and Swedish Pharmacopoeias have taken 
what would appear to be the most rational course and, as in the 
case of oil of anise, direct that the oxygenated portion alone be 
recognized as oil of caraway. The Swedish Pharmacopoeia gives 
the specific gravity of carvone as being from 0-963 to 0-966 at 1 5 C, 
and the boiling point from 229 to 230 C. 

In contrast to these figures, having a rather limited range, it may 
be mentioned that the limits of specific gravity, according to the 
official Pharmacopoeias, varies from 0-883, the minimum of the Por- 
tuguese, to 0-960, the maximum of the Russian Pharmacopoeia. The 
boiling point, according to the Portuguese Pharmacopoeia, may vary 
from 190 to 245 C. 



224 Some Notes on Essential Oils. { Am 'M^;mi: rm ' 

Schimmel & Co. give the specific gravity of a normal oil of cara- 
way as varying from 0-905 to 0-915. According to Gildemeister and 
Hoffmann, the oil consists of from 50 to 60 per cent, of carvone and 
from 40 to 50 per cent, of limonene. 

According to a manufacturer's agent the double and triple recti- 
fied oils of caraway should be looked on with suspicion, as it is more 
than likely that a portion of the carvone has been abstracted in the 
process. 

The difference in price between carvone and oil of caraway will 
probably be materially reduced in the near future, as the manufac- 
turers are beginning to find a use or demand for the portion of the 
oil containing limonene. This is being sold as carvene and is used 
quite extensively by manufacturers of toilet and laundry soaps as a 
scent. 

Oil of Coriander. — Probably the most interesting feature in 
connection with this oil is the marked difference in the price of the 
commercial product. Oil of coriander can be bought at almost any 
price from $5 to $15 a pound, and, according, to the statement of a 
dealer in essential oils, with the margin of profit rather in favor of 
transactions at the lower price. The oil that is furnished at the 
lower figure is said to be blended or plugged with oil of fennel, 
with or without oil of orange, and is guaranteed to conform to the 
requirements of the U.S.P. 

According to Gildemeister and Hoffmann, oil of coriander is com- 
posed of coriandrol, which is a dextrorotary modification of linalool, 
pinene and at least one other not as yet isolated body to which the 
peculiar odor of oil of coriander is due. 

Oil of Fennel The chemical constituents of this oil differ with 

the source or origin of the seed. German, Austrian, Bulgarian 
and Japanese oil of fennel are said (Gildemeisterand Hoffmann) to 
contain anethol and fenchone; the French oil of fennel, obtained 
from sweet or Roman fennel, contains no fenchone, while the oil 
distilled from wild fennel contains little or no anethol. 

In this country the chief use of oil of fennel appears to be as an 
addition to other more expensive oils of the same class, with a view 
of improving, blending, compounding or plugging the same. Oil 
of fennel itself is often cheapened by robbing it of a considerable 
proportion of its contained anethol, which is present in the German 
oil of fennel to the extent of from 50 to 60 per cent. In addition to 



Am ^^- 19 p ^ arm -} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 225 

fenchone and anethol, the different oils of fennel contain variable 
quantities of pinene, phellandrene, dipentene and limonene. All of 
these constituents, however, vary with the source or origin of the 
seed. 

In conclusion, and as an additional argument in favor of the adop- 
tion of the active constituents of essential oils as representing the 
most desirable portion from a medical point of view, we may call 
attention to the fact that the last edition of the Swedish Pharmaco- 
poeia has gone farther even than the German, which preceded it by 
about two years, and has adopted anethol, carvone, eucalyptol, 
eugenol and cinnamic aldehyde as representing the active constitu- 
ents and the medicinally active portions of the respective oils from 
which they are derived. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

RADIOACTIVE MATTER. 

Radioactive matter constitutes one of the most interesting prob- 
lems in physics or chemistry at the present time. 

The rapid accumulation of literature on the subject, the variety 
and interesting nature of the experiments that have been recorded, 
and the numerous, and at times diverging opinions held by individ- 
ual experimenters make this a subject that the ordinary individual 
can hardly expect to keep fully in touch with. 

A review of the present status of the problem by one that has 
been himself engaged in original investigations in this line is there- 
fore of more than passing interest. 

W. Marckwald, of the Chemical Institute of the University of 
Berlin, has just published quite an exhaustive review of this subject 
in the Berichte der Deutschen Pharmac cutis c hen Gesellschaft (Berlin, 
1903, page 11). From this paper much of the following data has 
been taken; a few additional quotations have been added, when 
thought of sufficient interest. 

In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered that salts of uranium had the 
peculiar property of emitting a form of energy that readily penetrated 
opaque substances, such as paper or aluminium foil, and produced 
effects on photographic plates similar to those produced by the X- 
rays. In addition to the property of affecting a photographic plate 
through opaque substances, these rays of energy resemble X-rays in 



226 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am May^9 3f rm ' 

that they ionize gases and make them conductors of electricity. 
They also induce phosphorescence in phosphorescent bodies. These 
emanations have been called Becquerel rays, from their discoverer, 
Monsieur Henri Becquerel. 

These Becquerel rays appear to be of a composite nature, no less 
than three distinct rays or forms of energy being recognized at the 
present time as emanating from the so-called radioactive materials. 

A-rays are said to be readily absorbed by opaque, or even trans- 
parent bodies; they are not deflected in a magnetic field, and act as 
ionizing agents. 

B-rays readily penetrate opaque substances; they are not as active 
as ionizing agents, however, and in addition to this are readily 
deflected by a magnet. In this latter quality they appear to resem- 
ble the cathode rays. 

In addition to these two distinct forms of energy, radium also 
emits luminous rays; the exact nature of this light has not been 
definitely determined, but it is probably due to a fluorescence or 
phosphorescence of the material itself, caused by the inherent energy. 

The Becquerel rays are also classed according to their source or 
origin; thus they are usually spoken of as uranium rays, radium rays, 
or thorium rays, according as they are generated from one or the 
other. 

Uranium Rays. — As noted above, uranium was the first of the 
known elements that was found to possess radioactive properties. 
Becquerel found that the metal as well as all of the salts of uranium 
were more or less radioactive. So far as known there is no marked 
difference in the activity of the uranium salts coming from different 
sources. This latter fact would appear to indicate that the radiations 
were inherent in the uranium atom. This has been questioned, how- 
ever, and it has been shown by Crookes, and later by Rutherford 
and Soddy, that by repeatedly washing a uranium salt with ether the 
A-rays are retained by the insoluble, while the B-rays are found in 
the ether-soluble portions. If in addition to this we remember that 
several substances have been isolated that are many thousand times 
as radioactive as uranium, it will be seen that the admixture of even 
a very minute portion of some new and hitherto unrecognized ele- 
mentary body may be the cause of this radioactive property. 

Radioactive Bismuth. — The observation that some of the minerals 
containing uranium were more highly radioactive than any of the 



Am Ma^i£3. arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 227 

salts of this element, induced Madame and Monsieur Curie to try 
and separate out from pitchblende that portion to which the added 
radioactivity was due. 

After considerable experimenting they were able to separate out 
a body that had the physical properties of bismuth, but was at least 
100 times more radioactive than uranium. From the fact that 
ordinary bismuth salts did not show any radioactive properties the 
Curies came to the conclusion that in this case the radioactivity 
was due to some new elementary body to which they gave the 
name polonium, from Poland, the native country of Madame Curie. 

According to W. Marckwald, who has devoted a considerable 
amount of time to the investigation and study of this substance, 
the radioactive portion of the bismuth salt is closely related to tel- 
lurium; he therefore calls it radioactive tellurium. Marckwald also 
states that the rays emitted by radioactive tellurium, or polonium 
as it is still called in France, are composed largely if not entirely of 
A-rays. They ionize gases, affect photographic plates, and are 
readily absorbed by all substances, even paper. Many phosphores- 
cent bodies are lit up brightly when brought near or in contact with 
this substance. One peculiar property, noted by Marckwald, is that 
when a genuine diamond is brought near or in contact with a small 
quantity of polonium it lights up brightly, the visible light being 
sufficient to cause change in photographic plates. O. Rosenheim 
(Client. News, 1902, page 247) substantiates this assertion, but says 
that the so-called black diamonds are an exception to this rule. He 
also says that the phosphorescent rays emitted by the diamond will 
affect photographic plates and are distinguishable from the rays 
emitted by polonium itself in that they penetrate paper and glass. 
The phosphorescence ceases as soon as the polonium is removed. 

Radium. — Soon after the discovery of polonium the Curies found 
another substance in pitchblende that was strongly radioactive; this 
substance they called radium. Radium has been generally accepted 
as a new addition to the list of elements; it appears to have proper- 
ties somewhat resembling barium, from which it is with difficulty 
separated. Madame Curie (Compt. Rend., 1902, page 161) has been 
able to separate out a small quantity of pure radium chloride, by 
fractional crystallization. E. Demarcay has determined the purity 
of this sample by means of the spectroscope and found that it did not 
contain the spectrum of any other known element. 



228 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { ^ m May'/wX?™* 

From this very small quantity of pure radium, the atomic weight 
was determined by weighing the amount of chlorine present in a given 
amount of radium chloride, as silver chloride. From a number of 
experiments the average was found to indicate an atomic weight of 
225. Barium chloride under similar conditions indicates an atomic 
weight between 137 and 138. 

An interesting observation was made in this connection; it was 
found that the precipitated silver chloride invariably had radioactive 
properties without containing any appreciable quantities of radium. 
This will be referred to again, however, under induced radioactivity » 

The radioactivity of radium is much superior to that of polonium; 
in addition to the A-rays it also has a marked activity in B-rays, 
and, as noted before, also exhibits luminous or visible rays. 

A radium-barium chloride containing not more than I per cent, 
of radium will readily affect a photographic plate in one minute, and 
will cause fluorescence in a barium-platinum cyanide screen at a dis- 
tance of several decimeters. 

Radium is said to have a most remarkable effect on the human 
eye. If a vial containing radium is brought near the closed eye of 
a person, it will cause the sensation of great light. This peculiar 
effect has been attributed by Giesel to phosphorescence in the 
vitreous body. Inflammatory conditions or burns, similar to those 
caused by the X-rays, have also been caused by prolonged exposure 
to the Becquerel rays. A somewhat similar action on the green 
leaves of growing plants has also been noted. By prolonged ex- 
posure the chlorophyll is destroyed and the leaf turned yellow 
without killing it. 

Beside these physiologic actions these rays also have chemical 
properties. Air is ozonized ; glass is colored purple or dark brown ; 
salts of alkalies are colored ; pure sodium sulphate, for instance, is 
given a green tint ; but when contaminated with even a trace of 
chloride it becomes violet instead. 

Anhydrous radium chloride and bromide are strongly phosphores- 
cent and emit sufficient light to make them visible in a dark room. 
This phosphorescence is inherent in the substance and not caused 
by extraneous light or energy as in the case of calcium sulphide. 
The crystalline salts of radium are not as strongly phosphorescent, 
but are more active in emitting Becquerel rays. 

Thorium Rays. — Salts of thorium have radioactive properties 



Am *May r .'i903 arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 229 

similar to those exhibited by uranium. Thorium rays were first 
observed by C. G. Schmidt in 1898. An interesting observation in 
this connection has recently been made by Rutherford and Soddy. 
They found that when thorium hydrate was precipitated from a solu- 
tion of a thorium salt by means of ammonia, the resulting thorium 
hydrate possessed little or no radioactivity, while the solution con- 
tained a substance that has as yet not been identified, which was 
radioactive. The most interesting and surprising observation, how- 
ever, was that after several days the precipitated thorium hydrate 
had regained its radioactivity, while the substance soluble in the 
ammonia solution lost correspondingly. The same experiment could 
be repeated a number of times with the same substance. 

Actinium. — This is a name given to a substance that was separated 
by Debierne from pitchblende. Actinium has some properties in 
common with thorium, but is said to be 5,000 times as radioactive. 
It has been questioned whether the radioactivity of this substance 
is inherent, or simply induced by other more active materials. 

Induced Radioactivity . — Both radium as well as thorium, as has 
been pointed out, have the property ot inducing radioactivity in 
substances with which they come in contact. Radium is the more 
active in this respect, imparting activity to all materials with which 
it comes in contact. The intensity of the radioactivity, induced in 
other substances, depends on the intimacy of the contact ; if, for 
instance, a salt is precipitated out of a solution containing a radio- 
active chemical, the precipitated salt will be strongly radioactive for 
the time being, but will gradually lose this property. As in the 
case of the precipitated thorium hydrate the radioactive chemical 
loses a larger part of its radioactivity for the time being, but will- 
regain it again on standing. 

Among other substances that appear to have radioactive proper- 
ties it might be added that Hoffman and Strauss have separated a 
radioactive lead from a number of uranium-bearing minerals. 
Baskerville has separated radioactive carolinium from thorium; both 
of these substances are supposed to be self-radioactive, and not 
dependent on induction or contamination by other more radioactive 
materials. 

What the future may have in store is difficult indeed to say ; but 
even from the material to hand at the present time, it would appear 
that physicists and chemists have before them a problem that will 



230 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am May?i903 arnK 

necessitate a very great amount of thought and study for its solu- 
tion, but when solved it will represent a most important step into 
the realms of the unknown: One interesting feature in this connec- 
tion is the fact that practically all of the elements that are known to 
possess radioactive properties are of high atomic weight, represent- 
ing practically the border line of the unknown in the periodic system. 
This, of course, suggests a possibility of discovering another series 
of elements of higher atomic weight and still greater radioactivity* 

M. I. WlLBERT. 

ALCOHOL FROM FECAL MATTERS. 

At a meeting of " Isis" a German society for study of natural 
science, a lecture was delivered by Dr. von Meyer on January 22, 
1903, on the production of alcohol by dry distillation of feces. The 
methods are covered by patents, and the results are, it is said, unex- 
pectedly favorable from a commercial point of view. The lecturer 
reported the results of an experiment that he had carefully carried 
out in the laboratory of the inventor of the method. The yield was 
80 grammes of alcohol (presumably absolute, but this is not stated) 
from 1,000 grammes of solid feces. The degree of dryness of the 
mass is not given, but it does not appear that it was thoroughly 
dried ; 225 liters of combustible gas and some extremely foul-smell- 
ing tar were produced. Some experimenters have obtained much 
smaller yields ; but a commission of three chemists, appointed by the 
German patent office, obtained a yield of 70 grammes of alcohol 
from 1,000 grammes of solid feces. On this basis, 100 kilos of the 
material would yield 9 liters of alcohol, a better result than can be 
obtained by the fermentation of potatoes. Experiments on the large 
scale have not yet been made, nor are the causes of the somewhat 
discordant results of the laboratory experiments known, but the 
practicability of the method is probable. The lecturer suggested 
that the nature of the method would render the product unsuitable for 
internal use, and, therefore, enable it to be sold under less excise 
restrictions ; but this is doubtful. When carefully purified, the 
product might be indistinguishable from alcohol from fermentation. 

The successful introduction of the method on a large scale might 
have a most beneficial influence on public hygiene, since anything 
which will materially increase the commercial value of fecal matter 
will be a strong inducement to the substitution of other methods of 
disposal than the water-carriage systems. 



Am Ma?!'i903 arm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 231 

Assuming a yield of 7 per cent, of alcohol, it is estimated that a 
community of 100,000 persons would furnish, annually, 4,500 hecto- 
liters of alcohol (over 100,000 gallons). The gaseous by-products 
also have value. It is stated that they can be utilized in connection 
with the incandescent mantle, and as fuel for the distillation process 
itself. The tar may have value, while the coke-like residue will have 
some fertilizing properties. Nothing is said in the report (as given 
in Oesterr. Chem. Zeit., March 1, 1903) about the nitrogenous prod- 
ucts, but these will surely have important uses. 

Henry Leffmann. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 
Technique des Analyses Chimiques, Medicales, Industrielles, 
de Produits Alimentaires et Pharmaceutiques, a l'usage des 
Pharmaciens, par J. Tarboureich A. Maloine. Paris, 1903. Price, 6 
francs. 

In a compact little volume of 509 pages, bound in flexible cloth, 
we have an attempt to prepare what may be called a vade mecum for 
the pharmacist who wishes to be able to analyze a variety of prod- 
ucts, such as would likely be offered for examination or be handled 
by him. 

In the first chapter the commoner forms of laboratory apparatus 
and utensils are described and their use explained, together with an 
account of important chemical reagents, indicators, volumetric solu- 
tions, etc. 

In the second chapter we have in detail the reactions of the min- 
eral acids and bases, the organic acids and alkaloids, and a number 
of tables for the systematic testing for acids, bases and alkaloids. 

In the four remaining chapters we have the four classes of com- 
pounds mentioned in the title taken up and concise methods of 
analysis given for them. Thus we have the analyses of fertilizers 
(to which, by the way, twenty-six pages are given) quite fully 
described, clays, potashes and lyes, alcohols, a few alloys, soaps, sugars, 
tannins, cements and petroleums ; under foods and drinks, wine, beer, 
cider, vinegar, oils, flour, milk and potable waters; under medical 
products we have a very full section on urinanalysis (twenty-nine 
pages), urinary calculi and gastric juice ; and lastly, under pharma- 
ceutical products, we have, in the compass of 114 pages, the meth- 
ods of analysis or assay of a large number of inorganic and organic 
drugs, with the tests of the French Pharmacopoeia. 



232 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
May, 1903. 



The book is a convenient and handy book for a trained pharma- 
cist or pharmaceutical chemist, but is too condensed to be of much 
help to a beginner. It will not obviate the necessity of thorough 
laboratory drill and education, but would be undoubtedly of value 
to the educated pharmacist. We do not recall any book in the 
English language that covers quite so broad a field in so small com. 
pass with equal satisfaction. S. P. S. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular monthly pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, April 2 1st, Mr. Thomas S. 
Wiegand, Librarian of the College, acting as chairman. 

The first paper on the programme was on " The Pharmacy of 
Liquid Petrolatum," by E. Fullerton Cook, P.D., Assistant Director 
of the Pharmaceutical Laboratory, and will be printed in a later 
issue of this Journal. The paper was accompanied by a large 
number of specimens. 

In discussing the paper, Mr. Wiegand agreed with the author that 
chloroform used as a solvent for alkaloids intended for use in nasal 
sprays would be extremely irritating. He asked the author if 
he had tried making the emulsion of petrolatum, by shaking finely 
powdered acacia with the liquid petrolatum, as is done in the prepa- 
ration of turpentine emulsion, and said that he supposed it might be 
made satisfactorily. Mr. Boring also commented upon this method 
of making emulsions and said that it originated with J. Winchell 
Forbes, of California (see this Journal, 1872, p. 61). 

In reference to the formula for cold cream proposed by Dr. Alpers 
(see this Journal, 1901, p. 117), in which liquid petrolatum was 
used instead of almond oil, Mr. Wilbert said that in his experi- 
ence, the preparation was both stable and efficient, and that he 
knew a number of pharmacists who had followed the formula with 
satisfaction. Mr. Cook said that he had not found it as efficient for 
sunburn due to exposure at the seashore. In regard to the thera- 
peutics of petrolatum, Dr. Lowe read a short quotation from Dr. 
Hare's work on therapeutics. Others taking part in the discussion 
were Messrs. Weidemann and Kraemer. 

The next paper was on " Some Further Notes on Essential Oils," 
by M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M. (see page 218). In discussing this paper 
Mr. Wiegand said that a priori owe. would consider that the expressed 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
May, 1903. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



233 



or hand-pressed oils of the citrus group would be better than the 
distilled oils unless they were distilled under special conditions. He 
also recalled the fact that in 1850 oil of neroli sold for from $3.50 to 
$5.00 per ounce. 

Mr. Wilbert said that the distilled oils were manufactured under 
improved conditions, which prevented the breaking up of the valu- 
able constituents, and seemed to make the oil of greater value prac- 
tically. He then read extracts from a letter from Fritzsche Bros., 
New York City, relative to the replacement of the natural by the 
synthetic oil of neroli. 

Mr. Boring referred to an interesting illustrated paper in a recent 
number of World 's Work, on the lemon and orange industries of 
California. Mr. Wilbert said that the soluble lemon and orange oils 
on the market are usually lemon grass citral, which is terpeneless, 
and therefore more soluble, and in this connection read a further 
extract of a letter from Fritzsche Brothers : 

" There is only a comparatively small amount ot lemon and 
orange oils produced in California, and the samples which have, so 
far, come to our notice were of very inferior quality. It is, there- 
fore, not to be expected that these California oils will prove to be in 
serious competition with the Italian oils. The terpeneless oils of 
lemon and orange are now largely employed in the manufacture of 
soluble extracts, and since they are now perfect in flavor, they can 
advantageously be employed by manufacturers." 

Remarks were also made on the olive oil industry of California; 
by Messrs. Boring and Bamford. The latter stated that he had 
learned recently that a company had been organized to express the 
fixed oil from raisin seeds, which was to be used as a substitute for 
olive oil. 

In connection with Mr. Wilbert's paper the following specimens, 
furnished by Fritzsche Brothers, were exhibited: Anethol (oil ol 
anise, extra strong), oil of caraway seed (light, carvene), linalool, 
oil of fennel seed (sweet), oil of fennel seed (sweet, chaff), oil of 
anise seed (Russian, rectified), oil of lemon (hand-pressed), oil of 
caraway seed (Dutch, twice rectified), oil of orange (sweet, hand- 
pressed), oil of limes (distilled), carvol (oil of caraway, extra strong, 
specific gravity 0-960), oil of neroli (synthetic oil of orange flowers) 
nerolini (pure, crystallized). Specimens of neroline and linalool, 
furnished by Fries Brothers, were also shown. 

A vote of thanks was tendered the authors of the papers. 



234 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { 



_m. Jour. Pharm, 
May, 1903. 



Allen, Robert Wallin, 
Ames, Arthur Garfield, 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

THE EIGHTY-SECOND ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT. 

The exercises connected with the conferring of the degrees of Doctor of Phar- 
macy, Pharmaceutical Chemist and Master in Pharmacy were held in the 
Academy of Music, Wednesday evening, April 15th. The degrees were con- 
ferred by the President, Howard B. French. The following received the degree 
of Doctor of Pharmacy (P.D.) : 

Name. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Albert, Howard, A Critical Examination of the Qual- 

ity of Crude Vegetable Drugs, Pennsylvania. 
Drugs Indigenous to China, Pennsylvania. 
Amanita Muscaria, 'New Jersey. 

Anthony, Herbert Spencer, Antitoxin, Pennsylvania. 
Ashmead, Virden Peter, The Disadvantage of Petroleum Prod- 
ucts as Basis of Ointments, Pennsylvania. 
Atropine, Pennsj-lvania. 
Precipitation in Prescriptions, New York. 

Epigsea Repens, Pennsylvania. 
Cannabis Indica, New Jersey. 

Liquor Ammonii Acetatis, Pennsylvania. 
Eucalyptus, Pennsylvania. 
Calcium, New Jersey. 

Cinchona, Pennsylvania. 
The Garbling of Commercial Vege- 
table Drugs, 
Phytolacca Decandra, 
Opium, 

The History of Paregoric, 
Adrenalin, 
Belladonna, 
Volatile Oils, 



Baas, Charles Wesley, 
Billetdoux, Chester A., 
Burkholder, Lloyd A., 
Chambers, Frank Joseph, 
Coleman, William Fogg, 
Cooper, Clyde Heaton, 
Cossaboom, Herbert S., 
Crossley, Samuel Wallace, 
Currinder, Alva Batten, 

D'Alemberte, Herbert H., 
Daub, Charles Melvin, 
Davis, Howard Sherman, 
Dilks, John, 
Ebert, James Monroe, 
Edwards, Lawrence, 
Eichold, Bernard Herbert, Ipecacuanha, 



Fox, Morris Wayne, 
Fralinger, John Joseph, 
Galbraith, William H., 
Garvey, Joseph Peter, 
Gerson, Dora Goldie, 
Groff, William, 
Guier, Luis Javier, 
Guthrie, Ira Culpepper, 



The Purification of Argols, 
Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 
Jr., Bismuthi Subnitras 
Salol, 
Cinchona, 

Official Digestive Ferments, 
Tobacco, 

Spiritus -Etheris Nitrosi, 



Harbaugh, Duncan James, Mentha Piperita, 



Delaware. 
Florida. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Alabama. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Costa Rica, C. A. 
Texas. 

Pennsvlvania. 



Harbold, John Tilden, 

Harmening, Frederick H. 

Headings, PrestieM., P.C. 
Hecker, Andrew Ned, 



Bacteria and Prevention of Bacterial 

Growths in Syrups, Pennsylvania. 

The Advantages of a Fat-free Tinc- 
ture of Digitalis, Ohio. 

Glycerin, Pennsylvania. 

Coca, Pennsvlvania. 



Am. Tour. Pharm, 
May, 1903. 



} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Name. 

Hemmersbach, Henry W., 
Hetherington, J. N. C, 
Hinski, Oscar Nicholas, 
Holcombe, John Heisler, 
Holstein, George Leon, 
Hoover, Robert Adams, 
Johnson, Chauncey N., 
Jones, Clarence, 
Keener. James Blaine, 
Keller, Martin Luther, 
Kempte, Floyd Budd, 

King, Grant Wagner, 
Leaman, John B., 
Lee, Robert Edward, 
Light, Charles Augustus, 
Lover, Marcus Brownson, 
Mader, James Wilson, 
Malloy, Westley General, 
Markle, Howard Overholt, 
Mayers, James Curtis, 
Michael, Horace, 
Morgan, Harold Bertram, 
Moyer, Lewis Nathan, 
Musson, Katharine J., 

Reburn, Albert Randolph, 

Reed, James Garfield, 
Roth, Emil Krieger, 
Rothwell, Eugene, 
Schmidt, Otto Waldemar, 
Scott, Stanhope McClellan 
Seeley, Chester Belting, 
Shiffer, Daisy Rhodes, 
Shillito, Charles Emmert, 
Shrenk, Murray Hamilton, 
Smith, Clarence Daniel, 
Smith, Henry Addison, 

Smith, Jacob Schall, 
Smith, William Henry, 
Snyder, David Stahl, 
Stallsmith, Walter Edgar, 

Stimmel, Irvin Siegfried, 
Stine, William Earl, 
Stolz, David, 



Subject of Thesis. 
Acidum Boricum, 
Commercialism in Ph&rmacy, 
Ficus Carica, 
Gossypium Purificatum, 
Syrupus Acidi Hydriodici, 
Foundation of the Metric System, 
Potassii Bitartras, 
Cascara Sagrada, 
Fuel and its Metamorphoses, 
Spongia, 

The Relations of the Pharmacist and 

Physician, 
Cocaine Hydroehlorate, 
Digitalis, 

The Successful Pharmacist, 
Encapsulating, 

Suggestions about a Drug Store, 
Ceratum Resinse Compositum, 
Gossypium Purificatum, 
Acidum Tannicum, 
Liquor Ferri et Ammonii Acetatis, 
Compressed Tablets, 
Compressed Tablets, 
Glyceritum Vitelli U. S. P., 
Incompatibilities of Strontium Bro- 
mide, 

Suprarenal Glands, and their Active 

Principle, Adrenalin, 
Oil of Sunflower Seed, 
Digitalis, its Action and Derivatives, 
Rhamnus Purshiana, 
Unguenta, 
, Uric Acid, 

Podophyllum Peltatum, 

Syrupus Tolutanus, 

Preparations of the Hypophosphites, 

The History of Sponges, 

Conium Maculatum, 

Beet Sugar: its History and Manu- 
facture, 

Sulphur Prsecipitatum, 

Effervescent Magnesium Sulphate, 

Business Methods in Pharmacy, 

The Distillation of Oil of Winter- 
green and Oil of Birch, 

Heroin, 

Cedron, 

The Salt Industry at Syracuse, N.Y., 



235 

State. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Indiana. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Maryland. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

W. Virginia. 

New Jersey, 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

New York. 
Pennsylvania. 
Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania _ 
Pennsylvania. 
New York. 



236 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1903. 



Name. 

Stuck, Willard Steans, 
Sutliff, Jacob, 
Tripmaker, Walter Wm, 
Tuohy, James Louis, 
Van Dyke, James Packer, 
Walmsley, Charles Kdw., 
Welsh, Ralph Liguori, 
Wolford, James Walter, 
Wollaston, Byron Parker, 
Woodside, John M., 
Zimmerman, Charles S., 



Subject of Thesis. 
Digestive Ferments, 
Ginseng, 
Senna, 

Belladonna versus Scopola, 
Taraxacum, 

The Evolutions of Kaolins, 
Gossypium, 

Liquor Sodse Chloratse, 
Eucalyptus, 
Hydrogenii Dioxidum, 
Saw Palmetto, 



State. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 



The following received the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist (P.C.) : 
Name. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Boyd, Guj' Stephen, Truss Fitting, Pennsylvania. 

Kisner, George W., Opium, New Jersey. 

The "Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry" was awarded to Harry M. 
Capwell and John Austin Roberts. 

The degree of Master of Pharmacy, honoris causa, was conferred upon the 
following: George Mahlon Beringer, James Michener Good, Wallace Procter 
and Henry Solomon Wellcome. 

The degree of Master in Pharmacy in course was conferred upon Martin 
Inventius Wilbert, the subject of his thesis being "Commercial Aloes" (see 
page 201). 

Announcement by the Dean. Prof. Joseph P. Remington announced 
that the President's cup, offered by Howard B. French in 1901, for high class 
average, had been won by the present class. The following received the 
grade of distinguished: Howard Albert, Chester Augustus Billetdouxand Chaun- 
cey Nicholas Johnson. 

The Valedictory Address was delivered by Hon. G. Harry Davis, in 
which he pointed out that the study ^of science for the sake of science alone was 
the height of selfishness; but if it were studied with the ultimate aim of bene- 
fiting humanity, then the aim was a most worthy one. He pointed out that a 
man might attain success in whatever field he chose if he worked to 
that end. In conclusion he portrayed the true man, and said that to attain 
this should be the supreme effort of each one. 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize of a gold medal and certificate, 
offered by Mrs. Rebecca T. Webb for the highest general average in the exami- 
nation of the committee, operative pharmacy and specimens, was awarded to 
Chauncey Nicholas Johnson and presented by William J. Jenks. The following 
graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith: Howard Albert, 
Chester A. Billetdoux, Westley G. Malloy, Lewis N. Mover and Clarence Dan- 
iel Smith. 

The Pharmacy Prize, a gold medal, offered by Professor Remington for 
original pharmaceutical work, was awarded to Harold Bertram Morgan, John 
J. Fralinger receiving honorable mention in connection therewith. 



Am Ma?'i903 arm "} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 237 

The Chemistry Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler for orig- 
inal work in quantitative analysis, was awarded to Chauncey Nicholas Johnson, 
the following graduates receiving honorable mention in connection therewith: 
Bernard H. Eichold and David Stolz. 

The Pharmacognosy Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Henry Kraemer for 
original work in botany and pharmacognosy, was awarded to John Tilden Har- 
bold, the following graduates receiving honorable mention: Howard Albert, 
Bernard H. Eichold and Jacob Sutliff. 

The Materia Medica Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. Lowe for 
best examination in materia medica, the recognition of specimens and a meri- 
torious thesis, was awarded to Westley G. Malloy. The following graduates 
received honorable mention in connection therewith: Chester A. Billetdoux, 
Morris W. Fox, James C. Mayers and Lewis N. Moyer. 

The Analytical Chemistry Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Frank X. 
Moerk for the best examination in quantitative and qualitative analysis by 
students receiving the grade of "very satisfactory" in both the second and 
third years, and passing a competitive examination, was awarded to Chauncey 
Nicholas Johnson and presented by George M. Beringer. Howard Albert 
received honorable mention in connection therewith. 

The Maisch Prize of $20, offered by Mr. J. H. Redsecker, of Lebanon, for 
histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded to Lewis Nathan Moyer and 
presented by Joseph W. England. The following students received honorable 
mention in connection therewith: James N. C. Hetherington, Robert A. 
Hoover, Westley G. Malloy, Otto W. Schmidt and Ralph L. Welsh. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize of $20, offered by Prof. Joseph P. Rem- 
ington for the best examination in operative pharmacy, was awarded to Irvin 
Siegfried Stimmel and presented by James T. Shinn. The following graduates 
received honorable mention in connection therewith: Howard Albert, Chaun- 
cey N. Johnson, Horace Michael, Clarence Jones, Harold B. Morgan, Westley 
G. Malloy, Otto W. Schmidt, Clarence D. Smith, Byron P. Wollaston, Chas. 
S. Zimmerman. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, consisting of a fine Troemner pre- 
scription balance, offered by Mr. M. N. Kline for the best examination in the- 
ory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to Chester Augustus Billetdoux, 
the following graduates receiving honorable mention in connection therewith: 
Howard Albert, Eugene Rothwell, Otto W. Schmidt, Guy S. Boyd, Chas. E. 
Shillito, David S. Snyder, Luis J. Guier, John M. Woodside, Katharine J. 
Musson. 

The Commercial Training Prize of $20, offered by Prof. Joseph P. Rem- 
ington to the student passing the best examination in this branch, was awarded 
to Bernard Herbert Eichold and presented by Dr. A. W. Miller. The following 
graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith : Howard Albert, 
Chester A. Billetdoux, Wm. F. Coleman, Morris W. Fox, John T. Harbold, 
Martin L. Keller, Robert E. Lee, Eugene Rothwell, Katharine J. Musson, 
Charles E. Shillito and Clarence Daniel Smith. 

The Instructors' Prize of $20, offered by the instructors for the highest 
term average in the branches of pharmacy, chemistry and materia medica, was 
awarded to Chester Augustus Billetdoux and presented by Freeman P. Stroup. 



238 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am m^-w^™" 

The following graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith: 
Morris W. Fox, Chauncey N. Johnson and Jacob S. Smith. 

The Pharmacy Quiz Prize, one year's membership in the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, offered by C. H. LaWall for the best term work in 
theory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to Chester Augustus Billetdoux. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith: 
Herbert H. D'Alemberte, Morris W. Fox, John H. Holcombe, Chauncey N. 
Johnson, James W. Mader, Westley G. Malloy, Clarence D. Smith, Jacob S. 
Smith. 

COMPLIMENTARY SUPPER OF THE FACUI/TY. 

A complimentary supper was given to the graduating class by the members 
of the Faculty, on Tuesday evening, April 14th, in the Museum of the College. 
Some of the officers and trustees of the College were present, as also other 
invited guests. The grade of scholarship attained by the Class of 1903 being 
higher than that of the preceding class, they were entitled to receive the Presi- 
dent's cup. It was presented by Mahlon N. Kline on behalf of the donor, 
Howard B. French, and received on behalf of the class by Lewis N. Mover. 
This was also the occasion for the unveiling of the Walter Sellers Memorial 
Tablet, which was presented, to the College on behalf of the Alumni Associa- 
tion by Joseph W. England, and received by the President, Howard B. French. 
The latter also received for the College the resolutions of the class on the 
death of W. Nelson Stem, which were presented by the president of the class. 

Professor Remington acted as toastmaster, and toasts were responded to by 
the members of the Faculty and Instructors, some of the members of the Col- 
lege and Board of Trustees and by many of the members of the graduating 
class. 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 

The baccalaureate services were held in Christ Church, Second Street above 
Market Street, on Sunday, April 12th, the sermon being delivered by the rec- 
tor, Rev. C. Ellis Stevens, LL.D., D.C.L. 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

The thirty-ninth annual meeting of the Alumni Association was held in 
Alumni Hall on Monday afternoon, April 13th, at 2.30 o'clock, with the Presi- 
dent, William G. Nebig, in the chair. 

Following the annual address of the President, reports from the officers and 
standing committees were read. The following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : President, Albert Oetinger ; Vice-Presidents, Jacob M. Baer and 
Walter A. Rumsey ; Treasurer, C. Carroll Meyer; Recording Secretarj-, Wm. 
E. Krewson ; Corresponding Secretary, Freeman P. Stroup ; Board of Direc- 
tors : Melvin W. Bamford, J. W. Frey, George B. Weidemann, Henry C. Blair 
and Clarence H. Campbell. 

The thirty-ninth annual reception was held in the evening of the same day 
in the College Museum, Wm. G. Nebig presiding. After the roll-call by the 
Secretary, of new members elected during 1902 and 1903, they were addressed 
by George Bradford Carr, Esq. 

The prizes offered by the Association were presented as follows : 

The Aeumni Goed Medae for the best general average of the Class of 1903 
was awarded to Howard Albert, and presented by Albert Oetinger. 



Am Ma?!'i9 t o'3 arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 239 

The Alumni Prize Certificates, awarded to the members of the class 
receiving the highest averages in each of the following branches, were pre- 
sented by Joseph L. Lemberger : In Pharmacy, to Chester A. Billetdoux ; in 
Chemistry, to Guy S. Boyd; in Materia Medica, to Westley G. Malloy ; in 
General Pharmacy, to Harold B. Morgan ; in Operative Pharmacy, to Irvin S. 
Stimmel ; in Analytical Chemistry, to Chauncey N. Johnson ; in Specimens, to 
James N. C. Hetherington. 

The Alumni Sii/ver Medal, for the best general average in the final 
examinations of the students of the second year class, was awarded to Miss 
Millicent S. Renshaw and presented by Jacob M. Baer. 

The Alumni Bronze Medal, for the best general average in the final 
examinations of the students of the first year class, was awarded to Lloyd P. 
Palmer and presented by Walter A. Rumsey. 

The Class Oration was given by John T. Harbold ; the Poem by Charles A. 
Light ; the Class History by Duncan J. Harbaugh, and the Prophecy by 
Herbert S. Anthony. 

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 
The following is a copy of the questions given to the students of the third 
year cla<s at their recent final examinations. The examinations in Operative 
Pharmacy and Analytical Chemistry were practical, and were conducted in the 
respective laboratories ; the others were written. 

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACY. 

A — (1) Describe the process for the manufacture of Aloes. (2) What kind 
of Aloes are now found in commerce ? (3) What is the official name of Purified 
Aloes? (4) Give briefly the official process for purifying Aloes. (5) Give the 
official names of two liquid preparations and five official pills containing 
Aloes. (6) What is the active principle of Aloes? (7) What is Histed's Test? 

B — Give the unabbreviated official or Latin name, ingredients, brief outline 
of process, and describe the appearance of Cold Cream, Tully's Powder, 
Basham's Mixture, Paregoric, Glyconin and Turpeth Mineral. 

C— Give the English name, ingredients, brief outline of process and describe 
the appearance of Syrupus Hypophosphitum, Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 
Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, Mel Despumatum, Liquor Sodse Chloratse and 
Infusum Sennae Compositum. 

D — Alkaloids. — (1) What is the etymological meaning of the word " alka- 
loid " ? (2) From what sources are alkaloids obtained ? (3) What is the object 
of salifying alkaloids? (4) Name the solvents in which most alkaloids are 
most soluble. (5) Name the solvents in which most alkaloidal salts are 
most soluble. (6) In what respects do alkaloids differ from glucosides? (7) 
How may alkaloids be distinguished by their official Latin names and English 
names from most other bodies? (8) Name three liquids used to identify alka- 
loids by chemical tests. 

E — Poisons. — (1) Define the word "poison." (2) What precautions are 
necessary to protect the dispenser who sells poisons from legal responsibility ? 
(3) What, in your opinion, is the best method to be used in the pharmacy for 
preventing the possibility of a mistake through accidentally dispensing the 
wrong medicine? (4) Describe any other methods for effecting the same 
object, mentioning their advantages and disadvantages. 



240 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am May?i903f rm ' 

F — Pills. — ( i )Name three physical requisites for a properly made pill mass. 
(2) Describe briefly the process for sugar-coating pills (3) Describe briefly 
the process for gelatin-coating pills (4) What is the objection to manufactur- 
ing gelatin-coated pills having the needle-holes exposed? 

G — Tablets and Tablet Triturates. — (1) Describe briefly the principle upon 
which tablet machines depend for their action. (2) What methods are in use 
for preparing a powder which is not easily compressed, so that it can be readily 
used in a tablet machine ? (3) What are the objections to dispensing a tablet 
which is either too hard or too soft ? (4) Describe the method for making 
tablet triturates. 

H — (1) What is the object of pharmaceutical legislation? (2) What should 
be the qualifications of a Board of Pharmacy ? (3) Why is there not a United 
States Pharmacy Law ? (4) Give the reasons for advocating the payment of 
all expenses of enforcing pharmacy laws by the State ? (5 ) Why should all " 
receipts be turned into the State treasury and all expenses be paid by the 
State? (6) Why should every registered pharmacist be compelled to have a 
diploma from a recognized college before taking his examination ? 

J — Criticise and translate the following prescriptions. Write out, with 
English names, the ingredients and quantities. State how you would com- 
pound them, or what course you would pursue. Give the meaning of names 
and marks on the margins : 

3592 

R Potas. Brom. J ss 

Tr. Cannab. f£v 

Vin. Ergota f^ss 

Spt. Amm. Ar. f§ij 

Aquae ad. f 3 viij 

Sig. — A tablespoonful. 
v* X Dec. 6, '83 B. J. R. 

R Argent. Oxid. gr. xvi 

Strychnia gr. i 

60587 Pulv. Capsici gr. xxiv 

SC Ext. Gentiana 9ij 

M. ft. pill No. = xxxii 
Sig. — On box the contents of each pill. 
One after each meal. D. 

27639. 2/8, '03. 
R Tr. Ferri Chlor. £ij ttlxl 

Acid. Phosp. dil. !$j T^xl 

V X Spt. Limonis ^ij 
Syrup, et Aquae q. s. ^iv 
Sig. — 2 teaspoonfuls 4 times daily. 

— Fill up three of the labels upon the sheet attached, writing suitable 
directions for the prescriptions found on Question J. 

Then write three prescriptions upon the blanks printed on the label sheet 
for the following, numbering and dating each: (1) Twelve powders for a 



Am, Ma U /:i9o h 3 arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 241 

child six years old, suffering from mild indigestion and diarrhoea caused by 
eating unripe fruit. (2) One for an old lady requiring a tonic, containing Qui- 
nine, Iron Phosphate and Elixir of Orange (teaspoonful dose, 8-ounce mix- 
ture). (3) One metric prescription for a man thirty years old, requiring a 
suppository containing Extract of Stramonium, Goulard's Extract and Creo- 
sote (twelve suppositories). 

Write labels for the prescriptions above, and also for the following : Upon 
labels for Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 (see below), write brief directions for use, for 
the pills, ointment, drops, tablet triturates and emulsion. 

(4) One for a simple ointment, ^-ounce, to apply for a slight eruption on 
the face, due to sunburn. (5) One for drops for inflamed eyes, 1 fluid-ounce 
solution. (7) One for twelve tablet triturates, in screw-cap vial, for headache 
due to over-study. (8) One for a pint bottle containing Cod-L,iver Oil. (9) 
Fill in the address tag for one of the patients, using any name or address. (10) 
Fill in the check-blanks in lower left-hand corner, for one of the patients. 

CHEMISTRY. 

A — ( 1) State the chemical distinction between an aldehyd and a ketone, and 
illustrate by an example showing the derivation of each. (2) What are the dis- 
tinguishing reactions of each class? (3) Mention important pharmaceutical 
compounds that belong to each of these classes. (4) Mention important phar- 
maceutical compounds that are formed as the result of reactions in which one 
or the other of these classes is concerned. 

B—(\) State the natural sources of Tartaric Acid and Citric Acid respect- 
ively, and how they are prepared from these sources. (2) Give tests, both 
physical and chemical, by which these acids can be distinguished from each 
other. (3) Give the chemical formulas and names of the official tartrates and 
of the official citrates. 

C — fi) What is an enzyme? Give examples of enzymes important for phar- 
maceutical processes. (2) What are the conditions needed for the activity of 
enzymes, and under what conditions is their activity arrested? (3) State the 
important classes of organic ferments. (4) Write the reactions for the alco- 
holic, lactic, butyric and acetic fermentations respectively. (5) State the con- 
ditions under which each of these fermentations takes place most readily. 

D — (1) State the distinction between a phenol, a phenolate, a phenol-ester, a 
phenol-sulphonate and a phenol-acid, and give illustrations belonging to each 
class. (2) Write the structural formulas of the several diatomic phenols and 
name them. (3) How can common phenol be made synthetically, and from 
what sources? (4) What are the pharmacopceial tests for common phenol ? 

E — (1) Describe Salicylic Acid, and give the official tests for the same. (2) 
How is Salicylic Acid made synthetically ? Write the reaction. (3) Write the 
formulas of the normal and basic sodium salicylates. (4) Give the names and 
write the formulas of two official esters of Salicylic Acid. 

F—{t) What is a terpene, and by what reactions and tests can a terpene be 
identified? (2) What other constituents occur in essential oils besides ter- 
penes? Illustrate by examples of official oils. (3) Mention important essen- 
tial oil constituents of the phenol class; of the ester class; of the aldehyd class; 
of the alcohol class. (4) Mention essential oils or constituents of the same 
that are used in the manufacture of perfumes and flavoring extracts. 



242 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. H^S" m ' 

G — (i) What adulterations are to be looked for in Olive Oil, and how are 
they detected ? (2) How is lard adulterated, and by what tests is its purity 
established? (3) How is butter tested for its purity, and how is oleomargarine 
indicated ? (4) By what tests is the adulteration of milk shown? 

//"—Write the structural formulas for : 

(1) Chloral. (2) Acetone. (3) Sulphonal. (4) Acetanilid. (5) Benzal- 
dehyd. (6) Gallic Acid. 

/ — Give the proper chemical names, and when official, the official names of 
the following compounds : 

(1) CH 2 .OH (2) CH=CH\ 
I I o 

CH . OH CH = C/ 

I (COH) 

CH 2 . OH 



(3) COH (4) COH 

// \ * X 

HC CH HC C . OCH c 

II! 1 II 

HC C. OH HC CH 

% / V / 

CH C . COH 



(5) CH CH 

* \ / % 
HC C COH 

I II ' 

HC C CH 

% /• V. // 
CH CH 



K — Question in Proximate Organic Analysis. — Given a Linseed Oil which 
has been adulterated with mineral oil and resin, and then thinned with turpen- 
tine — state how you would identify the several substances present, and de- 
termine the approximate amount of each. 

MATERIA MEDICA. 

A — Alkaloids. — (1) Give the official names, botanical names, natural orders 
and habitats of the plants yielding the following, viz. : Pelletierine, Daturine, 
Coniine, Nicotine, Bserine, Emetine, Brucine, Codeine, Hyoscine, Narcotine. 
(2) Which two of these act as emetics, which as a tsenifuge, which two as 
mydriatics, which two as myotics, which paralyzes the motor nerves ? 

B — Castor Oil. — (r) State its official name, plant from which derived, and 
method of extraction ; name a poisonous principle present in the seed but not 
in the fixed oil. (2) State the adult dose and three good methods of administra- 
tion. (3) How can excessive action be guarded against ? (4) Why is it fre- 
quently administered as a remedy for diarrhoea? (5) Why should it not be 
given after the administration of Oleoresin of Aspidium, or in the advanced 
stage of pregnancy ? 

C — Drugs Yielded by Pinus Pahistris, etc.-(i) Give official names of a con- 
crete oleoresin, an impure oleoresin, a volatile oil, and a resin obtained directly 



Am May j903 arn) ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 243 

or indirectly from this source. (2) State briefly how each is obtained. (3) 
What is the action of the volatile oil when applied externally or taken inter- 
nally, in what doses is it given and what preparation of it should be prescribed ? 

D — N. O. Rubiacecs. — (1) Give botanical names of the plants belonging to 
this order that yield two official barks, an official root, and a seed yielding an 
official alkaloid. (2) State the alkaloidal requirements of the U.S. P. for these 
barks, their habitat and their present commercial source. (3) Name the four 
principal alkaloids present in these barks. State the action of the alkaloids 
upon micro-organisms and upon the white blood corpuscles. What condition 
do they produce if taken in excessive doses ? 

E — Eucalyptus. — (1) Give its botanical name, natural order and habitat. (2) 
How can you distinguish between the leaves of young and those of older parts 
of the tree ? Which kind is official ? (3 ) What amount of volatile oil is present 
in the leaves, and what is the chief constituent of this oil? What terpeneis 
the chief constituent of the volatile oil derived from some species of Eucalyptus ? 
(4) What are the medicinal properties of the leaves and volatile oil ? By what 
channels is the latter excreted ? 

F—Glucosides. — (1) Give the botanical names of the plants yielding the fol- 
lowing, viz.: Amygdalin, Digitalin, Colocynthin, Marrubiin, Gentiopicrin, 
Arbutin, Bryonin, Daphnin, Salicin, Convallarin. (2) Which two of these act as 
heart tonics, which two as drastic purgatives, which two as bitter tonics, which 
as a diuretic, which as an antiperiodic ? What derivatives are produced by the 
splitting up of Amygdalin and Arbutin ? 

G — Volatile Oils. — (1) Name two official volatile oils that yield eugenol, two 
anethol, one menthol, one thymol, one safrol, one cinnamic aldehyde, two 
methylsalicylate. (2) State the official names of the following volatile oils, 
viz. : Neroli, Orange Peel, Pennyroyal, Lavender Flowers, Bitter Almond, 
Cade, American Wormseed, Cassia, Fleabane, Bay. 

H— Cathartic Drugs. — (1) State the active constituent of Mandrake Root 
and amount present. How is the resin obtained and what is its dose ? (2) 
What action does it have upon the liver, and upon what part of the intestinal 
tract does it principally act? What other cathartic acting upon the lower 
bowels is usually associated with it? (3) State the dose of Gamboge, Croton 
Oil, Jalap, Scammony and Flaterin. 

J — Toxicology. — State briefly the symptoms and treatment of cases of poi- 
soning by each of the following drugs, viz. : Opium, Strychnine, Arsenic, Car- 
bolic Acid. 

K — Emergency Case. — (1) Give a brief outline of the manner in which you 
would treat, antiseptically, an incised wound of the forearm. (2) Also a scalp 
wound. (3) A boy whose leg was badly injured was saved from bleeding to 
death by the prompt action of a druggist ; how would you act under similar 
circumstances ? 

COMMITTKE. 

A — Mercury.— \\) Give unabbreviated official name, specific gravity, sym- 
bol. (2) From what locality in the United States is it largely obtained? (3) 
In what combination does Mercury usually exist in nature? (4) What process 
is used in separating it from this combination? (5) What two series of salts 
are formed by Mercury ? (6) To which series does Corrosive Sublimate belong ? 
(7) Write the chemical formula and state the dose of Corrosive Sublimate. 



244 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am Ma?!"i9 P o3. arm ' 

(8) Give the official and common names of " Hydrargyri Submurias." (9) 
Give a test for the presence of Corrosive Sublimate in Calomel. (10) Name 
five preparations of Mercury. 

B— Preservation of Drugs. — (1) State the best manner of keeping each of 
the following drugs, and. the reasons governing each case, viz.: Ergot, Can- 
tharides, Powdered Squill, Cod Liver Oil, Quinine Sulphate, Sodium Sul- 
phate, Carbolic Acid (crystals), Zinc Chloride, Silver Nitrate, Benzin. (2) 
N. O. UmbellifercB . — What kind of fruit is characteristic of this order ? Name 
four official fruits and four official volatile oils derived from these fruits. 
Name an official fruit yielding a volatile alkaloid, and state the characteristic 
odor of this alkaloid. Name two official gum resins derived from plants of this 
order. Which of these yields a sulphuretted volatile oil ? What is the color 
test for these gum resins ? How can an emulsion be made from them ? Give 
the names of two official emulsions, each containing one of these gum resins. 

C — Fixed and Volatile Oils. — (1) Describe briefly three processes for making 
the fixed oils of commerce used medicinally. (2) Name five official fixed oils, 
giving English and Latin names. (3) Describe briefly three processes by 
which volatile oils are procured. (4) Name five official volatile oils, giving 
English and Latin names. 

D — Doses and Antidotes. — Give the maximum single dose of each of the fol- 
lowing. Also name the antidotes and physiological antagonists of the first 
four of them : (1) Tincture of Aconite. (2) Tincture of Digitalis. (3) Cocaine 
Hydrochlorate. (4) Morphine Sulphate. (5) Strychnine Sulphate. (6) Diluted 
Hydrocyanic Acid. (7) Codeine Sulphate. (8) Tincture of Nux Vomica. (9) 
Atropine Sulphate. (10) Hyoscyamine Sulphate. 

E — Give the English name or synonym, ingredients, brief outline of proc- 
ess and describe the appearance of Liq. Ferri et Ammonii Acetatis, Pilulse Rhei 
Compositae, Syrupus Ipecacuanhse, Tinctura Gentianse Composita, Vinum 
Antimonii and Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. 

F— (1) What different forms of Ethyl Alcohol are official? Give the names 
of each. (2) Give a brief outline of the manufacture of Alcohol. (3) Give the 
specific gravities and percentage of Alcohol and water in official Alcohols. (4) 
How is the percentage obtained, and what effect has the temperature on the 
result? (5) What takes place when Alcohol and water are mixed together? 
(6) How is the presence of Methyl Alcohol in Alcohol detected ? 

G — By what tests can you distinguish between : [a ) Resorcin and Pyrogallol ? 
(b) Methyl Alcohol and Ethyl Alcohol ? {c) Quinine Sulphate and Morphine 
Sulphate? (d) Acetanilid and Phenacetin? (e) How can you detect Acetanilid 
as an adulterant of Phenacetin ? 

H — Oleoresins. — (1) What is an Oleoresin? (2) How are Oleoresins pre- 
pared ? (3 ) What precautions are necessary in recovering the menstruum used 
in their preparation ? (4) What liquids have been proposed as substitutes for 
the official menstruum ? (5) Give the official and English names and doses of 
five Oleoresins. (6) Which of the official Oleoresins deposit the active con- 
stituent on standing? (7) Which of the Oleoresins deposit inert constituents 
on standing ? 

J — Criticise the following prescriptions. State whether you would dispense 
each as written, and what precautions are necessary in compounding or 
dispensing : 



Am. J our. i'harm. 
May, 1903. 



} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



245 



No. 1. 






R Salol 


3J* 




Beta Naphthol 






Camphor Mouobrom. 


gr. xx 




Thymol 


gr. xl 




Mx. ft. Chart. No. xii. 






Sig. — Use as directed. 




T. S. W. 


No. 2. 






R Creosoti 






Spt. Frumenti 






Glycerini aa 


f 5 iiss 




Sig. — A dessertspoonful 3 times a day. 


U. T. 


No. 3. 






R Tinct. Opii 


m 




K — Criticise the following prescriptions ; state whether you would dispense 


each as written, and what precautions are necessary in compounding or 


dispensing : 






No. 4. 






R Terpini Hydras 






Heroinae Hydrochlor. aa 


gr. xxiv 




Ammon. Chlor. 






Mx. ft. Tab. Comp. No. xxiv. 






Sig. — Two at night. 




V. X. 


No. 5. 






R Bals. Copaibse 


m 




Ol. Cubebae 






Spt. ^Eth. Nit. 


fgiss 




1 Acacias q. s. 






Aquae Cinnam. q. s. ft. 






Mx. ft. Emulsio. 






Sig. — A dessertspoonful 4 tim 


es a day. 


M. M. 


No. 6. 






R 01. Erigerontis 


gtt. XX 




Ext. Ergotse 






Ext. Viburnii aa, 


gr. xxiv 




Mx. ft. Capsular No. xii. 






Sig. — One 3 times a day. 




S. K. 


OPERATIVE PHARMACY. 




(i) PILLS. 










Grammes 












Gramme 









Althaea Powd , . . . '25 " 

Glycerin 

Water, of each 2 Drops 



246 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I May, 1903. 



Make twenty-five pills ; coat twelve of them with silver leaf ; put the coated 
and uncoated pills in separate boxes, labelling each box. 
X. B. — The silver leaf will be found in the pill-box. 

(2) PRESCRIPTION. 

R Salolis . 

Creosoti 

Olei Amygdal. Exp 

Acacia, q. s. 

Aq. Cinnam. ad. , 

M. ft. mist, secundum artem. 

(3) AECOHOEMETRIC TEST. 

Estimate the amount of alcohol in the sample of White Wine ; put all calcula. 
tions on the sheet of paper, with your name, examination number, and the 
letter of the sample estimated. 

(4) P EASTER. 

Spread a breast 'plaster about 6 inches in diameter. Soap plaster will be 
found in the dipper. Write your name and examination number on the margin. 

(5) Fill six soluble elastic capsules with Cod Liver Oil, seal them with gelatin 
and put them in the box. 

COMMERCIAL TRAINING. 

A — Obtaining Positions. — (1) State briefly the method that you would con- 
sider most effective in obtaining a position with either a retail druggist, a 
wholesale house or a manufacturing firm, selecting one of them. (2) Write a 
business letter, using the name of any retail druggist, wholesale house, or 
manufacturing firm that you choose in making application for a position. Fold 
the letter properly and place it in an envelope suitably addressed. 

B — Going into Business. — Describe briefly under the following heads how 
you would enter the drug business as a proprietor. (1) Buying out an old stand. 
(2) Selecting a new location. (3) Arranging the terms. (4) Providing for the 
payment. (5) Establishing credit. 

C — Mercantile Agencies. — (1) What is the object of a mercantile agency? (2) 
How do they obtain their information? (3) Is it best to furnish correct infor- 
mation about your business standing ? Why ? 

D —Selecting the Business Houses from Which to Purchase Your Goods. — 
(1) State briefly the class of business houses that you would select in buying 
your stock, giving reasons. (2) Write out an order, upon the letterhead fur- 
nished, to a wholesale drug-house, being careful to use proper forms, abbrevia- 
tions and details, for ten articles that you would be apt to need, each repre- 
senting a different class of goods ; say one chemical, one drug, one fluid 
extract, etc. Write the order in such form that the drug-house would not be in 
doubt on a single point, fold it properly and place it in an envelope correctly 
addressed. 

E — Insurance. — (1) Define insurance. (2) Of what value is insurance in 
business ? (3) How does life insurance benefit a business man's standing ? (4) 



3j 

gtt. XXX 

fid. 3ij 

fid. 31V 



Am Mav?i903 arm "l Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 247 

What is the meaning of the insurance terms, policy, premium, good risk, 
endowment policy, life policy and joint-life policy? 

F— Banks. — (1) What is the object of a bank? (2) How is an account 
opened with a bank ? (3 ) Why does a teller require a person drawing money 
to be identified? (4) Why is a bank check usually drawn "to order"? (5) 
What means are employed by the drawer of a check to make forgery difficult? 
(6) How is the "raising" of a check made difficult? (7) Why is it necessary 
to endorse a check payable to order exactly as the name is spelled upon its 
face? (8) What is meant by a certified check? (9) Having $608. ro on deposit, 
draw a check upon the " Pharmacist's Bank " for $112.64, omitting no neces- 
sary detail. 

G — Commercial Terms. — Define the following terms : (1) Promissory note. 
(2) Draft. (3) P. O. Money Order. (4) Will. (5) Executor. (6) Adminis- 
trator. (7) Heir. (8) Deed. (9) Title Insurance. (10) Mortgage. (11) 
Lease. (12) Indenture. 

H — Law Points in Business. — ( 1) What is the meaning of "Caveat Emptor"? 
(2) What are Statutes of Limitation ? (3) What risk is incurred in endorsing 
promissory notes? (4) What is the effect of an endorser writing under his 
signature the words " without recourse"? (5) Why should bank checks be 
presented promptly for payment? (6) What is meant by "Contributory 
Negligence"-? (7) When is commercial paper falling due on Sunday or any 
other legal holiday payable ? 

J — Bookkeeping. — (1) Describe briefly the differences between Double and 
Single Entry Bookkeeping, mentioning the books used in each. (2) How can 
you decide, in journalizing, if an entry is to be made on the debit or the credit 
side of an account? (3) What is meant by the term "trial balance"? (4) 
Can the trial balance be relied upon for proving the correctness of entries in a 
set of books ? Give a reason for your answer. 

K — Bookkeeping. — The entries for the first day in a business just started are 
as follows. . Enter each item in the proper book, posting all items in the 
ledger : 
March 1, 1903. 

(Student) commenced business with a cash capital of $7,000. 

Bought a drug store from J. C. Badger, situated at Fifty-second and Market 
Streets, for the sum of $8,000 (estimated stock, $6,300 ; fixtures, $1,500), on the 
following terms : Cash, $4,000 ; note payable to J. C. Badger in two years for 
$1,500, and a second note payable to J. C. Badger in four years for $2,500. 
March 1st. 

Bought of Parke, Davis & Co., supplies as per invoice, $273.40. Sold Mrs. 
C. S. McEntire, R 56720, 75 cents; R 56721, 40 cents ; oxygen cylinder and 
inhaler, $8.75. Sold Mr. William Morrison, sponge, $2.50; air cushion, $3.00. 
Paid for soda-water supplies, $13.50. Paid a premium of $35 for one year's fire 
insurance of $6,000 in the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company. 

Cash retail sales for the day, $67.14. 

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 

(1) Briefly describe the analysis of the alloy brass, stating the conditions of 
precipitation of the several constituents and the composition of the same when 
weighed. 



248 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^M^im 1 ™' 

(2) In the course of an analysis 0*232 Aluminum Oxide was obtained; how 
much Alumen U.S. P. does this represent? 

(3) 5 c.c. Spirit of Ethyl Nitrite (sp. gr. 0*839) yields 37 c.c. of Nitrogen 
Dioxide at 25 C. ; what is the percentage strength ? 

(4) (a) How much Sodium Chloride will react with 10 c.c. (tenth normal ) 
Silver Nitrate V.S. ? (b) How much Hydrogen Dioxide will react with 10 c.c. 
(tenth normal) Potassium Permanganate V.S. ? [c] How much Sodiam Thio- 
sulphate will react with 10 c.c. (tenth normal) Potassium Dichromate V.S. ? 
(d) How much Sulphuric Acid will react with 10 c.c. (half normal) Sodium 
Carbonate V.S. ? (e) How much Sodium Bisulphite will react with 10 c.c. 
(tenth normal) Iodine V.S. ? 

(5, 6, 7) How would you estimate volumetrically Hydrochloric Acid, Ferrous 
Iodide, Ammonium Chloride ? Start in each case with the standardization of 
the volumetric solution. 

(S, 9, 10) Practical determinations of 5, 6 and 7 in the laboratory. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held on 
March 30, 1903, at the College Building, 145 North Tenth Street. 

Thirty-two members were present, the President, Howard B. French, 
presiding. The minutes of the quarterly meeting held December 29, 1902, 
were read and approved. The minutes of the meetings of the Board of Trustees 
for January 6 and February 3, 1903, were read by the acting Registrar, Chas. 
H. LaWall, and approved. 

The annual meeting being the occasion for the reports of the officers and 
standing committees, these were given in the following order : 

President's Report. — " All necessary repairs have been made 10 the property. 
The debt of the College has been reduced, as have also the interest charges. 
For the term i902-'03, there is an increase in the number of students over the 
preceding year." 

After referring to the course in commercial training the President said : 

" This course is of inestimable value to the students and should be continued, 
and if possible, enlarged. 

"During the term the College Class has lost three students by death — two 
second-year students and one third-year student. 

" Eight members have been added to the membership. No resignations 
have been offered. There have been three deaths. 

" In September last, the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the founding of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association was held in the College Hall with most 
interesting exercises appropriate to the occasion. The suggestion in a pre- 
vious report in reference to establishing a post-graduate course is a matter that 
should be kept constantly in mind by the Committee on Instruction, that as 
soon as means will allow and proper facilities can be obtained such a course 
should be established. 

" During the last year your President had occasion to make some investiga- 
tion into the early history of the College and its membership, and was much 
surprised to find that the historical records were comparatively meagre and 
went but little into detail. Your President would, therefore, suggest that a 



Am May?ifo h 3 arm ' I Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 249 

committee of five be appointed, whose duty it shall be to communicate with 
the various members of the College, particularly the older members, with the 
view of securing from them such information as in their judgment would be 
interesting and desirable for record in the archives of the College. These 
records should not only embrace matters pertaining to pharmacy, but to the 
growth and development of the allied professions, of individual effort, whether 
confined to pharmacy, chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, or the wholesale 
drug line. 

"Your President desires to refer with profound sorrow to the loss which 
your institution has sustained in the sudden death of your late able and effi- 
cient Registrar, W. Nelson Stem. His death is not only a great loss to your 
institution, but is felt as a personal sorrow by the officers, faculty and members 
of the College. 

14 In closing, the President desires to express his appreciation of the hearty- 
cooperation extended him by all those actively interested in the work of the 
College." 

Committee on Publication, by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler.— The American 
Journae of Pharmacy has been issued regularly during the year. All bills 
for the year have been paid. The receipts for the past year have been consid- 
erably more than last year, while the expenses have been less. The number of 
unsold volumes on hand is estimated at about 1,775, covering the period from 
1829 to the present time. 

Editor's Report, by Prof. Henry Kraemer. — The editor referred to some of 
the features which had characterized this Journae during the past year. 

Report of the Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings, by Prof. Henry 
Kraemer. — The meetings have been held regularly during the College year. 
The programs have been of both professional and practical interest, and the 
discussions have added much to the profitableness of the meetings. The min- 
utes have been published regularly in the next succeeding issue of the Journae. 
" During nearly the sixty years that these meetings have been held, their suc- 
cess has depended upon the untiring energy of a few zealous workers. Hap- 
pily for the College and for the committee, men of ability and opportunity are 
still to be found." 

Report of the Librarian, by Thomas S. Wiegand. — There have been added to 
the library since last report 108 volumes. The card catalogue has been entirely 
renewed, so as to be much more easily referred to. The library is becoming 
more and more known as one of value for reference regarding chemical, botani- 
cal and pharmaceutic subjects, not only to our own students, but to residents of 
our city interested in scientific pursuits. There has been expended during the 
year for new books and binding, $292. 67. 

Report of the Curator, by Joseph W. England. — The Museum is in good con- 
dition and has received a number of valuable additions during the year. Of 
these a number were articles exhibited at the historical exhibit of the Semi- 
centennial of the American Pharmaceutical Association, held in Philadelphia 
last September. During the past College year the Museum has been opened 
every Monday afternoon from 3 to 5 o'clock for the use of the students. The 
collection of official drugs and preparations in the students' reading-room is 
still largely used by the students, and is a valuable aid in making them more 
proficient in the recognition of specimens. 



250 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am M^i903 harm ' 

The consideration of the suggestions contained in the report of the President 
was then taken up: (i) In relation to establishing a post-graduate course. 
This was referred to the Board of Trustees for reference to the Committee on 
Instruction. (2) In relation to matters of historical interest, when, after some 
discussion, it was moved that the President appoint a committee of five (to be 
a standing committee) to be called "The Historical Committee." The Presi- 
dent subsequently appointed the following-named gentlemen : George M. Ber- 
inger, William J. Jenks, Henry Kraemer, Jacob M. Baer and Martin I. Wilbert. 

The President appointed the following-named gentlemen as Delegates to the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association for its twenty-sixth annual meeting, 
to be held at Eaglesmere, Pa., June 22, 23, 24, 1903: Henry L. Stiles, William 
Iv. Cliffe, Jacob M. Baer, Joseph W. England, C. A. Weidemann, M.D. 

The annual election being next in order, the report of the Committee on 
Nominations was read. Messrs. M. W. Bamford and William G. Nebig were 
appointed tellers, who, after a ballot was had, reported the election of Howard 
B. French, President ; William J. Jenks, First Vice-President ; Richard V. 
Mattison, Second Vice-President ; James T. Shinn, Treasurer ; A. W. Miller, 
Corresponding Secretary ; C. A. Weidemann, Recording Secretary ; Joseph W. 
England, Curator ; Thomas S. Wiegand, Librarian ; Henry Kraemer, Editor. 

Trustees, for three years : Wallace Procter, E. T. Dobbins, W. A. Rumsey. 
Gustavus Pile was elected a member of the Board for two years. 

Publication Committee: Henry N. Rittenhouse, Samuel P. Sadtler, Wallace 
Procter, Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Remington, Richard V. Mattison and 
the Editor. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings : William L. Cliffe, Joseph P. Rem- 
ington, C. B. Lowe, Richard V. Mattison and the Editor. 

Announcement was made of the death of W. Nelson Stem, late Registrar, 
which occurred on March 14, 1903. Mr. Stem became a member of the College 
in 1889. Also of Ernest Biltz, of Erfurt, Germany, a corresponding member. 

The President announced that the baccalaureate sermon would be delivered 
before the Graduating Class by the Rev. C. Ellis Stevens, at Christ Church, on 
Sunday afternoon, April 12th ; also that Judge G. Harry Davis would be the 
orator at the Commencement, to be held in the Academy of Music on April 
15th. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JUNE, 1903. 



THE RETENTION OF ARSENIC BY ANIMAL CHARCOAL. 

By John Marshall, 
Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Pennsylvania. 

AND 

Leon A. Ryan, 
Assistant Demonstrator of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania. 

At a recent meeting of the Philadelphia Section of the American 
Chemical Society, the inventor of a water filter in which animal 
charcoal is employed read a paper in which the statement was 
made that when aqueous solutions of the salts of some of the metals 
were passed through animal charcoal, the latter removed the metals 
from the solution, and that even arsenic in aqueous solution, as 
arsenious acid, could in large part be removed. 

The retention in the mass of charcoal of those metals which form 
insoluble phosphates is what one would expect because of the for- 
mation of such phosphates by the soluble phosphates of the animal 
charcoal and their mechanical retention in the mass of charcoal, but 
this explanation would not apply to arsenic. 

On passing distilled water through animal charcoal, we found that 
on adding plumbic acetate to a portion of the liquid that had been 
passed through, a copious precipitate of plumbic phosphate was pro- 
duced; but on adding a solution of arsenious acid to another portion 
of the liquid, no evidence of any change whatever was observed. 

The reader of the paper quoted some unpublished investigations 
on the retention of animal charcoal, made by Mr. Edward R. Noyes, 
under the direction of C. H. White, M.D., Medical Director U. S. N. 
(now retired), in the United States Naval Museum of Hygiene and 

(251) 



252 Retention of Arsenic. { Am jineMSf rm ^ 

Medical School, Washington, D. C, in which Mr. Noyes found that 
a very considerable amount of arsenic had been retained by the ani- 
mal charcoal. The matter was of such interest to us that we under- 
took the confirming of Mr. Noyes' observations. Our results, as 
detailed below, confirm Mr. Noyes' observations. 

EXPERIMENT NO. I. 

A quantity of animal charcoal weighing 789-4 grammes was dried 
at 110° C. to constant weight. The constant weight, was 777-88$ 
grammes, showing a loss of 11-515 grammes, or 1-458 per cent, in 
weight. 

0-4455 gramme arsenious oxide was dissolved in 3,000 c.c. of dis- 
tilled water and the solution was passed through the animal charcoal. 
The time required for the passage of the solution, i e. y until liquid 
ceased to come from the charcoal, was three hours. Of the 3,000 c.c. 
of solution, 2,670 c.c. passed through, leaving 330 c.c. as the volume 
retained in the mass of charcoal. 

Of the liquid which had passed through, 100 c.c. were taken, 
sulphurous acid added to reduce any arsenic acid which may have 
been produced, the sulphurous acid expelled by heat, the liquid 
strongly acidulated with hydrochloric acid and a slow stream of 
washed hydrogen sulphide conducted into the warmed liquid for 
several hours and then stood aside in a warm place over night. The 
arsenious sulphide was collected .on a previously washed and dried 
filter, washed with boiled water, then with alcohol, with ether, and 
finally with carbon disulphide, and then dried and weighed. 

Two determinations, using 100 c.c. of the liquid in each case, were 
made. 

a yielded 0-0069 gramme arsenious sulphide. 

b " 0-0063 " " " 

The mean of the two determinations is 0-0066 gramme, which 
corresponds to 0-0053 gramme of arsenious oxide. Each 100 c.c. 
of the original solution of arsenious oxide before it was passed 
through the charcoal contained 0-01485 gramme arsenious oxide; 
therefore, the amount of arsenious oxide retained by the animal 
charcoal from each 100 c.c. was 0-00955 gramme, or 64 30 per cent. 
This is assuming that the 330 c.c. of liquid which remained in the 
animal charcoal as liquid held mechanically to saturate the mass of 
charcoal, contained proportionately the same percentage of arsenious 



Am jun u e ?i903 arm '} Quantitative Estimation of Strychnine. 253 

oxide that the liquid which had passed through contained ; or if, 
finally, distilled water had been passed through the charcoal until 
the portion of the original arsenical liquid (330 c.c.) which remained 
to saturate the charcoal had been washed out, and the total quantity 
of liquid, including the washings, had been concentrated by evap- 
oration and the arsenic determined therein, it is reasonable to 
believe that 64-30 per cent, of the arsenious oxide in the original 
solution would have been retained by the animal charcoal. Under 
this assumption each gramme of the previously dried animal char- 
coal retained o 0006 gramme of arsenious oxide. 

EXPERIMENT MO. 2. 

A quantity of animal charcoal — undried — weighing 763-7 
grammes was employed. 3*3972 grammes arsenious oxide was 
dissolved in 3,000 c.c. of water and the solution was passed through 
the animal charcoal. The time required for the passage of the solu- 
tion was two hours. Of the 3,000 c.c. of solution, 2,630 c.c. passed 
through, leaving 370 c.c. in the mass of charcoal. 

Three determinations of arsenic, using 100 c.c. of the liquid in 
each case, were made. 

a yielded 0-0843 gramme arsenious sulphide. 

b " 0-0863 

c " 0-0868 

The mean of the three determinations is 0-0858 gramme, which 
corresponds to 0-06905 gramme arsenious oxide. Each 10c c.c. 
of the original solution before it was passed through the charcoal 
contained o- 1 1 324 gramme arsenious oxide; therefore, the amount 
of arsenious oxide retained by the animal charcoal from each 100 c.c. 
of solution was 0-04419 gramme or 39-02 per cent. The assump- 
tion stated in experiment No. 1 would also apply here. In this 
case each gramme of undried animal charcoal retained 0-00278 
gramme of arsenious oxide. 



THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF STRYCHNINE. 

By F. J. Smith. 

Several methods have been proposed tor the quantitative estima- 
tion of strychnine in mixtures of strychnine and brucine, principally 
in the form of impure alkaloids as extracted from tinctures and fluid 
extracts in the process of standardization. 



254 Quantitative Estimation of Strychnine. { Am june?i9osf rm 

The ferrocyanide method of Dunston and Short, as adopted by 
the British Pharmacopoeia, is very tedious, and has been shown not 
to be particularly accurate, as the strychnine ferrocyanide is stated 
to carry down with it some of the brucine ferrocyanide, so that the 
results are too high. 

Lyons's method of washing away the brucine by means of a satu- 
rated solution of strychnine in 40 per cent, alcohol is also stated by 
Gordin to be inaccurate. 

He says that " most of the strychnine is washed away along with 
the brucine," and that the reason may be that, in the amorphous 
condition, strychnine must be more soluble in 40 per cent, alcohol 
than when in the crystalline form. 

Keller's method of destroying the brucine by oxidation with 
HNO3 and shaking out the strychnine with chloroform after making 
the solution alkaline, appears to give good results; but Gordin, 
working on a mixture of pure alkaloids, failed to get more than 96 
per cent, strychnine by this method. In a series of experiments, 
conducted with the object of avoiding, if possible, this loss of 4 per 
cent., Gordin found that, by modifying Keller's method in certain par- 
ticulars, much more accurate results were obtained. He reduced the 
time of digestion with HN0 3 from one hour and a half to ten min- 
utes, finding this was quite long enough to effect the destruction of 
the brucine. and that the longer period of digestion resulted in the 
partial decomposition of the strychnine, as evinced by the yellow 
color of the solution, due to the formation of trinitrophenol. 

He also found that a weaker acid could be used with better 
results, as by it the brucine was completely destroyed, whilst the 
strychnine was not affected. 

By substituting a fixed alkali for ammonia, and pure chloroform 
for ether-chloroform, a much whiter alkaloid .vas obtained, and suf- 
ficiently pure to be weighed. The details of the improved method 
are as follows : 

The mixed alkaloids, which may be the residue from 8 or 10 
grammes of drug, are dissolved in 15 c.c. of 3 per cent. H 2 S0 4 by 
the aid of a water-bath heat. The solution is cooled to ordinary 
temperature, and 3 c.c. of a previously prepared and cooled mixture 
of equal parts of strong HNO s (s. g. 1-42) and water are added to 
the alkaloidal solution. 

The liquid is set aside for exactly ten minutes, shaking it gently. 



Am 7u°ne r ;i903? rm '} Quantitative Estimation of Strychnine. 255 

three or four times during this time. The red liquid is now trans- 
ferred to a separator containing 25 c.c. of a 10 per cent, solution of 
sodium hydrate, and the vessel in which digestion of the alkaloids 
has taken place is washed three or four times with very small 
amounts of water. 

Care must be taken that sufficient alkali is present to neutralize 
all the HNO3 and leave the liquid alkaline. This is then shaken 
out with chloroform, using 20 c.c. for the first shaking, and 10 c.c. 
each for two subsequent shakings. 

The chloroformic solution is now filtered through a small plain 
double filter, arranged so that there are four folds of paper on each 
side, into a tared flask, taking care to wash the filter and stem of 
the funnel with small amounts of chloroform, and to the colorless 
solution of strychnine thus obtained are added 2 or 3 c.c. pure amyl 
alcohol, which distills between 128 and 132 C. and leaves no resi- 
due on evaporation. 

^(This prevents decrepitation of strychnine, on removal of last traces 
of chloroform by heat.) 

The chloroform is now distilled off completely, and the small 
amount of amyl alcohol left behind is removed by keeping the 
vessel on the water-bath and blowing air over the opening. 

The vessel is now dried for about two hours at a temperature of 
1 35 to 140 C, and when cold, weighed. 

Gordin's figures show this method to give very accurate results, 
and its great advantage is, that it is very easily carried out and 
occupies but a short time. 

I have not attempted to test the accuracy of the process by work- 
ing on the pure alkaloids ; but during the last six months have 
used it exclusively in assays of the drug and also of liquid and solid 
extracts. In every case the percentage of strychnine found has 
been within the limits of 40 to 45 per cent, of the total alkaloid. 

Lyons states in his "Assay of Drugs " that the average is about 
42 per cent. 

A powdered extract of nux vomica yielded 20 per cent, impure 
alkaloids by weight. 

n 

This was dissolved in 20 c.c. - H 2 S0 4 (which is about equivalent 

to the prescribed 15 c.c. of 3 per cent. H 2 S0 4 ), half of which was 

titrated with — NaOH, using the factor 0-181^ (from the mean of 
100 & J v 



256 Quantitative Estimation of Strychnine. { Am j J u ne r ;im rm ' 

the atomic weights of strychnine and brucine), as the amount of 
alkaloid in milligrammes neutralized by 1 c c. of the acid. 

This gave total alkaloid as 19 9 per cent. pure. The remaining 
half I treated according to the above method, and the weight of the 
residue, which was perfectly white, gave the amount of strychnine 
as 7 96 per cent. The proportion of strychnine in the total alkaloid 
was, therefore, 40 per cent. 

Naturally, having taken for a titration factor a figure based on 
50 per cent, strychnine in total alkaloids, there will be a slight dis- 
crepancy here ; but, as that is the figure generally taken, I have 
always used it. 

Tile strong reserve percolate of a fluid extract was the next to be 
assayed. 

This yielded impure alkaloids 2-3 per cent. 

As before, one-half of this residue was titrated and yielded 1-96 
per cent, pure total alkaloid. 

The strychnine found was calculated to 0-88 per cent. This 
shows a proportion of 45 per cent, strychnine in total alkaloid. 
Next, some new drug was examined and was treated by Lyons's 
method, No. 360 in " Assay of Drugs." 

The impure alkaloid from 10 grammes weighed 0-32 gramme = 
3-2 per cent. 

n 

This was dissolved in 20 c.c. - H 9 S0, and half titrated as before. 

2 

The result was, total pure alkaloid 2-9 per cent. The colorless 
strychnine obtained from the other half of this solution weighed 
0-0635 gramme = 1*27 per cent, and 44 per cent, of the total 
alkaloid. 

From I gramme of a solid extract of nux vomica an impure 
alkaloid was obtained which weighed 0-162 gramme = 16-2 per 
cent. 

On titration this yielded 15-1 per cent, total pure alkaloid. Half 
of this solution was also used for estimation of strychnine, which 
weighed 0-0332 gramme = 6-64 per cent, and 44 per cent, of the 
total alkaloid. 

This solid extract was made from the same drug previously men- 
tioned, and it will be noticed that the proportion of strychnine 
obtained is in each case identical, which proves the reliability of 
the method. For convenience and comparison these results are 
tabulated below. 



Am 'jun U e I !"i903 arm '} Simple Forms of Laboratory Apparatus. 257 





Mixed Alkaloids 
by Titration. 


Strychnine. 


Proportion of 
Strychnine in 
Total Alkaloids. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




19-9 


7-96 


40 






664 


44 




2-9 


1-27 


44 


Fluid extract nux vomica seeds 


1*96 


o-88 . 


45 



SIMPLE FORMS OF LABORATORY APPARATUS. 
By Frank X. Moerk. 

Of the laboratory apparatus used in chemical analysis, none is of 
greater importance than the hydrogen sulphide generator. The 
apparatus described in this paper is inexpensive in construction and 
use and will remain in action until the sulphuric acid is nearly neu- 
tralized. 

A is a gallon wide-mouth bottle nearly filled with dilute sulphuric 
acid, 10 per cent.; into this hangs a student lamp chimney B sup- 
ported in the neck of the bottle by means of a paraffined wooden 
block ; B contains a notched leaden disk f t which supports the fer- 
rous sulphide to be acted upon and is closed by perforated rubber 
corks, the upper one supporting a delivery tube made up of a glass 
tube bent at right-angles and a short piece of rubber tubing con- 
taining the tightly fitting glass plug a ; the lower one supporting 
two valves b and made of two sizes of glass tubing and perforated 
rubber corks, the lower one e in each valve being notched, the 
upper one perfectly smooth, so that an ordinary cork d may either 
close the valve by being forced against the upper cork or open the 
valve by being forced downward. 

The apparatus, having been charged, works as follows : By press- 
ing the rubber tubing at a to form a small channel alongside of the 
glass plug, the acid is allowed to enter the lamp chimney through 
the valve c and generate the gas, the valve d remaining closed ; 
upon releasing the pressure at a, the generation of gas continues 
until the pressure of the accumulated gas forces the acid out of the 
chimney through the valve d, the upper valve remaining closed. 
Each time the generator is used fresh or the least saturated acid 
enters, this on being discharged sinking to the bottom of the bottle, 



258 Simple Forms of Laboratory Apparatus. { * m jinYifra*™ 1 

because of its greater gravity ; so that it is obvious that greater 
activity with use of less acid is obtainable. 

By using hydrochloric acid in the bottle and marble in the lamp 
chimney, the apparatus can be used for the generation of carbon 
dioxide. 

An apparatus giving very good results in the estimation of car- 




Apparatus for Generating Hydrogen Sulphide or Carbon Dioxide. 

bonates can be easily constructed from 2-ounce Erlenmeyer fla.-k>, 
small calcium chloride tubes (the smaller ends of which have been 
closed by fusion), rubber corks, 5 c.c. test-tubes and small glass 
tubing drawn out into capillary tubes below the corks (to decrease 
the weight of the apparatus and to reduce the size of the bubbles of 
gas or air in passing through sulphuric acid). 



Am 'j u °ne.'i903! rm '} Simple Forms of Laboratory Apparatus. 259 

The calcium chloride tubes are filled to one-half the height of the 
bulb with concentrated sulphuric acid, and the open glass tubes 
closed with small glass plugs held in short sections of rubber tubing. 

In use, the Erlenmeyer flask is disconnected, the test-tube re- 
moved and about 0*5 gramme of the carbonate to be determined 
weighed into the dry flask ; sufficient water is then added to cover 
the lower end of the capillary tube ; the test-tube is charged with 
about 4 c.c. strong hydrochloric acid and carefully lowered into the 
flask ; the cork carrying the calcium chloride tubes is then placed in 
position, the apparatus wiped with a dry cloth and weighed. Re- 
move the plug a and incline the apparatus so that a portion of the 
hydrochloric acid can escape from the test-tube and act upon the 




Apparatus for the Estimation of Air-drying Flask. 

Carbon Dioxide in Carbonates. 



carbonate ; after effervescence ceases, allow more acid to run in, etc., 
until finally all the acid has been added. The carbon dioxide and 
displaced air passing through the sulphuric acid in the calcium 
chloride tubes are thoroughly dried, so that no loss due to moisture 
is to be feared. 

Remove plug b and connect with b of drying flask containing 
about 1 inch layer of sulphuric acid ; in the same way connect a of 
the apparatus and a of a second drying flask ; now apply suction by 
mouth at b end of this last drying flask and thoroughly remove all 
C0 2 from the apparatus (instead of direct suction, as just stated, it 
is much more convenient to attach an aspirator made from a 5-pint 
bottle and allow the outflowing water to slowly draw air through 
to the apparatus); disconnect the apparatus, replace plugs, wipe and 



260 Pharmacy of Liquid Petrolatum. { Am j J u ° n U e!'i?o h 3 arm " 

weigh. Connect and repeat the latter operations until constant 
weight is obtained ; the difference between the original weight ot 
the apparatus and that after reaction with the acid and displace- 
ment of the carbon dioxide is the weight of the liberated carbon 
dioxide. 

The two drying flasks are necessary to protect the apparatus from 
increase in weight due to absorption of extraneous moisture. 



THE PHARMACY OF LIQUID PETROLATUM. 

By B. Fui^erton Cook, P.D. 

Liquid petrolatum, described in the United States Pharmacopoeia 
as "a mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas series, 
obtained by distilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from 
petroleum and purifying the residue when it has the desired consist- 
ence," was first officially recognized in 1890. 

Although this substance is not identical with the more or less 
crude petroleum oils that have been known and used since the 
earliest historical periods, having been mentioned by Herodotus, 
and probably played some part in the rites of the fire-worshipers in 
Persia, nevertheless, this purer product has, to-day, largely replaced 
those cruder oils in both medicine and pharmacy. 

While there is a broad field of interest for an historical study of 
the medicinal uses to which they were applied under the various 
names of Oil of Baku, Mecca Oil, St. Quirinu's Oil, Oil of Modena 
or Seneca Oil (see Pharmaceutical Journal, 1897), yet this paper has 
been limited to the practical part it takes in present-day pharmacy. 

There are at least four distinct fields into which it has entered that 
will be spoken of in turn : they are, first, the administration of the 
oil internally as a nutrient in wasting diseases; secondly, as a sooth- 
ing application to inflamed mucous membrane ; thirdly, as a part 
base for ointments, and lastly, as the carrier, when dissolved in 
ammonium oleate, of various active medicaments which are to be 
applied externally. This form of liquid petrolatum has been known 
under the trade names of Vasogen and Valsol, and also as oxygen- 
ated petrolatum and petrox. Mr. M. I. Wilbert, in a paper which 
appeared in the American Journal of Pharmacy (1901, p. 220), 
has thoroughly canvassed the pharmacy of this preparation, 
and also its medical uses, and you will be referred to that article 
for any further details. 



Am j J u°ne r ;i9?3 arm "} Pharmacy of Liquid Petrolatum. 261 

Taking up the first of these uses, we naturally turn to the emul- 
sion as the best form for its administration, and a review of journals, 
for a number of years past, has shown that, although several formu- 
las have been published, 1 a wide divergence of opinion has existed, 
for they are variously directed to be prepared from petroleum, pet- 
rolatum, white vaseline or soft paraffin, and with a difference of 
from 12% per cent, to 33 per cent, of oil. The majority, however, 
have favored 25 per cent, of the liquid petrolatum, and the formulas 
offered are based upon that strength. 

A number of initial experiments were made to determine the best 
emulsifying agent and preservative, and the results are here pre- 
sented in some detail. 

Acacia first being tried, it was found that the proportions usually 
suggested for the Continental method, 4 parts of oil, 2 parts of 
water and 1 part of acacia, would not produce an emulsion; but fur- 
ther experiments showed that if equal parts of water and liquid 
petrolatum and y± part, or better, y 2 part of acacia be taken, an 
emulsion could be formed quickly and easily by the Continental 
method. 

I may say here that this formula, for either stability or ease ot 
manipulation, has not been improved upon by subsequent experi- 
ments, although it was found necessary to add a preservative. 

To determine this point, a number of trials were made of the several 
available preservatives, and the preparations, after standing about 
eight months, show that either 8 per cent, of glycerin, 5 per cent, of 
alcohol, sodium benzoate (8 grains to 1 pint), benzoic acid (8 grains 
to 1 pint), oil of wintergreen (32 minims to 1 pint), or a mixture 
of oil of wintergreen with other oils like oil of sassafras and oil of 
bitter almond, will prevent decomposition. 

As the result of these experiments, the two following formulas 
have given the most satisfaction and can be recommended : 

EMULSION OF LIQUID PETROLATUM ( PLAIN). 

Liquid petrolatum, J iv 

Acacia, powdered, Jij 
Oil of wintergreen, minims xxxij 

Water, sufficient to make Oi. 



1 Merck's Rep., 1895, p. 29; Chem. and Drug., No. 887, p. 611; West. Drttg., 
1902, p. 392; Meyer Bros.'' Drug., 1900, p. 267. 



262 Pharmacy of Liquid Petrolatum. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



Mix the liquid petrolatum with the powdered acacia in a dry 
mortar, add 4 fluidounces of water all at once, and triturate the mix- 
ture until a perfect emulsion is formed; then add the oil of winter- 
green and finally enough water to make the finished product measure 
I pint. 

EMULSION OF UOUID PETROLATUM, WITH HYPOPHOSPHITES. 

Iviquid petrolatum, ^iv 
Acacia, powdered, ^ij 

Calcium hypophosphite, grs. 330 

Potassium hypophosphite, grs. 1 10 . 

Sodium hypophosphite, grs. no 
Oil of wintergreen, minims xxxij 
Water, sufficient to make Oi. 

Mix the liquid petrolatum with the powdered acacia in a dry 
mortar, add 4 fluidounces of water all at once, and triturate the mix- 
ture until a perfect emulsion is formed; then add the oil of winter- 
green. Dissolve the hypophosphites in 6 fluidounces of water and 
add this solution to the emulsion, finally adding enough water to 
make the finished product measure I pint. 

The addition of vegetable oils, like olive oil or oil of sweet 
almond, for the purpose of increasing the stability of the emulsion, 
was not found necessary, although a number of samples were made 
varying the proportion of oil. 

Other emulsifying agents were also tried, as a mixture of equal 
parts of tragacanth and acacia, tragacanth alone, glycerite of the 
yolk of egg, casein, mucilage of Irish moss and mucilage of dextrin, 
N. F. 

A mixture of tragacanth and acacia, using the proportions sug- 
gested for acacia alone, produced, by the Continental method, a very 
satisfactory emulsion. Tragacanth alone forms a perfect emulsion, 
but the preparation is viscid and has no advantage over acacia. 

The glyconin makes a good-looking preparation, but it must be 
prepared by the English method, which is much more tedious than 
the Continental. Casein, when made soluble by the addition of one- 
third of its weight of sodium bicarbonate, also forms an emulsion, 
but it has not remained permanent, while neither the mucilage of 
Irish moss nor the mucilage of dextrin would, when used alone, 
emulsify the liquid petrolatum. 

The conclusion with regard to emulsions has been, therefore, that 



Am junej9(Bf rm '} Pharmacy of Liquid Petrolatum. 263 

when ease of manipulation and the quality and stability of the 
preparation are considered, the formulas already proposed, with 
acacia as the emulsifying agent, are superior to any others which 
have been offered. 

Although without the strict province of this paper, some state- 
ments which relate to the therapeutic value of this substance should 
be cited; the difference of opinion among physicians, however, does 
not alter the fact that as pharmacists we should stand ready to dis- 
pense what the physician orders. 

In the Practical Druggist (1899, P- I 7)» Dr. Limerick says that 
clinical experiments show that liquid petrolatum, used internally, 
possesses no therapeutic value as a nutriment in wasting diseases, 
such as in tuberculosis, when it is recommended as a substitute for 
cod liver oil. The text-books attach no importance to its use 
excepting for its bland, lubricating properties. The claim that it 
possesses antiseptic properties is also disproven, since various bac- 
teria may be cultivated in petroleum. He states, however, that, 
administered internally, it does produce slight diuretic and diapho- 
retic effects. In the same journal (1899, p. 84), Dr. Robert Hutch- 
inson reports upon a series of experiments undertaken to determine 
the nutritive value of petroleum emulsions. He says : " The ques- 
tion has long been a mooted one, and the class of chemical sub- 
stances to which petroleum belongs, offering, as it does, persistent 
opposition to chemical action (wnich his experiments have con- 
firmed), has been the basis for these suspicions." 

He was convinced that " petrolatum is of absolutely no use at all 
as a substitute for cod liver oil, but that the crude petrolatum 
might possess some value, due to the volatile substances contained 
in it, entering the blood and being excreted by the mucous mem- 
brane. The purer the petrolatum, however, the less active will it be 
therapeutically." 

However, as a nasal spray or the carrier of medicinal substances 
for application to inflamed mucous membrane, liquid petrolatum pos- 
sesses those qualities which admirably adapt it to such a use. Being 
of itself non-irritating, and on the contrary soothing and acting as a 
protective, besides being odorless, it possesses all of those qualities 
needed for such medications. 

Several years ago Dr. Alpers (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1901, p. 117) 
proposed the use of liquid petrolatum as a substitute for the oil of 



264 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



sweet almonds in cold cream. It was thought at the time that this 
preparation, beautiful in appearance, easily made and apparently 
keeping indefinitely, would replace the long-tried official cold cream, 
but it has been shown that its use is limited. The well-known cool- 
ing effect of a cold cream when applied to a chafed or sunburnt 
skin will not follow if the preparation be made with liquid petro- 
latum. However, for theatrical trade, the removal of face-paints, 
etc., it has a well-deserved popularity and may there be used to 
advantage at least for cheapness. 

COMMERCIAL ALOES. 

By Martin I. Wilbert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

( Concluded from p. 214.. ) 

CHEMISTRY OF ALOES. 

For many years it was thought that the active constituent of 
aloes was aloin. This principle, differing as it did in physiologic 
activity, as well as chemical properties, was usually named accord- 
ing to the aloes from which it was derived. Thus we had : barb- 
aloin from Barbadoes aloes; soc-aloin from Socotrine aloes; zan- 
aloin from Zanzibar aloes, and nat-aloin from Natal aloes. 

Cape aloes, it was supposed, did not contain a]oin, but a closely 
analogous body to which its cathartic action was attributed. 

In addition to aloin, the various kinds of aloes were usually cred- 
ited with containing a small quantity of volatile oil, and about 60 
per cent, of a resinous material. 

It has been known for some time that aloin was rather a complex 
compound, and that when distilled with zinc dust it yielded anthra- 
cene. 38 It is to the researches of Tschirch, Pedersen, Oesterle, Leger, 
Aweng and others that we are indebted for the more modern views 
on the chemistry of aloes. 

E. Leger has demonstrated that not only does Cape aloes con- 
tain a crystallizable aloin, but that this aloin is isomeric with the 
physiologically active portion of the aloin found in Barbadoes, 
Curacao or Socotrine aloes. He also states that the aloin from 
Barbadoes or Curacao aloes, for instance, consists of two distinct 
bases ; one, barb-aloin, is capable of being decomposed into alo- 
emodin, and is chemically the same as the aloin found in Cape aloes. 



Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
June. 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



265 



The other body, which he names iso-barb-aloin, is not decomposed 
into emodin, but is readily oxidized, giving several distinctive color 
reactions, notably the deep red color with nitric acid, and the 
so-called Klunge's reaction for Barbadoes aloes, which, according to 
Leger's investigations is really a test for iso-barb-aloin. 

It appears from Leger's investigations that barb-aloin is not 
readily separated from its contaminating iso-barb-aloin by any 
known methods of procedure. 

According to Leger, the various aloes on the market have 
approximately the following composition : Barbadoes aloes, 5 per 
cent, of aloin, traces of iso-barb-aloin; Curacao aloes, 10 per cent, 
aloin, one-half iso-barb-aloin ; Cape aloes, 5 per cent, aloin, no iso- 
barb-aloin; Socotrine aloes, 4 per cent, aloin, very little iso-barb- 
aloin ; Jafferabad aloes, 20 per cent, aloin, mostly iso-barb-aloin. 
Tschirch and his assistants were probably the first to demonstrate 
the similarity between the cathartic principle of aloes and that of 
such drugs as senna, frangula, etc. 40 

Oesterle 41 in 1900 demonstrated that the emodins of aloes and 
frangula were isomeric, both having the chemical formula of C 15 H 10 O- 
corresponding to trioxymethyl anthraquinone. 

Aweng 42 has followed up the work of Oesterle and reports that 
he has been able to isolate from the water-soluble portion of barb- 
aloin a glucoside having the reaction of oxyanthraquinone, and 
being in all respects analogous to the double glucoside he found in 
frangula and cascara. 

By boiling with hydrochloric acid he obtained as a decomposi- 
tion product a compound analogous to the pseudoemodin he had 
previously obtained from frangula. 

Leger 43 has more recently taken up the study of decomposition 
and addition products to be obtained from barb-aloin and iso-barb- 
aloin, particularly their behavior to sodium dioxide. From the 
published reports it would appear that iso-barb-aloin gives oxidation 
products closely related if not identical with those obtained from 
barb-aloin. 

Pedersen 45 has investigated into, and has reported on, the chemical 
composition of the resinous portion of the different varieties of 
aloes. He finds that the resins ol Natal and Cape aloes are com- 
posed largely of a resinotannal ester of paracumaric acid. In the 
case of Barbadoes and Curacao aloes this resinous portion is a resi- 



266 . Commercial Aloes. { Am juZ'i903 arm " 

notannalester of cinnamic acid. This same subject has also been 
reported on by Professor Tschirch in a more recent article. 

CHEMICAL TESTS. 

These modern developments in the chemical composition of aloes 
give us some more definite knowledge of the applicability and uses 
of the various tests lor aloes. 

It has been known for a long time that not any of these different 
tests were applicable to all varieties of aloes. 46 While considerable 
work must still be done, before we are assured of reliable quantita- 
tive tests for the various chemical constituents or products of aloes, 
we have at the present time several fairly reliable qualitative tests. 

According to Tschirch, 47 the well-known test for Barbadoes aloes, 
deep red color on the addition of a small fragment of aloes to 
strong nitric acid, is really a test for iso-barb-aloin, and that the 
resulting aloin red is a characteristic oxidation product of the iso- 
barb-aloin. Klunge's reaction 48 is another reliable and readily applied 
color-test for iso-barb-aloin; it is rather a sensitive one and is 
applied as follows : 

" Dilute a freshly prepared aqueous solution of aloes, or aloin, 
until it is nearly colorless, then add one drop of a 10 per cent, solu- 
tion of cupric sulphate; the solution becomes intensely yellow. On 
the further addition of a few drops of solution of sodium chloride or 
potassium bromide and a few cubic centimeters of alcohol, or, in lieu 
of the alcohol, on boiling the mixture, a deep red color indicates 
presence of iso-barb-aloin." 

For the physiologically active portion of aloes we have an effi- 
cient, reliable and comparatively sensitive test in the well-known 
Borntraeger's test for emodin. 49 This is usually directed to be 
applied as follows : 

" A solution of aloes or aloin is shaken with an equal quantity of 
petroleum benzine, and the mixture allowed to stand; when it has 
separated into two distinct layers, a portion of the supernatant clear 
benzine solution is decanted into a test tube and one drop of 
stronger solution of ammonia is added, well shaken, and the mix- 
ture again allowed to stand ; on separating, it will be found that the 
ammonia has assumed a deep rose-red color if emodin is present." 

A modification of this test, using stronger ether for the petroleum 
benzine, will usually be found to work more rapidly and to give 
equally as reliable results. 



Am ■J J u O ne ^ ;l903? ^m •} Commercial Aloes. 267 

There are quite a number of reactions that are characteristic of 
Natal aloes ; but as this variety of aloes is not commercially avail- 
able, it will not be necessary to do more than mention the one 
usually considered to be the most reliable. This is given by the 
United States Pharmacopoeia practically as follows : A fragment of 
the suspected aloes is mixed with sulphuric acid ; on blowing the 
fumes of nitric acid across the surface of the mixture, the devel- 
opment of a blue color indicates presence of Natal aloes. 

ADULTERATIONS AND SOPHISTICATIONS. 

Aloes, it appears, has been subject to adulterations and sophisti- 
cations from the very earliest time. 

Pliny, in his " Natural History," book 27, chapter 5, says : "Aloes 
when it is hard and black should be rejected; the same, too, when it 
is mixed with gum and acacia, a fraud which may be easily detected 
by the taste." Pliny also refers to a mineral aloe (probably a form 
of bitumen); this he considers inferior to true aloes. It will be seen 
from this reference that even in the days of Pliny aloes was not 
alone adulterated, but a foreign substance was at times even substi- 
tuted for it. 

Socotrine aloes, even down to our own time, is often adulterated. 
This subject, the adulteration of Socotrine aloes, was one to which 
the late Dr. Squibb had paid particular attention. Much of our 
knowledge on the subject is directly due to his work and observa- 
tions. Attention had, of course, been repeatedly called to the gross 
adulteration of this variety of aloes by other writers. 50 None of 
them, however, ever demonstrated the fact as clearly as Dr. Squibb. 
At the present time, with the single exception of some of the aloes 
sold as Socotrine, very little or no foreign materials are found in the 
aloes of commerce. 

As noted in the introduction to this essay, there appears to be no 
hesitation, however, to substitute one variety of aloes for another. 
This substitution appears to be more frequently practiced with the 
powdered drug. This fact is of particular importance on account of 
the widespread preference for powdered aloes ; fully 90 per cent, of 
the aloes sold to retail pharmacists being powdered. 

From a comparative study of a number of samples obtained from 
both wholesale and retail druggists in different parts of the United 
States it would appear that much of the aloes sold in this country at 
the present time is not true to name. 



268 



Commercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharnu 
June, 1903. 



From what has been said of Barbadoes aloes it will be seen that 
probably none of the aloes sold in this country, at the present time, 
comes from the island of Barbadoes, practically all of it being from 
the Dutch West Indies, so-called Curacao aloes, which, when sold 
as Barbadoes aloes, usually brings two or even three times its regu- 
lar price. 

A considerable amount of what is offered in this country as Cape 
or even Socotrine aloes appears to be nothing but a better quality 
of Curacao aloes. As noted under " Curacao aloes," a large propor- 
tion ot this variety is now being prepared to simulate Cape aloes in 
physical appearances. Capey Curacao can, however, readily be told 
from true Cape aloes by the total absence of any greenish tint and 
by the fact that it readily gives a deep red'color with strong nitric 
acid, or with Klunge's test, showing the presence of iso-barb-aloin. 
One other fraud that is said to be practiced quite extensively in 
Europe is the selling of aloe resin, from which the aloin has been 
removed, as Cape aloes. 52 This may usually be detected by its com- 
parative insolubility in acidulated water and by tests for iso-barb- 
aloin, it being extremely difficult to remove all the aloin from the 
resinous material. 

The following table will give a fair idea of the quality and variety 
of aloes sold in this country at the present time. It may be well to 
add that, with the exception of the Natal aloes, all the samples 
responded to Borntraeger's test. 



SUMMARY OF TABLE No. i. 



Name. 


Number 
Examined. 


Containing 
Barb-aloin. 


Aloes Containing 
Iso-barb-aloin. 




26 


20 


6 




24 


19 


5 




18 




17 




11 





11 



The samples enumerated in Table No. 1 represent only samples 
obtained from wholesale houses and drug brokers in different parts 
of the United States. Samples obtained from retail stores, and 
museum specimens that were used for control or comparison, were 
not tabulated. 

In addition to the samples enumerated above, the following; 



Commercial Aloes. 269 



specimens, obtained through reputable houses, illustrate the variety 
and kinds of aloes available at the present time : 



Labelled. 


Appearances. 


Color of Powder. 


Reaction with 
Nitric Acid. 


Socotrine 


Soft, brown 
glossy surface 


Greenish brown 


Greenish s^ellow 


Socotrine 


Reddish brown 


Light yellow 


Yellow 


Socotrine 


Dark brown, glossy 


Reddish yellow 


Dark yellow 


Barbadoes 


Dark brown, 
dull opaque 


Yellow 


Red 


Hepatic 


Dark brown, opaque 


Reddish yellow 


Red 


Curacao 


Dark brown, glossy 


Reddish yellow 


Red 


Curacao 


Brown, opaque 


Reddish yellow 


Red 


Curacao 


Dark brown, opaque 


Reddish yellow 


Red 


Cape 


Black, glossy 


Greenish yellow 


Olive to brown 


Cape (Capey Curacao) 


Dark brown, glossy 


Reddish yellow 


Red 


Cape 


Black, glossy 


Greenish yellow 


Greenish yellow 
to brown 


Uganda 


Reddish brown 


Yellow 


Yellow to brown 



The test with nitric acid was made by taking 5 c.c of strong 
nitric acid in a porcelain evaporating dish and sprinkling over the 
top of this 0-05 of the finely powdered aloes. This was considered 
to be a more satisfactory way of demonstrating the resulting color 
than the method recommended by the German Pharmacopoeia of 
pouring a quantity of nitric acid over a splinter of aloes. 

Very little or no difference was noted in the results of Klunge's 
test and the nitric acid test for iso-barb-aloin. The former is prob- 
ably more sensitive, while the latter is more easily applied. 

UNITED STATES TRADE IN ALOES. 

There is little reliable data as to the amount of aloes annually 
produced or used. Some idea of the money values may be had 
from a perusal of the London drug market reports, but even these 
are not reliable on account of the constant changes that are taking 
place in the direction of trade. 

Cape Aloes, for instance — this in former years was sold exclu- 
sively in the London market, but is now largely shipped to Ham- 
burg ; 53 much, if not the greater portion, of true Cape aloes being 
used in Germany. 

The same holds true of the Curacao or West Indian variety. This, 
according to a letter from Gehe & Co., is now largely sold through 



270 Commercial Aloes. { Am j J u°n U e?i9S arm ' 

the New York market. This latter statement would also appear to 
be borne out by the report of imports into the United States. 

According to the National Dispensatory, 54 the amount of aloes 
imported into the United States in 1876 was 96,500 pounds ; this 
had increased in 1882 to 230,624 pounds. The figures for the past 
five years, given in the annexed table, are copied from the annual 
reports of the United States Treasury Department. 37 



IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION ; YEARS ENDING JUNE 30th, 





1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 




640,658 
$20,734.00 
0.03.2 


664,613 
$21,253 00 
0.03.2 


472,976 
$17,337.00 
0.03.6 


841,130 
$29,048.00 
0.03.5 


492,968 
$18,726.00 
0.03.8 



Apart from the large quantities given in this report, the compara- 
tively low value per unit of quantity is perhaps the most interesting 
part of the figures here quoted. These figures are even more 
interesting when compared with the current prices quoted for the 
different grades of aloes. 

The style of package in which the different varieties of aloes are 
found on the market may be of interest. 

Cape aloes comes in cases holding approximately 500 pounds. 

Curacao aloes comes in cases of about 100 pounds. 

Curacao aloes, in gourds, usually appears in two styles of package. 

Small gourds, from 2 to 10 pounds each, are packed in boxes 
holding about 75 pounds each. 

Large gourds, weighing from 11 to 15 pounds each, are packed 
in barrels holding about 200 pounds each. 

The so-called Socotrine aloes usually comes either in kegs hold- 
ing about 100 pounds, or in tin-lined claret cases holding variable 
quantities. Zanzibar aloes, usually sold as Socotrine, comes in 
monkey-skin packages, varying in weight from 10 to 30 pounds. 

Some of the Zanzibar aloes, particularly that sold by way of Bom- 
bay, is also packed in kegs holding about 1 12 pounds. 

Uganda aloes, according to Holmes, comes in bags holding about 
4 pounds of the finely powdered or coarsely ground drug, each bag 
having a crown, as trade-mark, stamped upon it ; or it comes in 
cakes of about 4 pounds each, with a crown stamped in the drug. 

Jafferabad aloes, as stated above, does not appear in the American 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



Commercial Aloes. 



271 



markets, and none of the available price-lists of foreign drug houses 
give any description of the size of the package. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

From what has been said it would appear that the different varie- 
ties of aloes on the market at the present time may be divided into 
two classes or groups : one containing barb-aloin with little or no 
iso-barb-aloin, and the other containing considerable quantities of 
iso-barb-aloin in addition to the barb-aloin. 

Sufficient aloes of good quality is available at the present time to 
warrant the introduction of restrictions as to purity and water con- 
tent, that would do away with retaining in our Pharmacopoeia the 
title and formula for " Aloe Purificata." 

With continued research into the chemistry of aloes it is also 
quite probable that the immediate future will give us a modified 
aloin, or an analogous compound that will more nearly represent 
the active cathartic principle of aloes than does the aloin available 
at the present time. 

The general use of powdered aloes would facilitate testing for im- 
purities and guarantee a product fairly even as to water content. 

As an outline for a pharmacopceial heading for aloes the follow- 
ing may be suggested : 

ALOE- ALOES. 

The inspissated juice of different species of aloe grown in tropical 
or sub-tropical climates. 

Aloes varies from reddish brown to deep black in color and may 
have a glossy or opaque surface, according to the mode of prepara- 
tion. 

Powdered aloes may vary from light yellow to brown or greenish 
brown in color. Aloes should not contain more than 10 per cent, 
of water, and leave on incineration not more than 3-5 per cent, of 
ash. It should be almost entirely soluble in 50 per cent, alcohol, 
U.S.P. acetic acid or a I per cent, solution of ammonium hydrate. 

Aloes should react to Borntraeger's test for emodin. On mixing 
a small quantity of aloes with strong sulphuric acid and blowing the 
fumes of nitric acid over the surface of the mixture, it should not 
assume a blue color — absence of Natal aloes. 

Aloes may be divided into two general groups or classes : 



272 



Covimercial Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharin. 
June, 1903. 



Aloes A — containing barb-aloin ; responds to Borntraeger's test for 
emodin, but does not give a distinct red color with nitric acid, or 
with Klunge's test. 

Aloes B — contains iso-barb-aloin with barb-aloin ; responds to 
Borntraeger's test for emodin, and also gives a deep red color with 
strong nitric acid or with Klunge's test. 

REFERENCES. 

1 Universal Pharmacopoeia. Dr. Bruno Hirsch. Gottingen, 1902. 

2 Pharmacographia. A History of Drugs. Second edition. Fliickiger 
and Hanbury. London, 1879. 

3 Die Heilpfianzen. Dr. Georg Dragendorf. Stuttgart, 1898. 

4 Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Aloe. Garl Treumann. Dorpat, 1880. 

5 Pharmacognosie des Pfianzenreichs. Dr. F. A. Fliickiger. Berlin, 1891. 
^ The Elements of Materia Medica. Fourth edition. Jonathan Pereira. 

London, 1854. 

7 John Uri Lloyd. Western Druggist, 1898, p. 338. 

8 American Dispensatory. Dr. Redmond Cox. Philadelphia, 1806. 

9 The Dispensatory of the United States of America. Fifth edition. Wood 
and Bache. Philadelphia, 1843. 

10 Dr. E. R. Squibb. Proceedings of American Pharmaceutical Asso., 1863. 

11 Organic Materia Medica. John M. Maisch. Philadelphia, 1882. 

12 The Dispensatory of the United States. Fifteenth edition. Philadelphia, 
1884. 

13 J. Medley Wood. Phar. Jour, and Trans., 1890, p. 495. Reprinted, 
American Journal of Pharmacy, 1891, p. 33. 

14 Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Philadelphia, 1893. 

15 The British Pharmacopoeia. London, 1898. 

16 Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Engler and Prantl. (Liliaceae), 1887. 

17 E. M. Holmes. From Phar. Jour, and Trans. Reprinted, American 
Journal of Pharmacy, 1890, p. 508. 

18 A. Tschirch. Schweizerische Wochenschrijt J. Chem. u. Fharmacie, 1902, 
P- 257. 

19 E. M. Holmes. Reprinted, American Journal of Pharmacy, 1891, 
P- 355- 

20 Kommentar zur Pharmacopoeia Germanica. Dr. H. Hager. Berlin, 1883. 

21 An Ephemeris of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics. E. R. 
Squibb & Sons. Volume II, p. 661. 

22 A. R. L. Dohme. Druggists' Circular, 1897, p. 126. 

23 Chemist and Druggist (editorial), 1884, p. 114. 

21 Arzneibuch fur das Deutsche Reich. Vierte Ausgabe. Berlin, 1900. 

25 Commentar zum Arzneibuch fur das Deutsche Reich. Schneider und 
Suss. Gottingen, 1902. 

26 Handelsberichte. Gehe & Co. Dresden, 1899, p. 7. 

27 The American Gazetteer. Boston, 1804. 

28 History of Barbadoes. Sir H. Shomburgk. 1847, p. 149. 

30 Mr. W. G. Freeman. Chemist and Druggist, 1902, Vol. 61. 



Am. Jour. Ptiarm.) 
June, 1903. J 



Commercial Aloes. 



273 



31 A. Faber. Pharmaceutical Journal, 1848, p. 548. 

32 Aloes in Curasao. From Chemist and Druggist. Reprinted, American 
Journal of Pharmacy, 1890, p. 505. 

33 Mr. E. Robiquet. Reprinted, American Journal of Pharmacy, 1856, 
P- 543- 

3i Dr. Georg Weigel. Pharmaceutische Centralhalle, 1902, p 431. 

35 Report of British Pharmaceutical Conference. American Journal of 
Pharmacy, 1892, p. 543, 

36 E. M. Holmes. From Phar. Jour, and Trans. Reprinted, American 
Journal of Pharmacy, 188 i, p. 175. 

37 J. Medley Wood. From Kew Bulletin. Reprinted, American Journal 
of Pharmacy, 1891, p. 33. 

38 Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry. Sadtler and Trimble. Philadel- 
phia, 1895. 

39 E. Leger. From Jour, de Pharm. et de Chem., 1901. Reprinted, Drug- 
gists' 1 Ciixular, 1901-, p. 190. 

40 G. Pedersen und A. Tschirch. Archiv der Pharmacie, 1898, p. 200. 

41 O. A. Oesterle. Schweiz. Wochs. J. Chemie u. Pharmacie, 1900, p. 45. 

42 Dr. E. Aweng. Apotheker Zeitung, 1902, p. 442. 

43 E. Leger. Journal de Pharmacie et de Chemie, 1902, p. 519. 

44 E. Leger. Journal de Pharmacie et de Chemie, 1902, p. 592. 

45 G. Pedersen. Archiv der Pharmacie, 1897, p. 200. 

46 Karl Heuberger. Schweiz. Wochs. J. Chem. u. Pharm., 1899, p. 506. 

47 A. Tschirch. Chemiker Zeitung, 1901, p. 892. 

48 A. Klunge. Schweiz. Wochs. J. Chemie u. Pharmacie, 1882, p. 463. 

49 Hugo Borntraeger. Schweiz. Wochs. J. Chem. u. Phar., 1S80, p. 156. 

50 Pliny's Natural History, Vol. V. Bohn's Libraries, London. 

51 Adulterations of Various Substances Used in Medicine and the Arts. 
Lewis C. Beck, M.D. New York, 1846. 

52 Apotheker Zeitung, 1896, p. 216. 

53 Handelsberichte. Gehe & Co., Dresden, 1902. 

54 National Dispensatory. Stille and Maisch. Philadelphia, 1893. 

55 Imports for Consumption. Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, 
Washington, D. C. 

56 E. M. Holmes. Pharmaceutical Journal, 1899, p. 230. 



Philadelphia, January 26, 1903. 



274 



External Preparations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
June, 1903. 



THE EXTERNAL PREPARATIONS AND THEIR 
THERAPY. 1 

By Cakx S. N. Hai^berg, Ph.G., 
Professor of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy, University of Illinois; Mem- 
ber Committee of Revision U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 

While the history of the preparations embraced in the broad gen- 
eralization of external preparations is of the most ancient origin, yet 
their evolution and differentiation along therapeutic lines is largely 
a matter of recent development. 

Up to a comparatively recent period the fats employed for vehi- 
cles of the oleaginous preparations were selected with sole reference 
to their pharmaceutic properties, that is to afford preparations pos- 
sessing the most desirable physical characteristics: proper consist- 
ence, ready fusibility, etc. The earlier materia medica was especially 
rich in oils and fats of animal origin, the fat of nearly every creature 
being vaunted as having especial virtues, such notions still surviving 
among many peoples, as, for example, bear-grease to promote the 
growth of the hair; goose-grease to loosen and break up a cold; 
rattlesnake oil as an application for rheumatism, and many similar 
domestic remedies. 

OINTMENT VEHICLES. 

The introduction of the petroleum fats or soft paraffins, in 1870 — 
cosmolin and vaselin — was a great advance over the rancid and 
otherwise often decomposed mixtures of animal and vegetable fats, 
mostly used before this time, and the substitution of these practi- 
cally inodorous and unchangeable soft paraffins for the latter became 
quite general. The immiscibility with water and watery liquids of 
the soft paraffins was the only drawback to their more extended use, 
until about 1882 the purified wool-fat appeared under the name of 
lanolin. The peculiar property of this cholesterin, even after being 
hydrated, to take up its own weight of water, at once attracted atten- 
tion, and when its power to penetrate the skin was subsequently 
discovered it began, though slowly, to be recognized as a valuable 
medium by which systemic effects may be obtained through the 
skin. While the fat from wool was used by the ancients under the , 



1 Read at the fifty-third 'annual meeting of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, in the Section on Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics, and 
reprinted from the Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1903, p. 958. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



External Preparations. 



275 



name of "CEsypus," to Oscar Liebreich is due the credit of pre- 
senting a pure hyd rated form of it under the name of lanolin, official 
as adeps lanse hydrosus, U. S. 

THERAPEUTIC GROUPING. 

The at first more or less empiric use of these two fats — the soft 
paraffin and lanolin — of exactly opposite qualities as regards their 
water miscibility and property to penetrate the skin, led eventually 
to the grouping of the ointments and similar preparations from a 
therapeutic standpoint, according to the vehicle employed, substan- 
tially as follows : 

(1) Epidermatic: Non-penetrative, or non-absorptive. Protective^ 
antiseptic. Vehicle: Soft paraffin, vaselin or petrolatum, U. S. 

(2) Enderrnatic : Semi-penetrative or semi-absorptive. Emol- 
lient, nutritive, astringent, etc. Vehicle: Animal or vegetable fats, 
oils and waxes. Lard, suet, oils ot almond, olive, etc. 

(3) Diadermatic : Penetrative or absorptive. Systemic or consti- 
tutional. Vehicle: Lanolin or hydrated wool-fat. 

While this classification is a generalization, its approximate cor- 
rectness is apparent from the fact that a vehicle consisting of equal 
parts of petrolatum and lanolin, the respective types of the two 
extreme groups, has the general properties of the intermediate 
endermatic group. Since this vehicle does not become rancid or 
react with chemicals, as do the animal or vegetable fats and oils, it 
serves excellently for endermatic uses. 

SUPPOSITORIES. 

In no class of preparations has the failure to consider the general 
therapeusis been so apparent as in the suppositories. Since their 
first introduction into the U. S. Pharmacopoeia in 1870, the vehicle 
has been uniformly cacao-fat or theobroma oil. 

While three different forms of suppositories are recognized, no 
distinction is made as to the vehicle employed, although the neces- 
sity for such selection is generally conceded. For rectal supposi- 
tories fats undoubtedly are the best yehicle, not only because of the 
alkalinity of the secretions, but also because more or less penetra- 
tive or absorptive effects are desired. Cacao-fat serves this purpose 
probably better than any other fat. While soap is sometimes used, 
its effects are simply those of an irritant or solvent, as in the official 



276 



External Preparations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



glycerin suppositories. Neither is gelatin a proper vehicle for rec- 
tal suppositories, except when used instead of nutritive enemata, 
where other considerations supervene. 

On the other hand, the secretions of the urethra and vagina are 
normally acid, and fats are therefore not indicated as the proper 
vehicle for urethral and vaginal suppositories, but water-soluble 
substances should be employed. Glycero-gelatin answers the pur- 
pose probably better than most of the other substances employed, 
the only objection being that in melting it exudes and may mat the 
pubic hairs. By using 50 per cent, anhydrous glycero-gelatin mass, 
a soft readily soluble " bougie " is obtained, in which tannin and 
similar agents may be presented without difficulty. 1 

The late Dr. Hay, of Chicago, employed a vaginal suppository of 
elm powder which had the advantage of ready preparation in that 
the suppository could be easily formed into any shape desired with 
the fingers. 

Glycero-Massa Ulmi{Elm Suppository Mass). — Powdered elm bark, 
IO; water, 6; glycerin, 6 c.c. In the water and glycerin previously 
mixed dissolve the required amount of the medicinal agent, add the 
solution to the elm powder at once and quickly mix and form a mass 
by working the mixture in a mortar. A soft, cohesive and plastic mass 
results, which may be rolled out, divided into the required number 
of parts (for the above quantity of 6) and made globular by forming 
with the spatula and the fingers. This operation should be done 
quickly, since the mass hardens in about ten minutes and can not 
then be readily formed. Any form can easily be made in this man- 
ner without losing its shape. In about twenty-four hours the sup- 
positories become hard and elastic. 

In a suppository the medicinal agent should be most thoroughly 
distributed with the vehicle, as in all similar preparations, and it is 
the worst kind of slip- shod pharmacy to use the so-called hollow " 
suppositories. 

CERATES. 

/ 

The cerates are mixtures of fats and waxes, having a higher 
melting point than ointments,, their firmer consistence requiring 

1 While tannin and derivative extractives, krameria, etc., form a translucent 
mass with absolutely water-free glycero-gelatin, such mass is as insoluble in 
water or watery secretions as in leather, and therefore therapeutically worth- 
less.— C. S. N. H. 



'^jSor" 1 '} External Preparations. 277 

them usually to be spread on cloth and applied as dressing. They 
are, therefore, in the epidermatic group and comprise protective, 
cooling, emollient and vesicating effects. The cantharidal cerate is 
the most important, and when spread on adhesive plaster in such 
thickness as to obliterate the yellow color of the plaster cloth, when 
viewed through the light, it is the most effective cantharidal vesicant 
to be had. 

PLASTERS. 

This most ancient form of medication has largely fallen into dis- 
repute during recent years, owing partly to their ineligibility and 
uncertainty of action, and partly to the advent of more efficacious 
and more quickly responsive methods of treatment. The advent of 
the rubber plasters has also caused the lay public, which believes in 
" anything that will stick," to appropriate the plasters as its own 
sovereign remedy for all kinds of aches and pains. 

Nevertheless, the plasters serve a useful purpose owing to the 
great range of their application, which may be summarized in the 
following groups: 

(1) Epidermatic : Supportive, protective, antiseptic, counter-irri- 
tant, vesicant. Vehicle: Rubber or any suitable adhesive. 

(2) Endermatic: Anodyne, astringent, alterative, resolvent, seda- 
tive, stimulant. Vehicle : Oleates or lead plaster, sometimes with 
resins or gum-resins. 

(3) Diadermatic : For constitutional or systemic effects. Vehi- 
cle : Lanolin or plaster-mull. 

The vehicle for the commercial rubber plasters is chiefly india- 
rubber, or caoutchouc, with sufficient orris powder and sometimes 
gum-resins to give it the proper consistence and retain its adhesive 
properties. For epidermatic purposes this serves admirably as a 
convenient and fairly stable adhesive; but since it lacks penetrative 
properties in any considerable degree, it should not be used for 
endermatic effects, such as are sought from drugs like belladonna. 
The suggestion to increase the efficacy of rubber belladonna plaster 
by the addition of boric acid would seem also to support the view 
that such anhydrophile mixtures do not penetrate into the skin, as 
has also been clinically demonstrated. 

For endermatic effects the oleates, as represented by the well- 
known lead plaster, are the best vehicle, since they penetrate into 



278 



External Preparations. 



Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
June, 1903. 



but not through the skin, and thus have the desired effects without 
producing any systemic or constitutional results. The objection to 
the old-style plasters with a lead-plaster vehicle, that they are 
impaired by age, become brittle and lose adhesiveness, has been met 
by improved methods of manufacture, affording an adhesive plaster 
which retains its flexibility and through the admixture of a little 
rubber adheres without being artificially warmed. 

For diadermatic or systemic effects the vehicle for plasters 
should be animal fat, such as lard or suet with waxes, or preferably 
mixtures of these with lanolin, substantially like the plaster-mulls of 
Unna. The official mercury plasters, at present made with lead 
plaster and gum resins, should be prepared with this lanolin vehicle. 

OLEATES. 

The official oleates are liquid or semi-solid mixtures of the respec- 
tive oleates in oleic acid in excess, which renders them often ineli- 
gible. The true oleates, or so-called " dry oleates," are preferable, 
but these should be diluted with a proper vehicle before use. 

As indicated above, the oleates do not penetrate through the 
skin, which becomes self-evident when the constant use of soap 
(sodium oleate) is considered. While there is plenty of evidence 
that the natural oleates, the oils of olive and almond, also the oleo- 
palmitates and stearates, lard, butter, etc., in which the respective 
acids are linked with the radical glyceryl, penetrate through the 
skin and are absorbed in the system, the artificial compounds of 
these acids with the metals and alkali bases, known respectively 
also as insoluble and soluble soaps, are not absorbed through 
external use. If it were otherwise, what an inducement for the peo- 
ple in " the farther Mediterranean " to consume at least some por- 
tion of their daily rations of olive oil in the form of soap ! 

LINIMENTS. 

The value of liniments depends on the degree they penetrate into 
and through the skin, only one official liniment being protective, 
that of lime, the well-known Carron oil, so called from the factory 
town in England where the mixture of linseed oil and lime water 
originated as an application to burns. While the effects resultant 
from such liniments as consist of oils or soap solutions are supposed 
to be largely influenced by the mechanical rubbing or massage in 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June. 1903. 



} External Preparations. 279 



their application, solutions of medicinal agents, such as belladonna, 
camphor, etc., in alcohol or other volatile liquids, are no doubt more 
effective when they are applied by means of an occlusive dressing, as 
shown by the extended researches of Dr. Thos. F. Reilly, 1 presented 
to this association in 1900. 

Several modifications have come into recent use : the saponimenta 
or liquid medicated soaps, which may be prepared extemporaneously 
from the official soap liniment or from the semi-solid form, linimen. 
turn saponatum camphoratum of the National Formulary or solid 
opodeldoc. 

COLLODIONS. 

The collodions, owing to the impervious film of pyroxylin or col- 
loxylin which they leave on evaporation of the volatile solvent 
ether-alcohol, suggest a wider employment, and as being well 
adapted for applications on small areas, when lasting effects are 
desired of tannin, iodin, iodoform and similar derivatives. The offi- 
cial list may well be extended to include those of the National For- 
mulary. 

The linimenta exsiccantia, or the so-called drying liniments, have 
somewhat similar uses, except that they do not form so impervious 
a coating as do the collodions, the vehicle consisting of mucilages of 
starch, dextrin, tragacanth or albumin. The following is a type, 
which may be medicated as desired with zinc oxid, chrysarobin, 
iodoform, ammoniated mercury, ichthyol, salicylic acid, etc. 

VERNICIUM ICHTHYOU ACUMINATUM, UNNA. 

R. Ichthyol sulph. ammon £v 20 

Starch, powder 3 v 70 

Distilled water 3 xv 60 

Mix with : 

Liquid egg-albumin, recent . m. xii 



75 



MODERN DERMATOLOGIC PREPARATIONS. 



Pastes (Pastes — Dermatologic — Lassar, Unna, etc.). — These are 
mixtures of starch, dextrin, zinc oxid, sulfur or calcium carbonate, 
made into a paste with glycerin, soap or fat, such as petrolatum or 
lard, medicated with antiseptic or astringent agents. The following 
are important examples : 



1 The Journal A. M. A., Jan. 26, 1901, p. 250. 



280 



External Preparations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
June, 1903. 



PASTA ZINCI, IyASSAR (ZINC-SAUCYI,.). 

R . Acid salicylic gr. 

Zinc oxid, starch, each 5 vi 

Petrolatum, white gxiiss 

PASTA RESORCINI (MlTlS), IYASSAR. 

R . Resorcin 5 iiss 

Zinc oxid, starch, each 3 vi 

Petrolatum, liquid ^x 

PASTA NAPHTHOIC, l^ASSAR. 

R. Naphthol 3 iiss 

Sulfur, pp ^xiiss 

Petrolatum 

Soft soap, aa 3 v 

PASTA ZINCI MOUJS, UNNA. 

R. Zinc oxid, calc. carb. pp., each gvi 

Mix these powders and incorporate gradually : 

Lime liniment .... £xiiss 



R. 



PASTA ICHTHYOU, UNNA. 

Ichthyol, sulf. ammon 3 iiss 

Distilled water, glycerin, dextrin, each . . . $i 



PASTA DEXTRINATA. 



R. 



Dextrin £xxv 

Glycerin, distilled water, each £xxv 

x 



24 



50 



PASTA ZINCI SUIyFUR ATA , 


UNNA. 






. . . . .|jsg 


15 






IO 






5 






70 



IOO 
IOO 



Dissolve by heat, add water to make 300 gm. d . 

This is a general vehicle for many medicated pastes used in der- 
matology. 

PASTA KAOUNI. GI,YCEROPI,ASMA KAOI.INI. 



R . 



Kaolin, elutriated and dried gxiiss 

Glycerite boroglycerin 3 iiss 

Methyl salicylate, thymol, each gr. i 

Glycerin, to make £xxv 100 

Or sufficient to make a semi-solid paste by thorough levigation. 

Stilt {Stilt DilubUeSy Unna. Pencils). — Pencils for the direct appli- 
cation to the skin of medicinal agents — antiseptics, astringents, 
anesthetics, etc. These agents are dissolved or mixed with a paste 



Am. Jour. Phariri. 
June. 1903. 



External Preparations. 



281 



consisting of mucilaginous or saccharin vehicles, starch, dextrin, 
tragacanth, sugar, etc., rolled out into sticks about \ inch (5 mm.) 
in diameter and 2 inches (5 cm.) in length, dried at ordinary tem- 
perature on parchment paper and wrapped in tin-foil. 

Gelatince Glycetinatce (Glycerogelatin). — Gelatin mass as a vehicle 
for suppositories and other external applications is used as follows: 

GI,YCEROGEI,ATlNA ACIDI SAUCYUCI, IO PER CENT., UNNA. 

R. Gelatin 5 iiss 10 

Glycerin £xiss 45 

Distilled water ^ix 35 

Acid salicylic 5 iiss 10 



GIYCEROGElrATlNA lODOFORMI, IO PER CENT., UNNA. 



R. 



Gelatin . gr. Ixxx 

Glycerin ■ £v 

Distilled water 3 x vi 



GEYCEROGEI.ATINA ZINCI DURA, UNNA. 

R. Gelatin ^iiiss 

Distilled water £ix 

Glycerin . . . gvi 

To this add gradually the following, levigated : 

Zinc oxid 3 iiss 

Glycerin ^iiiss 



151 
35| 
24I 

iol 
15 1 



Then mix it with enough water to make 100 grammes. The soft 
form (Glycerogelatina Zinci Mollis) is prepared in the same way by 
using 10 grammes gelatin. 

These glycerogelatins should be freshly prepared when wanted. 
They may be run out in molds, oiled with cacao-fat. The zinc gela- 
tins may be used as vehicles for ichthyol, resorcin, chrysarobin, etc. 
When to be applied, they are melted and then penciled on the 
affected part. 

Gelatince Medicates [Lame lies. Eye Discs) — Discs of gelatin are 
made with some glycerin, containing alkaloidal salts for insertion 
and solution in the eye. They are applied to the eye with a pencil. 
The following is an illustration : 

GEI.ATINA ATROPINE SUI.PHATIS. I-IO mg. 

R. Gelatin £vi 25 

Distilled water 3 xxv 100 

Glycerin gtt. vi 4 

Atropin sulphate ... gr. iss 1 

For 1,000 discs from a plate 7 x 12 inches (18 x 30 cm.). 



282 



External Preparations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



Salve Mull. — Under the name of " salbenmull," salve mulls, or 
steatines, ointments have been introduced of higher fusibilities 
spread on porous cloth, gauze or " mull " by Dr. Unna. These are 
mixtures of suet with lard and sometimes wax, in such proportion 
as to afford a consistence adapting them to being easily spread when 
heated without melting or running when applied to the body. 
They are intended chiefly for epidermatic effects, protective and 
antiseptic, but also for endermatic, astringent and resolvent action. 

The mulls serve a distinct purpose in dermatology, since owing 
to the porous character of the fabric employed, they permit ready 
evaporation and thus prevent maceration of the epidermis, which 
usually occurs from the prolonged application of more occlusive 
dressings. Their value as a form of application in intractable skin 
diseases has therefore been recognized by the highest authorities in 
this special branch of medical practice. The following are some of 
the most largely used : 

UNGUENTUM EXTENSUM HYDRA.RGYRI CHI,ORIDI CORROSIVI. 

2 p. mill. 

R. Mercuric chlorid gr. iii |2 

Alcohol m. lxxx 5] 

This solution is incorporated with the following mixture previously fused : 

R. Benzoated lard 9iv 51 

Benzoated suet 3 xxiiss 901 

UNGUENTUM EXTENSUM ITkDRARGYRI CHI,ORIDI MITIS, 10 PER CENT. 

R . Calomel 3 iiss 10 

Benzoated lard g v 20 

Benzoated suet 3 xviiss 70 

STERILE SOLQTIONS. 

While many pharmacists are careful in making solutions, such as 
injections, eye washes, gargles, lotions, etc., the majority are not, 
and the result has been that many leading specialists in eye dis- 
eases, for example, prepare and dispense their own solutions, assert- 
ing that only through such procedure can they be assured of com- 
plete asepsis. The use of compressed tablets for hypodermic solu- 
tions has become general, chiefly because of their convenience and 
portability, but no doubt also from the fact that through their use 
solutions may be prepared extemporaneously with fresh water as 
pure as may be obtainable. In the larger cities where the water 
supply is more or less infected, the general practitioner no doubt is 
often compelled to use the service water instead of pure water, and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



External Preparations. 



283 



the employment of the tablets must therefore in many instances be 
a source of infection. Weak 1 per cent, water solutions of the alka- 
loidal Salts : atropin, morphin, cocain, pilocarpin, also ergotin, per- 
mit germ growth, while concentrated solutions, i. e., 10 per cent, 
solutions of cocain and quinin are easily kept germ- ree. Solutions 
in germicidal solvents : alcohol, ether, iodin, mercuric chlorid and 
strong phenol solutions, are not admissible, but almond oil may be 
used for camphor and glycerin for iodoform. Carbolic acid — 1 drop 
for 160 minims (10 c.c.) — is the safest and altogether the best pre- 
servative for the water solutions. 

Whether or not it may be regarded desirable to admit formulas 
for hypodermic injections into the U.S.P., there is no doubt that 
some general directions or formula should be introduced for sterili- 
zation. Not only for hypodermic injections are sterile solutions 
necessary, but also for ordinary injections, lotions or washes, nebulae 
or sprays, and especially for collyria. 

Dr. Futterer, a most careful observer, reports several instances of 
the most serious results due to careless preparation of solutions for 
hypodermic use, and regards the official recognition of a process for 
sterilization as of the greatest importance, since it would enable the 
physician to specify its employment for the preparation of solutions, 
etc. It would, moreover, direct the attention of pharmacists to the 
necessity for care in these preparations and would afford him at 
once an authoritative method insuring the best results. 



These solutions are prepared by dissolving the medicinal agent in 
distilled water which has just been boiled and allowed to cool. The 
antiseptic agents in the cocain and ergotin solutions are added be- 
fore the medicinal agents are dissolved. 



INJECTIONES HYPODERMICS, BR. PH. '98. 



INJECTIO HYPODERMICA. 



& . Apomorphin hydrochlorate 
Ac. hydrochloric dil. . . . 
Distilled water 



gr. iss 
min. iss 
min. clx 



1 



1 



R . Cocain hydrochlorate 

Ac. salicyl 

Distilled water . . . 

R . Extract ergot . . . . 

Phenol 

Distilled water . . . 



gr. xvi 

gr. 1/4 
min. clx 



clx 



v 



IOi 



20 



10 



I 




3 



284 



External Preparations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



& . Morphin tartrate 
Distilled water 



gr. lxxx 5] 
3 xxv ioo' 



The apomorphin and ergot injections are directed to be recently 
prepared. 



Schimmelbusch, director of Bergmann's clinic in Berlin, states 
(1893) that moisture is one of the essentials for germ life, while 
"dryness" is one of its greatest enemies, and therefore dry dress- 
ing is always preferable to wet, except where the wound secretion 
is viscid and purulent and where the antiseptic material is employed 
for packing deep or incised wounds. It seems that the majority of 
surgeons prefer dry dressing for aseptic wounds, but wet or moist 
dressing for septic wounds, such as result from great laceration, etc. 
This question would go entirely beyond the scope of pharmaceutic 
discussion and is presented only to demonstrate the necessity for a 
distinction between wet and dry gauze and surgical dressings. 
While under the circumstances it may be inadvisable to recognize 
antiseptic gauze in the Pharmacopoeia, the admission of aseptic gauze 
would be highly desirable, either simply defined as to its character 
and properties, as the " tela depurata " in the German Pharma- 
copoeia and also " gossypium purificatum " in the U.S. P., or prefer, 
ably by giving directions for the purification of the commercial 
gauze, as is done in the French codex by a process like the follow- 
ing: 



Gauze of the required weight and mesh is boiled in water for ten 
to fifteen minutes, expressed, and washed two or three times in cold 
water. The expressed gauze is then allowed to macerate in solu- 
tion of chlorinated soda for one-half hour, pressed and macerated in 
water containing 1 per cent, hydrochloric acid, rinsed in cold water 
several times, pressed, and dried in a closed vessel or sterilizer. 

The gauze is quickly formed into rolls of the required dimensions 
and immediately transferred to sterile receptacles, preferably of 
tinned iron which are hermetically sealed. 



ANTISEPTIC GAUZE. 



CARBASUS ASEPTICUS. 



) 



Am 'j J u ne,'wo3 arm '} Progress in Pharmacy. 285 

PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING ADVANCES 
IN PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

BY M. I. WllvBSRT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

That the rate of increase in the number of the newer remedies is 
not abating is evidenced by the number and variety of names that 
are published in each of the issues of the different pharmaceutical 
journals. Owing to this too bountiful supply of available material, 
it is difficult indeed to always select matter of permanent value. It 
is evident, therefore, that much of the data that finds its way into 
these reviews must necessarily be of a more or less ephemeral char- 
acter ; but even as such it has its value in illustrating the trend of 
the work on these new remedies. It will be remembered that several 
years ago inventive fancy, or ideas, appeared to concentrate on 
organic silver compounds ; later they were concentrated on compli- 
cated preparations of arsenic, while at the present time quinine 
compounds appear to be in favor. 

In a recent number of American Medicine a number of these newer 
quinine compounds are mentioned {American Med., May 3, 1902, 
page 760), among them : 

Aristochin, said to be diquinine carbonate, occurs as a white, 
almost tasteless powder, freely soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, 
and is said to be qualitatively and quantitatively the equivalent of 
quinine hydrochlorate. 

Chinaphenin, combination of quinine and phenetidin. According to 
the Pharmaceutische Centralhalle , 1903, p. 81, this is the quinine car- 
bonic acid ester of phenetidin, and occurs as a light, white, tasteless 
powder, freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and dilute acids. 
Used as an antipyretic, analgesic and anti-neuralgic in doses of 
from 5 to ro gramme. 

Euquinine. — This, the carbonic ethylester of quinine, is also a white 
powder, almost insoluble in water, but easily dissolved in alcohol 
or ether. It has the same properties and may be given in the same 
doses as chinaphenin. 

Saloquinine or salochinin has been noted in this journal (Amer. 
Jour. Pharm., 1902, p. 445). It is the salicylic acid ester of qui- 
nine, and is given in doses of from i*oo to 2*oo grammes. 



286 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am juZ^?(S? rm * 

In addition to these, there are enumerated in recent numbers of 
German journals : 

Aethylquinine. — This occurs as colorless crystals that melt at Ii6° 
to 1 1 7 Centigrade, free from bitter taste. • Its uses and dose are the 
same as other salts of quinine {Phar. Centralh., 1903, p. 151). 

Bromochinaly the dibromsalicylate of quinine, occurs as yellow 
crystals that melt at a temperature of 197 to 198 Centigrade. 
Antipyretic and sedative dose from 0-50 to 0-75 gramme. 

Sulfoguaiacin. — This is a name that has been given to quinine 
sulphoguiacolate. It occurs in the form of small, yellow, bitter 
scales, soluble in water and in alcohol {Phar. Centralh., 1903, p. 79, 
from Chem. CentbL). 

Barium chloride, as a substitute for digitalis. Schaedel {Ber. Klin. 
Wochenschr., 1903, p. 278) recommends chloride of barium as an 
efficient and reliable heart tonic. Given in doses of from o«02 to 
0-05, it is said to increase the blood pressure and to reduce the fre- 
quency of the heart's action. 

Citarin, the anhydromethyl citrate of sodium, is supposed to be 
readily decomposed, liberating formaldehyde. It is also said to 
have a solvent action on uric acid and to increase the solvent prop- 
erties of urine for uric acid and its compounds. Said to be useful in 
cases of gout and chronic rheumatism, given in doses of from 2-oo 
to 3 00 grammes four times a day {Phar. Centralh., 1903). 

Eukinase. — This is a yellow powder obtained from the duodenum 
of the pig. The preparation is to be administered in keratinized 
capsules as an aid to pancreatic digestion. Its active properties are 
said to be due to the enterokinase of Pawlow {Phar. Centralh., 1903 
P. ISO- 

Huckleberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus) are recommended as a specific 
in cases of enteric fever by Bernstein and Drysdale {Chem. and Drug., 
1903, p. 203). They report having made tests with concentrated 
infusions of dried huckleberries, the results of which appear to indi- 
cate that these berries have some direct bactericidal action on the 
bacillus typhosus and also on the bacillus coli communis. The 
infusion of the berries is said to inhibit the growth and to eventu- 
ally kill the organism in from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. 
Neither acids nor alkalies appear to have any effect on the efficiency 
of the active ingredients. 

New urotropin is another trade name for anhydromethyl citric 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



Progress in Pharmacy . 



287 



acid hexamethylene tetramine. (See Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1902, p. 

603.) 

Oxygen. — Eugene C. Foster, M.S., in a recent number of the 
Journal of the Franklin Institute (May, 1903, p. 357), gives some 
account of the practical application of the suggestion, made by 
Prof. Raoul Pictet some years ago, that it was feasible to separate 
the constituent gases of liquid air by fractional distillation. 

The problem of separating nitrogen from oxygen is by no means 
a simple one, the boiling points of the two substances differing 
but 12° Centigrade. The process is being developed, however, in a 
commercial way at the present time, it having been found possible to 
produce and market a 70 per cent, pure oxygen at a price no higher 
than asked for the ordinary commercial 50 per cent. gas. 

Salicin, location of, in willow bark. — Mr. Daniel Brown, in a com- 
munication to the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical Soci- 
ety of Great Britain {Client, and Drug., 1903, p. 651), gives the results 
of some experiments he has made to determine the location of the 
bulk of the salicin in willow bark (Salix purpurea). One lot of bark 
that contained a total of 5-8 per cent, of salicin contained 11-3 per 
cent, in the inner, 8-0 per cent, in the middle and 2-5 per cent, in 
the outer bark. Another series of experiments made by the same 
writer appeared to indicate the presence of a larger percentage of 
salicin in the spring than in the fall of the year. 

Salocreol, a remedy for external application in cases of facial ery- 
sipelas, rheumatism, lymphadenitis and other affections of an 
inflammatory nature. It is said to be composed of the active 
ingredients of creosote and salicylic acid, and is a brown, oily, nearly 
odorless fluid, almost insoluble in water, but readily soluble in alco- 
hol, ether and in chloroform {Phar. Post, 1903, p. 174). 

Tests for Heroin. — F. Zernic (Ber. der Phar. Gesells., 1903, p. 65) 
reviews the literature on the physical and chemical properties of 
heroin. In addition to a number of reactions that heroin has, that 
are similar to those given by morphine, it has been found that 
heroin has a specific and characteristic behavior towards nitric acid. 
If we add a few drops of 65 per cent, nitric acid to a trace of heroin, 
the latter is rapidly dissolved, producing a yellow solution that 
changes gradually, very rapidly if heated, to a greenish blue; this 
change appears to take place from the middle of the liquid. The 
color then gradually fades until the liquid has again changed to a 



288 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharna. 
June, 1903. 



bright yellow. This reaction is said to be characteristic of heroin 
and is produced by the free base as well as the hydrochloride. 

Theophylin or theocin. — Chevelier (Les Nouv. Rem., 1903, p. 76) 
says that while the diuretic action of this preparation has been suf- 
ficiently demonstrated, its toxic action should not be lost sight of. 
The toxic dose of theocin for one kilo of animal weight has been 
demonstrated to be o-io gramme for a guinea pig intraperitoneal, 
and 0-20 gramme for a dog intravenous. Theocin is also said to 
have a marked effect on the heart. 

Vanillin. —The formation of this substance is discussed byLecomte 
{Journal de Pharm. et de them., 1903, p. 343), who appears to hold 
that vanillin is formed in two distinct steps and by two ferments, 
one of which has hydrolizing while the other has oxidizing prop- 
erties. 

According to the theory proposed, the hydrolizing ferment de- 
composes the nascent coniferine into coniferylic alcohol and glucose; 
the coniferylic alcohol is then transformed into vanillin by the 
action of the oxidizing ferment. 

Veronal, a new hypnotic, that is said to be diethyl-malonyl-urea 
and to equal sulfonal as a sudorific. It occurs as colorless crystals 
melting at about 191 C, having a slightly bitter taste, and being 
soluble in 12 parts of boiling water, or in 145 parts of cold water. 
For simple cases of insomnia doses of from 0-30 to 0-50 are said to 
be sufficient, preferably given dissolved in warm liquids. (Apoth. 
Zeit., 1903, p. 195.) 

Victorium. — Sir William Crookes has announced through the Royal 
Society that he has isolated a new element, to which he has given 
the name victorium. According to the description as given by 
Crookes, this new element is a light brown metal that is readily 
soluble in acids, has an atomic weight of 117 and is intermediate be- 
tween yttrium and erbium. {Suddeut. Apoth. Zeit., 1903, p. 234.) 

Oil of Peppermint. — C. T. Bennett has discovered a new adulter- 
ant in a lot of oil of peppermint that did not appear to have any 
suspicious properties outside of not separating out menthol under 
the ordinary conditions. On careful examination of the separate 
constituents obtained by fractional distillation, Bennett found that 
the oil contained as much as 15 per cent, of triacetin. (Chem. and 
Drug., 1903, p. 591.) 

Nerol and Nerolidol are two new alcohols belonging to the gera- 



Am Jour. Pharm. 
June. 1903. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



289 



niol series that have been isolated from oils of neroli and petitgrain 
by Van Soden and Zeitschl {Chem. and Drug., 1903, p. 472). 

Thymol. — Battandier (according to an abstract in the S'uddeut. 
Apoth. Zeit., 1903, p. 90) has found an oil of origanum in Algiers 
that contains a large proportion of thymol. The oil is obtained from 
several species of origanum, 0. floribundum Munby, and 0. cinereum 
Noe. Shaken with alkalies, the oil loses a fourth of its bulk. If a 
crystal of thymol is added to the oil, a compact mass separates out, 
leaving but a small quantity of mother liquor consisting largely of 
carvacrol. 

Cod-liver Oil. — The tremendous increase in the price of this oil 
will, no doubt, lead to extensive adulterations with cheaper animal 
or fish oils, for which Von Wolff {Phar. Zeitg., 1903, page 235) 
advises the nitric-acid test. To 15 drops of the suspected cod-liver 
oil add 3 drops of pure nitric acid ; if pure, the oil will show a red 
streak at point of contact that rapidly changes to bright red, and 
later, after considerable shaking, to lemon yellow. Seal oil does 
not change at once, but on standing becomes brown. Other fish 
oils usually give a blue color, changing to brown, and, after pro- 
longed standing, to a yellow color. The writer also lays much stress 
on the iodine and saponification numbers of the oil. 

As an illustration of the reason for the great rise in price of cod- 
liver oil, it is said that the catch for March, 1902, was 4,700,000 
cod, while for the same period in 1903 it was only 120,000. 

Iodized Cod-liver Oil. — The Apotheker Zeitung (1903, page 252, 
from Bull, de Phar. de Lyon) suggests the following: Iodine, 100 
gramme; chloroform, 2-00 grammes; cod-liver oil, to make 1,000-00 
grammes. Dissolve the iodine in the chloroform, and add this solu- 
tion to the cod-liver oil. 

Aerated fixed oils are being advertised and used quite exten- 
sively in Germany. Among the oils that are offered as effervescent 
preparations, are: castor oil, cod-liver oil, olive oil and phosphorated 
oil. The contained carbonic acid gas is said to hide the taste of the 
oils very effectually, and at the same time to add materially to the 
keeping qualities of the different oils. 

One of the effervescing castor oils is said to contain : castor oil, 
75-00 grammes; expressed oil of almonds, 20'00 grammes; alcohol 
and aromatics, 5-00 grammes; mix and saturate with carbon diox- 
ide gas, under pressure. 



290 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am 'iS , e ?im rm " 

Phosphorated oil is said to keep almost indefinitely when saturated 
with carbonic acid gas. 

Lofotal. — This is a trade-name for a cod-liver oil impregnated 
with carbon dioxide gas. The well-known disagreeable taste of 
cod-liver is entirely changed by the carbon dioxide, and the result- 
ing preparation is said to be as pleasant as an aerated water. In 
addition to the improvement in the taste of the oil, aeration, it 
is claimed, will effectually prevent oxidation. (Zeitschr. des All. 
Oest. Apoth. Ver. } 1903, page 225.) 

Castor oil in powder form maybe obtained by emulsifying castor 
oil with skimmed milk, evaporating the mixture to dryness, and 
then powdering. This is said to be the composition and method of 
producing the proprietary article known as ,( Ricinus-Siccol." {Phar. 
Post, 1903, page 187.) 

Persistent Hiccup. — For this annoying and at times even danger- 
ous affection Dureillon (quoted by Phar. Centralh., 1903, page 225) 
recommends the following simple remedy: Saturate a compress 
with a mixture of ether, 30-00 grammes ; chloroform, 30-00 
grammes ; menthol, 4-00 grammes, and apply to neck. 

Lanolin Cold Cream. — Lanolin, white vaseline, lanolin soap and 
rose water, equal parts, are mixed by dissolving the soap in the rose 
water, melting the vaseline and lanolin, and then adding the latter 
mixture to the former with constant stirring; stir until cool. {Zeit- 
schr. des All. Oest. Apoth. Ver., 1903, page 497.) 

Menthol Emulsions. — Dr. de Chresantiques {Klin. Ther.Wochensclir., 
through Phar. Post, 1903, page 174) gives a number of formulas for 
aqueous solutions of menthol. Of these the following three are fair 
illustrations : 

1 2 3 

Menthol 0-03 0*15 o'20 

Tincture of Ouillaja 5- io' io- 

Glycerin 10 * 

Distilled Water 125- 150' i,ooo' 

Dissolve the menthol in the tincture of quillaja in the case of the 

first formula, add the glycerin, and finally the water. 

The resulting mixtures are to be used as washes, mouth washes, 

or as cooling lotions. 

Alum points may be prepared according to directions given in the 

Phar mac cutis che Zeitung (1903, page 175), as follows: Add a few 

drops of water to powdered alum and heat in a porcelain dish over 



Am 'ji°nJ!'i9i3 arm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 291 

an alcohol or gas flame to melt, then pour the melted alum into 
moulds of paraffine paper previously prepared. Combinations of 
alum and copper sulphate may be prepared in the same way. 

For copper sulphate points, the same paper recommends the use 
of a finely powdered salt triturated with enough mucilage of gum 
arabic, or with simple syrup, so as to give the mass some plastic 
properties ; this mass is then formed by hand into the desired shape 
and allowed to harden for several days. 

Tincture of Iodine. — An alcoholic solution of iodine that is stable 
and not readily decomposed to hydriodic acid may be prepared as 
follows: Dissolve I part of iodine in 12 parts, by weight, of alcohol 
(90 per cent.), and then add 2 parts of powdered borax. (Rev. des 
Nouv. Rem., 1903, page 151.) 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
the fiftieth annual meeting, held at Philadelphia, Pa., September, 
1902. Also the constitution, by-laws and roll of members. Bal- 
timore, 1902. 

This volume, containing, as it does, the account of the proceedings 
a.t the semi-centennial celebration of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, has been anxiously awaited by nearly every member of 
the Association. It is probably the largest volume of proceedings 
that has been published by the Association, containing, as it does, a 
total of 1,266 pages of printed matter. 

Considering the size of the volume, and the variety as well as 
importance of the contained material, the officers of the Association 
having the publication in charge are to be congratulated on the 
satisfactory way in which they have accomplished their task. 

Six hundred and fifty-six pages are devoted to the recording of 
the minutes of the proceedings, including the texts of the papers 
that were contributed. This portion of the work has been reviewed 
quite extensively in this journal (see A. J. P., 1902, page 461 et seq.) 
and will need no further comment other than to say that the re- 
corded pages evidence an active interest in matters pertaining to 
pharmacy on the part of the members of the Association. 

The second portion of the book, " Report on the Progress of Phar- 
macy," takes up 434 pages of the book and constitutes one of the 



292 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { ^ m ju° n u e ?iF(S arm ' 

most highly appreciated and most valuable features of the annual 
volumes of the proceedings. 

The remaining portion of the book is made up, as on former 
occasions, of the constitution, by-laws and list of members. 

This volume has, however, two additional features: a list of 
names of the members of the organization who have died, and also 
a collection of portraits of past and present officers of the Associa- 
tion. This latter feature could have been made more valuable if 
greater care had been exercised in the making of the electrotypes 
and the subsequent printing ; as it is, the pictures do not compare 
favorably with the really artistic illustrations that accompany one 
of the contributed articles, that on " The Anatomy of the Stem of 
Derris Uliginosa, Benth.," by P. E. F. Perredes. 

One other very important feature, and one that should receive 
more attention in a book of this kind, is the index. For a book 
that to all intents and purposes is a work of reference rather than a 
book for casual reading, the index in this volume of the proceedings 
of the Association is decidedly disappointing. 

This shortcoming will be the more appreciated when we realize 
that this large volume of 1,266 pages, more than 400 of which are 
devoted to a miscellaneous collection of abstracts, has but thirteen 
double-column pages devoted to the index. These index columns 
average about eighty titles each, making a total of 2,480 references, 
or less than two titles for each page in the book. 

This deficiency in the index is well illustrated by the fact that not 
a single one of the names included under the obituaries in the 
report of the secretary of the Committee on Membership, is to be 
found in the index, so that any one not familiar with the volumes of 
the proceedings would look in vain for an obituary of Wm. S. 
Thompson, one of the best-known members of the Association, or of 
William Martindale, an honorary member, and one of the leaders in 
the pharmaceutical profession in England. Then, too, the different 
reports of committees, as well as the annual addresses of the Presi- 
dent and the chairmen of the various sections, are woefully ne- 
glected as far as any attempt to index the various subdivisions of 
these respective communications is concerned. 

It will, of course, be said that it is quite easy to find fault, but not 
so easy to suggest a suitable remedy. Appreciating this argument, 
the writer would like to offer several suggestions. 



Am jS'i9 P o3 arm *} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 293 

It should always be borne in mind that a volume of 1,000 or 
more pages represents a tremendous amount of work for the indi- 
viduals directly responsible, particularly when, as in this case, the 
volume is expected complete within three or four months. This 
unnecessary stress of work could be done away with, and the pro- 
ceedings made more available for the active members of the Asso- 
ciation if the publication was more evenly distributed over the 
whole calendar year. For this purpose it has been repeatedly 
proposed to publish the proceedings in the form of a journal. This 
has met with objections, and many of the points of the objectors are 
well taken. There could be little or no objection, however, to 
issuing the proceedings, practically as they are published now, as a 
quarterly ; of uneven size, it is true, but in quarterly installments. 

The first installment would be due in June, and might contain the 
constitution, by-laws and the roll of members eligible for attending 
the next annual meeting ; also such minutes of the council as have 
not been previously published. In addition to this, this issue might 
contain such miscellaneous information in reference to the annual 
meeting as might be available. 

The second installment would be due in September, and might 
consist of the report on the progress of pharmacy. This would 
make this valuable feature available at a time when it is still com- 
paratively fresh and interesting, being published from four to six 
months earlier than under present conditions. 

The third installment, due in December, would contain the min- 
utes of the annual meeting and the text of the communications 
presented. 

The fourth installment, due in March of the following year, would 
contain the title-page, table of contents and an index that could 
fairly represent the contents of the respective volumes. 

Such a quarterly publication would have several advantages. It 
would give the officers of the Association an opportunity of period- 
ically communicating with the different members ; it would make 
the proceedings more readily available to those members actively 
engaged in pharmacy; it would insure the publication of the report 
on progress of pharmacy six months, and the report of the pro- 
ceedings three months sooner than at present, with less work and 
worry to the people directly responsible ; and last, but not least, 
it would insure ample time for the compiling of an efficient and 
complete index to the contained material. M. I. Wilbert. 



294 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am j™ u e jIS arm " 

Course in Pharmaceutical Arithmetic, including Weights and 
Measures. By Julius William Stunner, Ph.G., Professor of Phar- 
macy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 1903. Cloth, $1.50. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the necessity for a certain 
amount of arithmetical skill on the part of pharmacists and students 
of pharmacy as well. Indeed, the pharmacist never puts up a pre- 
scription or makes a preparation without an exercise of the mathe- 
matical function, whether he be conscious of the fact or not. 
Moreover, the curricula in our colleges and schools of pharmacy 
presuppose a mathematical training on the part of the students, and 
where this has not been sufficiently thorough, there seems ample 
justification for the establishment of a course of instruction in phar- 
maceutical arithmetic. Indeed, this question would hardly seem to 
require any argument in the affirmative, since a mathematical train- 
ing is essential in the study of the sciences which the student of 
pharmacy takes up, and particularly since no pharmacist can afford 
to be deficient in that branch of arithmetic which the author of the 
book at hand is pleased to term pharmaceutical. 

Professor Sturmer does not aim to teach the principles of arith- 
metic, but to apply these principles to pharmaceutical calculations. 
His book seems to cover the field designated quite well, and will be 
of value to both students and pharmacists. 

It may not be amiss to state that special attention is given to the 
meaning of percentage in prescription-work, weight-percentage, 
volume-percentage, and weight-to-volume-solutions being discussed 
in detail. 

Another feature of the book to which it seems opportune to call 
attention, is that giving the rules for capitalizing the names of metric 
units. It is stated that usually the names of primary units and the 
larger secondary units are written with a capital, as Meter, Deka- 
meter, Myriagramme, while the smaller secondary units are written 
with a small initial, as milligramme, decimeter, etc. These rules 
apply likewise to the abbreviations for these units, but in the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia all abbreviations of metric units are capitalized. It 
would seem that for the sake of making a yet nearer approach to 
uniformity, the Pharmacopoeia should adopt the above rules. 

F. Y. 



Am j J u ne?S arm '} Obituary. 295 

OBITUARY. 

FREDERICK BADEN BENGER. 

F. Baden Benger, F.I.C., F.C.S., a member of the pharma- 
ceutical manufacturing firm of Benger & Co., Ltd., and a highly es- 
teemed member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, died 
at his home in Manchester on January 28th. 

Mr. Benger appears to have been a man of exceptional character 
and attainments, and, as stated by one of his friends, " rose to emi- 
nence in his calling and secured a position of affluence through the 
assiduous development of the scientific side ot pharmacy." 

Mr. Benger received his pharmaceutical education at Bloomsbury 
Square, passing his major examination in 1861. He then entered 
the employ of Messrs. John Bell & Co., in Oxford Street. The sci- 
entific trend of his mind soon manifested itself, and while in 
the employ of this firm he made a study of the possibilities of gly- 
cerin in pharmacy. 1 In 1866 he left Messrs. Bell & Co., and, 
together with Mr. Standen Paine, his surviving partner, took over 
the management of an old-established house in Manchester, noted 
for its chemicals and scientific instruments. Here he met Dr. Wil- 
liam Roberts (afterwards Sir William Roberts), and in conjunction 
they carried on extensive researches on peptic digestion. It is said 
that this work helped to place Sir William Roberts in the Royal 
Society and in the front rank as a scientist. To Mr. Benger it 
brought both fame and profit, and may be said to have determined 
the subsequent part of his business career, for in 1 89 1 he and his 
partner relinquished their interests in practical pharmacy to devote 
themselves exclusively to the manufacture of peptic and pancreatic 
products. 

Mr. Benger was much interested in the educational side of phar- 
macy. He was a member of the Board of Examiners of the Phar- 
maceutical Society for thirteen years, and contributed of his means 
both for the educational and benevolent work of the Society. He 
also took an active interest in the work of the British Pharmaceu- 
tical Conference, of which organization he was president at Bath in 
1888. In addition he was secretary of the Manchester Chemists" 
and Druggists' Association for many years, and also one of the hon 
orary apothecaries to the Manchester Royal Infirmary. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm., Vol. xxxvii, 1865, p. 61. 



296 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



Mr. Benger's attainments not only brought him honors in his 
own country, but gained for him a reputation abroad as well, and 
in 1893 the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy elected him a corre- 
sponding member. F. Y. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The last of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy for the session of 1 902-03 was held on 
Tuesday afternoon, May 19th, Dr. C. A. Weidemann, Secretary of 
the College, acting as chairman. 

The papers presented during the series of meetings just ended 
have been of special interest, and the discussions likewise have been 
profitable. 

The attendance has been quite good throughout the year, and at 
the meeting on Tuesday the following members were present : Jacob 
M. Baer, Henry C. Blair, E. M. Boring, W. L. Giiffe, Jos. W. Eng- 
land, Wm. J. Jenks, Henry Kraemer, Chas. H. La Wall, Clement B. 
Lowe, Wm. Mclntyre, Adolph W. Miller, Frank X. Moerk, O. W. 
Osterlund, Freeman P. Stroup, Herbert J. Watson, C. A. Weide- 
mann, Thos. S. Wiegand, M. I. W T ilbert and Florence Yaple. A 
number of visitors were also present. 

Prof. F. X. Moerk presented the first paper on the programme, 
which was entitled " Simple Forms of Laboratory Apparatus." (See 
page 257.) The author described and exhibited some new devices 
for chemical analysis, including a hydrogen sulphide generator and 
another for the estimation of carbon dioxide in carbonates. These 
pieces of apparatus can be easily constructed by the student and 
are inexpensive. Among those taking part in the discussion of the 
paper were E. M. Boring, Wm. J. Jenks, Prof. C. B. Lowe and Pro- 
fessor Kraemer. The latter said that the hydrogen sulphide gene, 
rator was an improvement in that it did away with the uncertainty 
of obtaining the gas, which was so frequently the case with the old 
form of generator ; that the old form of apparatus for determining 
carbon dioxide was expensive and the results were unsatisfactory. 
Professor Kraemer also said that he thought that the readers of this 
Journal would be glad to know of these devices which were of such 
simple construction. Professor Moerk stated that in the use of the 
hydrogen sulphide generator in his laboratory there was a saving of 
about 200 per cent, in material. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1903. 



} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 297 



The next paper was a communication from Earl H. Cone, P.D., 
of Cincinnati, O., entitled " Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate," 
and was read on behalf of the author by Prof. F. P. Stroup. The 
author presented clinical evidence to show the superiority of natural 
salicylic acid over the synthetic product. The paper was accom- 
panied with a number of specimens and will be published in a later 
issue of this Journal. Mr. Boring referred to the fact that the sub- 
ject had been discussed at the last meeting of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association [Proc, 1902 (Vol. 50), pp. 378-393], and 
the consensus of opinion seemed to show that the three products, 
viz., methyl salicylas, oleum gaultheriae and oleum betulse volatile, 
were distinct, and the one should not be substituted for the other. 
In answer to a question of Dr. Weidemann, Mr. Wilbert said that 
at the German Hospital they employed annually about 150 pounds 
of synthetic salicylic acid, which is given in doses ranging from -200 
to 1 -00 gramme, and that he had not known of any untoward 
effects from its use. Professor Lowe said that in his experience in 
the use of salicylates gastric disturbances were the most frequent. 
Professor La Wall remarked that if the natural salicylic acid was 
harmless, what could be the objection to its use as a food preserva- 
tive. In reply to a question by Professor Kraemer, Professor 
Moerk said that several possible impurities might be present in the 
synthetic product and that these might arise from impurities in the 
phenol employed or from subsequent products produced in the course 
of oxidation of the phenol. Professor La Wall also remarked that 
the odor of phenol in salicylic acid might be due to the decomposi- 
tion of the latter. Professor Moerk said that about four years ago 
he tested a number of specimens of salicylic acid from various 
sources and that none of them answered to »the sulphuric acid test 
of the U.S.P. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., presented " A Quarterly Review of Some of 
the More Interesting Advances in Pharmacy and Materia Medica." 
(See page 285.) The paper was discussed by Messrs. England, 
Boring, Weidemann, Moerk and Kraemer. Mr. England said that 
abroad it was one of the "bilberries" which was employed, and that 
this did not correspond to our " huckleberry," some kinds of which 
were yielded by Gaylussacias and not Vacciniums. Professor Kraemer 
alluded to the fact that the foreign literature seemed to point to 
Vaccinium Myrtillus L. as being the species used. Professor Moerk 



298 



Notes and News. 



Am. Jour. Pharrru 
June, 1903. 



referred to the fact that some years ago barium chloride had been 
found to be in the nature of a cardiac tonic (see National Dispen- 
satory, fifth edition, 1894, p. 325). 

Specimens of the following essential oils, received from Dodge & 
Olcott, New York City, were exhibited : Oil of fennel (chaff) ; oil 
of lemon ; oil of bergamot ; oil of caraway ; oil of fennel (seed) ; 
anethol ; oil of limes (expressed) ; oil of orange ; oil of neroli ; oil 
of coriander ; oil of star-anise ; oil of anise (Russian) ; anethol and 
carvol. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association.— The druggists of Penn- 
sylvania and their friends are making active preparations for the annual meeting 
of the State Association at Eaglesmere, June 23d, 24th and 25th. There is 
every prospect of a large meeting. Valuable reports ou legislation are promised 
and unusually good papers are being prepared. A warm welcome is awaiting 
new members, and druggists from sister States will be heartily greeted. 

Eaglesmere is a garden spot. There is a lovely lake in front of the hotel, 
and the scenic attractions are unsurpassed. For travelling arrangements write 
to J. A. Miller, Secretary, Harrisburg, Pa. 

The Massachusetts Coeeege of Pharmacy celebrated its semi-centen- 
nial on May 14, 1903, in connection with the graduating exercises. The 
annual banquet of the Alumni Association was taken in charge by the College, 
and President Wheeler presided. There were about 150 present, and the affair 
was very enjoyable. Ex-President Henry Canning acted as Toastmaster and 
the speakers were Mr. S. A. D. Sheppard, Prof. E. L. Patch, Mr. W. W. Bart- 
let, Prof. C. F. Nixon, Dr. J. T. O'Brien and Mr. A. Picken, president of the 
Class of 1903. At the commencement the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy was 
conferred for the first time. 

The American Chemicae Society. — The Twenty-eighth General Meeting 
of the American Chemical Society will be held at Cleveland, Ohio, June 29 and 
30, 1903. The opening session will be held at the rooms of the Associated 
Technical Clubs, 689 Arcade, at 9.30 a.m., Monday, June 29th. Prof. Edward 
W. Morley will give a brief address of welcome in behalf of the Cleveland 
Chemical Society, and there will be a reply by President John H. Long. 

The Cleveland Chemical Society has charge of all local arrangements, and 
inquiries pertaining to such matters should be addressed to Prof. Hippolyte 
Gruener, 43 Knox Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Investigation of the Purity of Chemicaes. — At the suggestion of Prof. 
F. W. Clarke and others, a committee was appointed at the last meeting of the 
American Chemical Society to investigate the purity of chemicals, especially 
reagents, as sold by dealers. It is a common experience that many articles 
marked " pure," " chemically pure," or"C. P." are far from satisfactory, and 
it is believed by many analysts that the quality of reagent chemicals has grown 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 1903. / 



Notes and News. 



299 



worse instead of better in the last few years. At any rate the matter is of such 
importance as to merit investigation. The committee, which consists of 
Charles Baskerville, L. M. Dennis, W. F. Hillebrand, H. P. Talbot and the 
president of the Society as chairman ex officio, is collecting data to show the 
extent of the evil of adulteration or wrong labeling, and requests information 
from all members of the Society who have had experience in the matter. 
This information should be sent to Prof. H. P. Talbot, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, Boston. The committee will be glad also to receive sug- 
gestions as to the best means of practically correcting the present unsatisfactory 
condition. —Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, May, 1903, p. 548. 

Newspaper Misrepresentation. — "The trade is tainted with fraud." 
Thus does the New York Times refer to the drug trade in commenting on 
Governer Odell's veto of the notorious Bostwick bill. And the Medical Record, 
to which the trade has a right to look for at least impartial criticism, says that 
the stand of the druggist against the bill is neither "judicious, convincing nor 
sincere," and bitterly refers to " fiagrance of malpractice in pharmacy." 

Words are insufficient to reply to such perversions of the truth. It is time 
that the trade resented the insults which, with increasing virulence, are being 
hurled at it day by day, not by words, but by deeds. The medical press de- 
pends for its very existence upon the support of the drug trade, and the daily 
press owes much of its prosperity to the same interests, and yet no slander, 
however vile, but is acceptable to the editors of both, provided only it be 
directed at the hapless retailer. . The tune to which these men dance is played 
by practically the same hands, and they are hands to which the feel of the 
almighty dollar is everything — the practice of medicine, the practice of phar- 
macy, the good of humanity, nothing, despite their blatant sympathies in 
behalf of " the suffering patient." And side by side with malicious comment 
upon the druggist we find on every hand the press standing unanimous in con- 
demning the Governor of Pennsylvania because of his approval of a bill which 
attempts to strangle the press in almost exactly the same manner in which 
the Bostwick bill would have strangled the druggist. It is an ideal example 
of the truth of the old adage, "Let the shoemaker stick to his last." The 
remedy for newspaper misrepresentation and slander is in the druggist's own 
hands. He should see to it that the editors of responsible newspapers are 
correctly informed regarding the real purpose of measures or movements 
affecting his interests. — Editorial in Amer. Drug., /8gj, p. 280. 

Christian Science was struck another legal blow on May 4th, when the 
Supreme Court decided that the " First Church of Christ, Scientist," of Phila- 
delphia, is not deserving of a charter. According to the Public Ledger, the 
opinion, written by Justice Potter, upholds the late Judge Arnold and former 
Judge Dimner Beeber, the referee to whom the application for a charter had 
been referred. 

Judge Beeber reported adversely upon the application, mainly on the ground 
that the Christian Science doctrine that there were no maladies or contagious 
diseases was a menace to the health of the community. 

Judge Arnold sustained this view, and went farther by saying that as teachers 
of the doctrine were required to sell Mrs. Eddy's book, the Church was an 
organization for profit. 



3oo 



Notes and News. 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
June, 1903. 



Justice Potter, in his opinion, says: 

"We are inclined to think that the evidence was not sufficient to support a 
finding that the corporation itself was to be one for profit. There was proof 
that the individual healers who are constituted and sent out by the society do 
receive compensation for their services, but this seems to be a personal recom- 
pense, with which the society has nothing to do. 

"But the Court below, in its supplemental opinion, went beyond this ques- 
tion, and adopted in substance the conclusion of the master, that the practice 
of the art of healing or curing disease in the manner set forth in Mrs. Eddy's 
book is injurious to the community, because it is opposed to the general policy 
of the law of Pennsylvania relative to the existence and. treatment of disease. 

" It was the duty of the Court below to refuse the charter if in the exercise 
of sound legal discretion he found its purpose, in whole or part, included 
anything injurious to the community. 

" Under the well-defined policy of the law of Pennsylvania, as at present 
existing, we are satisfied that there was no abuse of sound legal discretion in 
refusing the application for a charter." 

U. S. PharmacopcEia. — Prof. A. B. Prescott, as chairman of the Committee 
on Pharmacy and Queries of the Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association, 

says ; 

What is required of the profession of pharmacy is indicated and measured by 
the scope of the Pharmacopoeia. This work is not the cause, but rather the 
consequence of advancement in pharmacy. It registers not the high-water 
mark of science alone, but the high average level of the utilization of science, 
the level of the drug business of the world. The Pharmacopoeia is always in 
sore need of the latest and most exact of the determinations of science. In 
whatever country it has a place, it is made up of statements and definitions, 
some of which must have been made with hesitation, if not with fear and tremb- 
ling. 

The standards of the Pharmacopoeia must follow rather than lead in the best 
practice for the production and supply of medicinal agents. No committee of 
revision dare say that they will admit into the Pharmacopoeia just the best 
medicines and these alone. They will admit the medicines most used in the 
practice of the larger number of reputable physicians, as no committee of 
revision can require that medicines must be of this or that ideal standard in 
perfection of manufacture — regardless of existing limitations and the actual 
relations of cause and effect in the world at large. The term absolutely pure 
belongs to the language of the tyro and the boaster. If exact analyses were 
more widely made, precise limits of purity would be less freely declared. It 
takes a good deal of scientific work to cure the dogmatism of so-called scien- 
tific statements. The Pharmacopoeia of 1900 will have to meet with a test 
severer than any applied to its predecessors, the test of the enforcement of its 
standards in the courts of law. Of this the committee of the present revision 
are surely aware, and for this, without doubt, they are making provision by 
the wisdom and conservatism of their policy. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, 1903. 



ON EPINEPHRIN AND ITS COMPOUNDS, WITH ESPE- 
CIAL REFERENCE TO EPINEPHRIN HYDRATE. 1 

(An investigation now being carried on under a grant from the Carnegie Insti- 
tution.) 
By John J. Abei,, M.D., 
Professor of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University. 

The first important contribution to our knowledge of the chemi- 
cal composition of the suprarenal gland or capsule was furnished by 
Vulpian, 2 who, in 1856, observed that the fluid expressed from the 
interior part of the capsules of many different animals behaves in a 
striking manner toward ferric chloride and also toward solutions of 
iodine and other oxidizing agents, and that with no other fluid of 
the body can similar reactions be obtained. 

This juice of the medullary substance, which darkens on exposure 
to the air, is the atra bilis of the older anatomists. Vulpian found 
that it gave a fine green color with salts of iron, a pink or rose-red 
with iodine, water and ammonia, but he and the men of his time 
were unable to isolate the substance. The immediate cause of the 
renewed interest of chemists in this field was the discovery of 
Schafer and Oliver 3 and of Cybulski and Szymonowicz 4 in 1894 and 

1 The material used in this paper is drawn from two articles now in press. One 
of these articles is to be found in the "Contributions to Medical Research," 
dedicated to V. C. Vaughan, the other in the Berichte d. deutsch. chem. Gesell- 
schaft, Berlin. In the first-named article I have discussed the question as to 
how far epinephrin fulfills the requirements of a specific product of internal 
secretion, and have also reviewed the evidence which proves that the supra- 
renal capsules are functional structures and essential to the continuance of life. 

2 Compt. rendus, Acad. d. Sc., Paris, Vol. 93, pp. 663-665. 
*Jour. of Physiology, Vol. 16 (1894), Vol. r8 (1895). 

4 Archiv f. die gesammte Physiol., Vol. 64, p. r49. 

(301) 



302 Epinephrin and its Compounds. { Am / u i? r i9 P o3 arm * 

1895, that a very minute amount of an aqueous extract of the 
medulla of the gland will raise the arterial pressure to an extraor- 
dinary degree. Interest in the subject of internal secretion was at 
this time at its height. Pellacani and his pupils had studied 
the effects of the injections of extracts of the gland in 1879; 
others followed, but Schafer and Oliver were the first to test 
the effects of extracts on the arterial pressure. As early as 
1885, Krukenberg 1 had declared that the substance which gives 
the green color with ferric chloride is not the chromogenic 
substance of Vulpian, but more likely pyrocatechin accompanying 
the chromogen. From this time on, the opinion that pyrocatechin 
is present in the gland gained a firm hold. Brunner 2 found that an 
alcoholic extract of the gland can be made to give nearly all of the 
reactions of pyrocatechin ; thus, it gives the well-known green 
color with ferric chloride, passing into a fine red on the addition of 
ammonium tartrate and a few drops of an alkali; it reduces silver 
nitrate at room temperature and Fehling's solution on boiling. The 
addition of an alkali soon causes it to take on a dark-brown color ; 
lead acetate gives a precipitate ; sodium nitroprusside and very 
dilute ammonia give a wine-red color. All of the above reac- 
tions being given also by pyrocatechin, Brunner concluded that 
Krukenberg was right in his belief that pyrocatechin is present in 
the suprarenal gland. 

Again, in 1896, after it was known that the gland contained a 
blood-pressure-raising constituent, Miihlmann 8 returned to the pyro- 
catechin theory, but modified it so far as to state that pyrocatechin 
is not present as such in the gland, but in a form of combination 
with the active principle, from which it may be split off by boiling 
with dilute hydrochloric acid. 

It will be seen that at this time there was a great diversity of 
opinion as to the chemical character of the blood-pressure-raising 
constituent. Xo one had proved the existence of pyrocatechin in the 
gland, either as such or in combination with the active principle, by 
such irrefutable evidence as precipitation with lead acetate and 
analysis of the lead compound thus obtained, and no one had even 



1 Arch. f. path. Anal., Bd. CI (18S5), pp. 542-591. 

2 Schweiz. Wochenschr.,/. Pharmacie, Bd. XXX, 1S92, pp. 121-123. 

3 Deutsche med. IVochenschr, 1896, Xo. 26, pp. 409-411. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



303 



roughly isolated the blood-pressure-raising constituent in the form 
of a definite chemical compound. 

In 1895 B. Moore, 1 working in Schafer's laboratory, came to the 
conclusion that Vulpian's chromogen and the blood-pressure-raising 
constituent are identical. He based this opinion on the fact that 
chemical operations which destroy the color reactions of the chro- 
mogen also deprive ■ the blood-pressure-raising constituent of its 
power to raise the arterial pressure. That the solubilities of the 
active principle are the same as those of the chromogen appeared 
also to support this opinion. 

Fraenkel, 2 working with residues obtained with the help of alco- 
hol and acetone as solvents, also concluded that the blood-pressure- 
raising constituent and Vulpian's chromogen are one and the same 
substance. His residues did not contain pyrocatechin, and he con- 
cluded from their behavior toward ferric chloride and other oxidiz- 
ing agents that the essential principle of these residues is a 
nitrogenous derivative of the ^r^dihydroxy-benzene series. 

In 1 897 Abel and Crawford 3 showed that the active principle may- 
be precipitated from aqueous extracts of the gland by treatment 
with benzoyl chloride and sodium hydrate. Fraenkel 4 had, the year 
before, shown that a syrupy substance is thrown out when benzoyl 
chloride is shaken up with a pytidin solution of an extract of the 
gland, but he did not attempt to decompose it in order to ascertain 
whether it was in reality a benzoyl derivative of the blood-pressure- 
raising constituent. Abel and Crawford, however, were unaware of 
the fact that Fraenkel had made trial of benzoyl chloride in a pyridin 
solution, until their own work was nearly completed. These writers 
decomposed their benzoyl product with hot dilute sulphuric acid 
and obtained the active principle in the form of a sulphate of a tarry 
consistency, which possessed great physiological activity, gave the 
color reactions of Vulpian, reduced silver nitrate, and possessed the 
other specific qualities of suprarenal extracts. They did not suc- 
ceed in splitting off pyrocatechin from their active principle by boil- 
ing with dilute hydrochloric acid. They also stated that their si.il- 

x Jour. Physiol., XVII, 1895 ; Proc. Physiol. Soc, London, p. xiv ; ibid., Vol. 
XXI, 1897. 

2 Wiener med. Blatter, 1896, Nos. 14-16. 

3 The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, July, 1897, No. 76. 

4 Loc. tit. 



304 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



Am. Jour. Pharrri. 
July, 1903. 



phate did not reduce Fehling's solution. As will be seen later, 
their failure to obtain a reduction with Fehling's solution was due 
to the fact that they did not boil the solution for a sufficient length 
of time. While opposed to Brunner on this point, they were in full 
agreement with v. Furth, 1 Metzger 2 and Moore, 3 all of whom, also, 
at this time took the ground that extracts of the suprarenal gland 
do not reduce Fehling's solution. This point is of minor importance 
only, as it concerns but one among the reactions of the blood-pres- 
sure-raising principle. We shall refer to it again in a later section 
of this paper. 

In two subsequent papers 4 the following statements, among others, 
were made by the writer in reference to the active principle which 
he now named epinephrin. 

(1) Epinephrin is a basic substance. It is thrown out of its solu- 
tion in acids by ammonia in the form of an amorphous flocculent 
compound, which rapidly loses its power to raise the arterial 
pressure. 

(2) Both the free base and its salts give reactions with a consider- 
able number of alkaloidal reagents. 

(3) Both the free base and its salts give the color reactions of 
Vulpian, reduce silver nitrate, and in all other ways agree with what 
is known in respect to Vulpian's chromogen. 

(4) The formula C 17 H 15 N0 4 was adopted as expressing the elemen- 
tary composition of epinephrin, this formula being based on the 
analyses of a considerable series of salts and derivatives, all of which 
were obtained by saponification of the original benzoyl compound 
by means of very dilute sulphuric acid in an autoclave. 

(5) After saponifying this benzoyl product in the manner just 
described, the liberated base was first precipitated as a picrate, and 
from this picrate other salts such as the bisulphate were formed by 
simple transposition in the proper medium. The salts thus prepared 
possessed a high degree of physiological activity. Singularly 
enough, however, on precipitating the free base from these active 
salts it was found to have little power to raise the blood-pressure. 

1 Zeitschr. f. physiol. Chem., XXIV, p. 142. 

2 Zur Kenntniss der wirksamen Substauzen der Nebenniere, Diss. Wiirzburg, 
1897. 

3 Jour. Physiol., Vol. XXI, 1897. 

4 Abel: Johns Hopkins Bulletin, September-October, 1898, Nos. 90-91; Zeit- 
schrift J. physiol. Chem., Bd. XXVIII, pages 318-362. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
July, 1903. J 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



305 



(6) The addition of an alkali, as sodium hydrate, to the free base 
or one of its salts produces two substances, one of which is a basic 
body of a peculiarly intense and nauseating odor, reminding one of 
a mixture of coniin and piperidin ; the other, a dark pigment of an 
acid character. This latter decomposition product was called epine- 
phrine acid. 

(7) On smelting epinephrin with powdered alkalies, a small quan- 
tity was obtained of a substance that corresponded in its reactions 
to skatol. Dry distillation with zinc dust in a current of dry hydro- 
gen yielded amines, benzaldehyde, and pyrrol. On heating epinephrin 
bisulphate in a sealed tube with 25 per cent, hydrochloric acid to 
150 C, a small amount of an ether-soluble substance was obtained 
which took on a green color on the addition of ferric chloride. No 
attempt was, however, made to identify this body with pyrocatechin 
or pyrocatechinic acid. An acid with a melting point of 120° C. and 
all the properties of benzoic acid was also obtained by this treatment. 
In consequence of these reactions, epinephrin was declared to belong 
in a general way to the class of pyrrol derivatives. 

The Work of von Fiirth.- — Shortly after the appearance of the 
paper by Abel and Crawford, v. Fiirth entered the field. On 
the basis of a series of analyses of an impure acetyl product 
prepared directly from crude extracts of the gland, this writer 1 
assumed the blood-pressure-raising constituent to be either tetrahy- 
drodioxypyridin, C 5 H 9 N0 2 , or dihydrodioxypyridin, C 5 H 7 N0 2 . No 
more need be said in reference to this claim since v. Fiirth 2 has 
himself lately abandoned this^heory. He has, however, made some 
contributions of value, notably the isolation of the blood-pressure- 
raising principle in the form of a physiologically active, though im- 
pure, iron compound. This compound is, however, so difficult to 
purify that its analysis throws but little light on the true elementary 
composition of our substance. V. Fiirth furnished no analyses in 
connection with his earlier work on this iron compound. In those 
furnished later, he assumes by comparison with the commercial 
preparation, adrenalin, that those fractions of his iron compound 
which show the highest percentage of carbon most nearly represent 



1 Zeitschr. f. physiol. Chem., Bd. XXIV, page 142; XXVI, page 15; XXIX, 
page 105. 

Beitrage zur chem., Physiol, u. Pathol., Bd. I, page 243. 



306 Epinephrin and its Compounds. { Al Vu™!'i9 P ot arm ' 

the true composition of the blood-pressure-raising constituent which 
he had called suprarenin: No rational formula was deducible from 
the analyses, but the expression C 8 . 5 H 12 . 2 NO x was adopted as repre- 
senting the average composition of the fractions analyzed. 

It will be remembered that the writer had laid stress on the fact 
that the blood-pressure-raising principle as isolated by him is char- 
acterized by alkaloidal properties and is basic in character as shown 
by its ability to unite with acids and by the fact that it is precipi- 
tated by ammonia. It was claimed by v. Fiirth that his suprarenin, 
as he now called the blood-pressure-raising constituent, exhibits 
none of these characteristics, and he did not hesitate to say that 
epinephrin itself has no connection with the active principle, but is, 
in fact, a very different substance slightly contaminated with the 
true blood-pressure-raising constituent. 

It was, however, an easy matter to show that differences in 
method are responsible for the observed differences in the properties 
of epinephrin and suprarenin. The benzoyl and acetyl derivatives 
of epinephrin were prepared from the iron compound of v. Fiirth 
and were saponified in the autoclave. The resulting solutions were 
found to yield flocculent epinephrin on the addition of ammonia. 
In a word, it was found that treatment in the autoclave of any form 
of the active principle causes it to assume alkaloidal properties and 
to become precipitable by ammonia. It was furthermore shown 
that epinephrin as obtained by saponification of its benzoyl deriva- 
tive is convertible into an iron compound which is qualitatively 
indistinguishable from that prepared by v. Fiirth's method, though 
containing a benzoyl radical which was not removed in the saponi- 
fication of the original benzoyl compound. 

To summarize briefly, it was shown, 1 in reply to the criticisms of 
v. Fiirth, that : 

( i) It is an inherent property of the active principle of the supra- 
renal gland, prepared by whatever method, to fall out in the form of 
a flocculent, physiologically inactive precipitate on the addition of 
ammonia, after previous treatment in the autoclave. 

(2) It was also shown that when suprarenin or any other form of 
the active principle was subjected to hydrolytic treatment in the 



1 "Further Observations on Epinephrin, "Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, 
Vol. XII, March, 1901. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July. 1903. 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



307 



autoclave, it not only acquired the above-named property, but also 
assumed alkaloidal characteristics. 

(3) It was also proved that epinephrin gives an iron compound 
which is qualitatively indistinguishable from v. Flirth's iron com- 
pound, and that the iron compound made from jree epinephrin is 
identical with that obtained from epinephrin bisulphate y whereas v. 
Furth had maintained that only the filtrate from free epinephrin 
could yield an iron compound. 

(4) In a subsequent paper 1 it was clearly proved that adrenalin, 
which, like suprarenin, is devoid of alkaloidal properties, could be 
made to assume all the alkaloidal and other characteristics of epine- 
phrin on mere solutions in mineral acids. 

(5) It was further shown that on benzoating or acetylating the 
iron compound of v. Furth, and on decomposing these derivatives, a 
series of compounds could be prepared which are qualitatively indis- 
tinguishable from the earlier epinephrin compounds. 

(6) In a later paper 2 it was described how the iron compound of 
v. Furth was converted into the acetyl derivative, how this was then 
saponified in the autoclave so that a picrate and from this in turn a 
bisulphate could be prepared, and how this bisulphate was again 
converted into the acetyl compound. On analysis this acetyl 
derivative gave data that agreed well with those required lor the 
triacetyl derivative of an oxy-epinephrin, C 10 H n NO 4 . 

(7) In the paper just alluded to it was also shown that my early 
empirical formula for epinephrin, C 17 H 15 N0 4 ,. was too large by one 
benzoyl group, CO . C 6 H 5 , and that this was a consequence of the 
singular tenacity with which this lone radical defied all but destruc- 
tive methods for its removal from the original benzoyl compound. 
On heating epinephrin with strong sulphuric acid, benzoic acid is 
split off from it. Neither suprarenin nor adrenalin yield this acid 
on similar treatment. Elimination of this retained radical from my 
former series of compounds and substitution of the displaced hydro- 
gen atom led to the formula C 10 H u NO 3 as an adequate empirical 
expression for epinephrin with alkaloidal properties. 

Without going further into the details of the controversy, it will 



1 " On a Simple Method of Preparing Epinephrin and Its Compounds," Johns 
Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, Vol. XIII, 1902. 

2 Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, November, 1901. 



308 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



be apparent that my earlier statements in regard to the basic and 
alkaloidal properties of epinephrin were entirely correct, and that 
such of these properties as are not possessed by suprarenin can be 
conferred upon it by appropriate treatment. 

It will also be apparent that while much evidence has been 
brought forward in my whole series of papers in support of the 
statement that alkaloidal epinephrin is a chemical individual whose 
composition is represented by the formula C 10 H n NO3, and while it 
has been clearly proved that suprarenin may easily be converted 
into epinephrin, nothing is definitely known in regard to the chemi- 
cal composition of suprarenin. 

ON ADRENALIN. 

While the writer was engaged in refuting the statements of v. 
Furth, a crystalline preparation of the active principle was made by 
Takamine. 1 

His method, a very simple one, is based on his observation that 
ammonia precipitates the active principle directly from a sufficiently 
concentrated aqueous extract of the gland. 

Although I had demonstrated that epinephrin is a basic sub- 
stance, and although I had repeatedly shown that it can be precipi- 
tated as a flocculent substance by ammonia, the fact that it could be 
precipitated in a physiologically active and crystalline condition 
directly from gland extracts had escaped me because I used either 
an insufficient quantity of ammonia or too dilute a solution of the 
active principle. In his first paper, Takamine gave no description 
of his method and no analytic data as to the elementary composi- 
tion of his substance, but only a brief list of well-known reactions 
which his substance gave in common with the preparations of 
others. He named his preparation adrenalin. 

Shortly after the appearance of this paper, Aldrich 2 also prepared 
the free base in the active and crystalline condition and likewise by 
the use of ammonia or sodium carbonate as a precipitant. His 
method differs from that of Takamine only in certain unessential 
details, such as the use of lead acetate for the removal of inert sub- 
stances, as originally advised by Holm and later by v. Furth. 

1 First paper, Ther. Gazette, Vol. XXV, p. 221; second paper, Am. Jour. 
Pharm., Vol. LXXIII, p. 523. 

2 Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. V, p. 457. 



Am ju°iy%S)3 arm '} Epinephrin and its Compounds. 309 

Aldrich's substance is, of course, quantitatively and qualitatively- 
identical with the adrenalin of Takamine, and he has, therefore, 
used this name. He analyzed his own compound and also purified 
and analyzed the adrenalin of Takamine with the result that " the 
simplest body obtainable is represented by the formula C 9 H 13 N0 3 ." 

Finally Takamine 1 described his own method already outlined, 
and also published analyses of his own adrenalin, which differ very 
materially from those obtained by Aldrich. He asserted, indeed, 
that his formula differs from that of Aldrich by CH 2 and adopted 
the expression C 10 H 15 NO 3 as the " probable empirical formula " of 
adrenalin. We have, then, an ^inexplicable lack of agreement in the 
analyses of what is evidently one and the same substance, as 
judged by the descriptions given by these writers. 

Neither of these writers has placed the theoretical values required 
by his formula side by side with those actually obtained in the 
analyses. When this is done, as in the following table, it is seen 
that neither formula can be accepted on the evidence which has 
thus far been furnished. 

Found, for Takamine's 
Adrenalin as Purified and Theoretical for C 9 H 13 N03, 
Aldrich's Adrenalin Found. Analyzed by Aldrich. as Proposed by Aldrich. 

C = 57-89 C = 58-03 C = 59-02 

H = 7-33 H = 7-20 m H= 7-10 

N = 7-50 N = 7-66 N = 7-65 

O — 27-27 O = 27*11 O = 26-23 



99-99 ioo'oo ioo'oo 

Adrenalin as prepared and analyzed by Takamine: 

Required for Ci H 15 NO 3 , 

Found. as Proposed by Takamine. 

C = 59'39 C = 60-91 

H = 7-84 H= 7-61 

N = 7-88 N = 7-11 

O = 24-89 O = 24-37 



IOO'OO 100*00 

The very great deficiency of carbon in the analyses of both 
Aldrich and Takamine, as compared with the theoretical require- 
ments for this element, is alone sufficient to condemn the proposed 
formulae. The case, moreover, is such that no rational formula 



1 See his second paper as already cited. 



310 Epinephrin and its Compounds. { Am jiuy, r i903. arm " 

whatsoever is deducible from the above analytic data, a sure indi- 
cation that adrenalin, as hitherto isolated, is a mixture and not a 
chemical individual. The fact that adrenalin is so readily converti- 
ble into the alkaloidal modification suggests at once that a simple 
relationship must exist between these two modifications of the blood- 
pressure-raising principle, quite aside from the question as to 
whether an atomic rearrangement has occurred in the process of 
conversion. 

ON THE TRUE ELEMENTARY COMPOSITION OF THE ABOVE-DESCRIBED 
CRYSTALLINE, NON- ALKALOIDAL FORM OF EPINEPHRIN. 

Since neither Aldrich nor Takamine has succeeded in isolating 
adrenalin as a pure substance, and also because it is necessary to 
establish the relationship existing between epinephrin and this sub- 
stance, I have undertaken to purify and to analyze it. As prepared 
by the zinc-ammonia process described by me in an earlier paper, 1 
and washed entirely free of ammonia with water, alcohol and ether 
and then dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid, adrenalin is found to 
be stable as long as it is kept perfectly dry. As made by me 
according to the process just named, redissolved in dilute hydro- 
chloric acid and again precipitated with ammonia, its composition 
was found to be: 

C = 57"39 to 57-60 
H = 6*29 to 677 
N = 7*38 (Kjeldahl-Gunning). 

After nine precipitations with ammonia or sodium carbonate its 
composition changed to: 

I. II. Required for C 10 Hi 3 NO 3 . ^H 2 0. 

C = 58-61 58-67 C = 58-82 

H— 6-84 6-77 H= 6-86 

N= 7-08 (Kjeldahl-Gunning 2 ) N = 6'86 

O = 27-47 O = 27-46 



1 The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, February-March, 1902, Vol. XIII. 

2 In applying this method it is necessary to continue the digestion with the con- 
centrated sulphuric acid for about four hours in order to effect the complete de- 
composition of the substance. I was for a time of the opinion that the Kjeldahl- 
Gunning method does not liberate all of the nitrogen as ammonia (see Amer. 
four, of Physiology, Vol. VIII, 1903, No. 5), but it was afterwards found that 
the control analysis by the method of Dumas was at fault. 



EpinepJirin and its Compounds. 3 1 1 

Analytical data : 

0*2508 gramme substance gave 0*5390 gramme C0 2 , and 0*1545 gramme H 2 0; 

that is, C = 58*61 per cent, and H = 6*84 per cent. 
0*3633 gramme substance required 7*59 c.c. of sulphuric acid, 1 c.c. of which 

corresponded to 0*003392 gramme N, for the neutralization of the obtained 

ammonia (Kjeldahl-Gunning) ; therefore, N = 7*08 per cent. 
0-2025 gramme substance gave 0*4356 gramme C0 2 and 0*1234 gramme H 2 0; 

that is, C = 58*67 per cent, and H = 6*77 per cent. 

The above analytical data have been fully substantiated by my 
latest work. A much simpler and cheaper method than the zinc- 
ammonia process, one which gives an extraordinarily large yield of 
our substance in a pure form is the following. For convenience I 
shall speak of it as the trichloracetic acid method. It may best be 
described by taking an actual example from my notebooks: 

For example, 11-13 kilogrammes of beeves' glands, weighed 
after being freed of adherent fat and tissue, were finely minced and 
the mass divided among a number of 2 j£ -litre flasks, so that they 
were about half filled. Five litres of absolute alcohol, containing 
175 grammes of trichloracetic acid, was now equally divided among 
the flasks, added in very small quantities at a time with vigorous 
shaking. 

Great care must be taken in this operation in order that the 
acidulated alcohol may well penetrate the tissues and mix with 
their water instead of merely coagulating and hardening the indi- 
vidual particles. This mixture is allowed to stand over night and 
then subjected to filtration under pressure. To the almost colorless 
filtrate more absolute alcohol may be added until no further pre- 
cipitation occurs. Later work has shown that this is an unnecessary 
step in the process. I now proceed directly to the evaporation 
under diminished pressure of the first alcoholic filtrate. The 5 or 6 
litres thus obtained are concentrated to a volume of 380 c.c. This 
small volume contains a flocculent precipitate which is removed by 
filtration under pressure. To the clear filtrate it is only necessary 
to add ammonia of specific gravity 0*944, stirring gradually, when 
a veritable rain of crystals is seen falling to the bottom of the 
beaker. • 

As soon as the solution smells permanently of ammonia, the pre- 
cipitation will be found to be complete and no further crystals are 
obtained. 



Am. j our. ^hartu. 
July. 1903. 



312 Epinephrin and its Compounds. { Am ju°^9 P ol arm ' 

The crystalline precipitate is immediately filtered and subjected 
to a prolonged washing with water and to a shorter washing with 
absolute alcohol and ether, and it is then dried over sulphuric acid. 
When dry, the material, which is already almost snowy-white, was 
found to weigh 23*79 grammes. 

Owing to the very great solvent power of trichloracetic acid, even 
in absolute alcohol, for earthy phosphates and other salts, the pre- 
cipitate just described is considerably contaminated with mineral 
constituents (phosphates), even to the extent of 10 or 12 per cent. ; 
but even so, the material seems pure enough in other respects for all 
local therapeutic applications in the strength of solution usually 
employed. As regards these mineral constituents and other pos- 
sible impurities contained in the crystalline precipitate, it will 
presently be shown how easily these may be removed. 

But in spite of the large yield of the active principle obtained by 
this process, it will be found to be of great advantage to repeat the 
extractions one or more times with the following modification : 

To the once-exhausted glands, 5 or 6 litres, not of absolute, but 
of 60 or 70 per cent, alcohol, containing 30 or 40 grammes of tri- 
chloracetic acid, are added and the whole process of filtration, 
evaporation and precipitation proceeds as before. During the 
evaporation of these later extractions care must be taken that they 
maintain an acid reaction, as otherwise great injury will be done to 
the active principle, and one runs the risk of obtaining a final prod- 
uct consisting largely of phosphates, the active principle remaining 
in solution in a partially oxidized or otherwise altered form. 

From the weight of glands (11*13 kilogrammes) used in the above 
instance I obtained from the second extract 8-57 grammes; from the 
third extract 3 grammes. It will thus be seen that the sum total of 
crystalline, though somewhat impure, material obtained from 11*13 
kilogrammes of trimmed glands amounted to 35*36 grammes. 
When we take into consideration that the glandular material is not 
yet completely exhausted, that with better appliances for filtration 
a still better yield could be obtained, it is apparent that the amount 
of the active principle contained in beeves' glands has been hitherto 
underrated, and that it may safely be assumed* as constituting at 
least 0*3 per cent, of the moist gland. It need only be added that 
the cheaper methyl-alcohol will no doubt serve equally well for 
extraction. I have, however, as yet found no other acid to equal 



Am "j J n o iy^i903 a ' m '} Epinephrin and its Compounds. 313 

trichloracetic acid in penetrating the tissue, dissolving out the active 
principle and producing so light-colored a product. 

METHOD OF PURIFYING THE ABOVE PRODUCT. 

Twenty-three grammes of the crystalline material obtained from 
first extractions was stirred up in 80 c.c. of water containing 6 
grammes of oxalic acid, and then 800 c.c. of absolute alcohol was 
added in small quantities, accompanied by vigorous stirring. Ether 
was then added until the total volume was nearly 1 litre. The 
flask is then set aside for a day or more, when the alcohol-ether 
fluid can be poured off from the abundant sticky precipitate. Rela- 
tively little of the substance is found in this alcohol-ether fluid in 
the form of an oxalate, and may easily be recovered from it 
only slightly contaminated with ash by simple precipitation with 
ammonia. 

The gummy precipitate, which contains almost all of our sub- 
stance, is dissolved as far as possible in about 50 c.c. of water con- 
taining 12 or more grammes of trichloracetic acid. It is then 
precipitated with absolute alcohol, added in small quantities at a 
time until 800 c.c. has been added. Approximately 150 c.c. 
of ether is then added and the whole set aside until the supernatant 
liquid is clear. The mineral constituents (alkaline earths) will then 
be found to have been thrown down in the form of a white precipi- 
tate, while the active principle, together with some water-soluble 
mineral constituents, is contained in the alcohol-ether fluid. From 
this fluid it is now obtained by precipitation by ammonia. After 
being very thoroughly washed with water, alcohol and ether it is 
found to be entirely ash-free. 

For purposes of analysis it is only necessary to recrystallize it by 
precipitation with ammonia from a solution in aqueous hydrochloric or 
trichloracetic acid. For example, a portion of the white amorphous 
precipitate obtained by ammonia from the alcohol-ether mixture 
just referred to was dissolved in dilute oxalic acid, precipitated by 
ammonia ; again dissolved in dilute trichloracetic acid and thoroughly 
washed with water that has been freed of carbonic acid, then with 
alcohol and ether and dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid. As thus 
prepared, especially when the precipitation with ammonia is not 
effected too rapidly, the substance forms nodular aggregates of well- 
formed microscopic prisms terminated sharply by pyramidal planes. 



3H 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



Am. Jour. Phariii. 
July, 1903. 



Its composition was found to be: 

i. ii. 

C = 5872 C= 5 873 

H = 6-87 H = 6-84 

N = 7*12 N = 7*15 

Analytical data : 

I. 0*2200 gramme substance yielded 0*4737 gramme C0 2 and 0*1360 gramme 
H 2 ; therefore, C = 58*72 and H = 6*87. 
0*3557 gramme substance gave 21*8 c.c. N collected over 50 per cent. KOH 
at t = 21 C. and barometer = 760 mm. N = 7*12. 
II. 0*2438 gramme substance yielded 0*5250 gramme C0 2 and 0*1500 gramme 
H 2 ; therefore, C = 58*73 and H = 6*84. 
0*3215 gramme substance gave 19*8 c.c. N, collected over 50 per cent. KOH 
at 21 C. and 760 mm. Hg. N = 7*15. 

Identical analytical results have been obtained by purifying com- 
mercial preparations known as suprarenalin (Armour & Co.) and 
adrenalin (Parke, Davis & Co.). 

At the time these analyses were made I had not yet employed 
oxalic and trichloracetic acids conjointly, as above described. The 
suprarenalin of Armour & Co. was dissolved in absolute alcohol con- 
taining trichloracetic acid, filtered and precipitated by ammonia. It 
was then dissolved in as little dilute oxalic acid as possible, and 
ammonium picrate and picric acid were added. This solution was 
allowed to stand, and then filtered Irom a small amount of a dark, 
sticky picrate. The active principle was then precipitated by ammo- 
nia and thoroughly washed with water, alcohol and ether. 

It was then dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid and crystallized 
with the slow addition oi ammonia. 

It was now found to have the composition 

= 58*58 H = 6*8o N=7*09 (Dumas). 

Nearly a year ago I purchased large amounts of adrenalin and 

subjected it to processes of fractional precipitation. The extreme 

variations of numerous fractions in respect to C, H, and N, ran from 

C =56*53 to 58*89 
H= 4*77 to 7*19 
N= 7*59 to 10*65 (Dumas). 

It would, however, be an easy matter to obtain results exactly 
like those above cited from adrenalin, if my present methods of 
purification were applied to this substance. Even simple reprecipi- 
tation (four times) with ammonia from its solution in acetic or 



Am. Jour. Pharin. 
Jul j*, 1903. 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



315 



hydrochloric acid often gave a crystalline material for the most part 
of the following composition : 

C= 58-39 — 58'45 
H= 6-90 — 7*19 
N= 7-59 (Dumas). 

It will thus be seen that under whatever name the substance now 
under discussion appears, whether as suprarenalin, adrenalin, etc., or 
in whatever manner it is prepared, its composition when properly 
purified is always found to be that given above by my own prod- 
ucts : 

Found for the Substance as Made Found as Made by the Required for 

by the Zinc-Ammonia Process. Trichloracetic Method. Ci H 13 NO3^HoO. 

C = 58-61 — 58-67 C= 58-72 C= 58-82 

H— 6-8a— 6-77. H= 6-87 iH= 6-86 

N= 7-08 (Kjeldahl-Gunning). N= 7-12 (Dumas). N= 6"86 

O = 27-47 O = 27-29 O = 27-56 



The agreement between the found percentages and those required 
by the empirical formula C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^H 2 O are so close that we arc 
justified in ascribing this formula to the above variety of epinephrin. 

CONVERSION OF C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^ H 2 INTO THE ALKALOIDAL FORM, C 10 H 13 NO S . 

It was stated in the beginning of this paper that after finding that 
my first series of compounds (C 17 H 15 N0 4 ) had retained an unsaponi- 
fied benzoyl radical, I was forced to adopt the formula C 10 H n NO 3 as 
the true empirical expression for alkaloidal epinephrin. 

It now appears that the crystalline compound above described 
(C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^H 2 O) is easily changed into the alkaloidal form 
C 10 H 13 NO, without first benzoating and then saponifying its benzoyl 
compound. 

It is only necessary to dissolve it in concentrated hydrochloric 
acid or in very strong sulphuric acid in order to effect a dehydration 
and to give it the missing alkaloidal properties. Short exposure to 
very dilute mineral acids for a short time in the autoclave at pres- 
sures of 2 or 3 atmospheres also effects this dehydration. Further- 
more, a brief exposure in vacuo of the thoroughly dry crystalline 
hydrate to a temperature of 177 also effects the dehydration, 
although it must be stated that this is not an economical method of 
conversion, inasmuch as secondary changes occur, the material tak- 
ing on a brownish-red color and a certain amount of loss resulting. 



3i6 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



I have thus far found solution in strong sulphuric acid to be the 
best means of effecting the dehydration. For example, 2*2 grammes 
of the pure crystalline hydrate analyzed above was dissolved in 
small portions at a time in 5 to 7 c.c. of sulphuric acid (prepared by 
adding I y 2 c.c. of water to 16 c.c. of concentrated sulphuric acid), 
the process being a tedious one requiring several hours. After the 
solution has been effected it may be allowed to stand over night in 
the desiccator. The sulphuric acid solution is then dropped slowly 
into absolute alcohol, being stirred all the time. 

A white precipitate immediately falls out, which may be further 
increased by the addition of a little ether. 

After collecting the sulphate thus precipitated on the filter and 
washing it with absolute alcohol and ether, it is quickly dried in 
vacuo. 

As thus thrown out in the amorphous form, this sulphate natu- 
rally retains some adherent sulphuric acid, which may, however, be 
removed with the greatest ease by dissolving it in a little water and 
dropping its aqueous solution into absolute alcohol under constant 
stirring. After being washed with alcohol and ether and dried in 
vacuo over sulphuric acid, this sulphate constitutes an almost 
white or grayish-white non-hygroscopic product, indistinguishable 
in appearance from the monobenzoyl sulphate of my earlier papers. 

It dissolves very easily in water, dilute solutions being colorless, 
while very concentrated solutions take on a greenish-black color. 
Concentrated solutions of the hydrate (C 10 H 18 NO 3 ^H 2 O) in dilute 
acids take on a dark-brown color, while dilute solutions, I to 100 or 
1 to 1,000, are also colorless. 

No permanent salts of the crystalline hydrate have thus far been 
made. Takamine, for example, in attempting to make salts of the 
hydrate (adrenalin) obtained only noncrystallizable " brown brittle 
masses deliquescent in the air." The above dehydration, however, 
at once gives us a method for obtaining a whole series of permanent 
non-hygroscopic salts. There is every indication, too, that these can 
be obtained in the crystalline form. This sulphate, when thrown 
out of very dilute solutions in weak alcohol with ether, is deposited 
in microcrystalline form on the sides of the vessel. The picrate also 
has been obtained by me in the form of nodules made up of smal 
prisms, though not always perfectly formed. 

This sulphate of alkaloidal properties thus prepared appears, as 



Am jjiy r i903 arm " } Epinephrin and its Compounds. 317 

far as I can now see, to exhibit all of the reactions of monobenzoyl- 
epinephrin sulphate as formerly described by me. I would also 
state that very dilute solutions of this alkaloidal sulphate give a 
green color on the addition of very dilute ammonia, while a similar 
solution of the hydrate, C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^H 2 O, takes on a pink color 
with the same treatment. Like the monobenzoyl compound, it is 
precipitated from solutions of its salts by ammonia in an amorphous 
form, easily soluble in excess of this reagent. 

I would also add that after complete dehydration the substance, in 
the form of the sulphate at least, has entirely lost its local vaso-con- 
stricting action. That it is not, however, devoid of all physiological 
activity is to be seen in the work of Amberg. 1 A more complete 
pharmacological and therapeutical study of these alkaloidal salts of 
epinephrin is now in progress in my laboratory. 

I will here offer the following analyses of the simple alkaloidal 
compound obtained by dehydrating the non-alkaloidal form, 
C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^H 2 O, with concentrated sulphuric acid. Specimen I 
was twice precipitated with absolute alcohol, dried in vacuo over 
sulphuric acid, then in vacuo at 65 C. in order to remove every 
trace of alcohol. Specimen II is like Specimen I ; but in conse- 
quence of an accident in which concentrated sulphuric acid was 
spilled into it, it was again redissolved and reprecipitated three times 
in order to remove all traces of the acid. It was then dried in vacuo 
over sulphuric acid. 

I. II. Required for 

Found Found. CCioHi 8 N0 8 ) a . H 2 S0 4 . 

C =43'9i C = 49"°5 C =49-18 

H= 5-58 H= 5-67 H= 574 

N= 5-99 N= 5-905 N= 574 

H 2 S0 4 = 20-59 H 2 S0 4 = 20-08 

Analytical data : 

I. 0*1656 gramme substance gave 0*2970 C0 2 and 0*0831 gramme H 2 ; there, 
fore, C = 48*91 per cent, and H = 5*58 per cent. 
0*3895 gramme gave 20*55 c - c - of dry N (collected over 50 per cent. KOH) 
at 24 C. and 751 mm. barometric pressure ; therefore, N = 5*99 per cent. 
II. 0*2079 gramme substance gave 0*3739 gramme C0 2 and 0*1060 gramme H 2 ; 
therefore, C = 49*05 per cent, and H = 5*67 per cent. 
0*4077 gramme substance gave 21*1 c.c. of dry N (collected over 50 per 
cent. KOH) at 23 C. and 752 mm. barometric pressure ; therefore, N = 5*95 
per cent. 



1 Archives internat. de Pharmacodynamic et de Therapie, Vol. XI, 1902, 
P- 79- 



3 18 Epinephrin and its Compounds. { Am j J u ^ifo3 arm ' 

0*1520 gramme substance dissolved in very dilute hydrochloric acid and 
precipitated with barium chloride gave 0*0746 BaS0 4 ; therefore, H 2 SO^ = 
2o'59 P er cent. 

It will thus be seen that a perfectly defi?iite compound of the formula 
C 10 H 13 NO 3 can be made in any desired quantity from the compou?id, 
C 10 H 13 NO 3 J^H 2 O. The dehydrated molecule still behaves in the 
same way toward ferric chloride, silver nitrate, copper sulphate, etc., 
but has taken on a new set of properties, viz.: alkaloidal character- 
istics. As this substance, in the fottn of its monobenzoyl compounds, 
has long been known as epinephrin, it seems allowable, in view of the 
analytical proofs here furnished and the relationships that have been 
established, to give to the crystalline form, C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^H 2 O, known 
in its less pure form as adrenalin, suprarenin, etc., the name epinephrin 
hydrate. 

The analytical data here given show that the formula C 10 H n NO 3 , 
which I have long maintained as representing the true composition 
of alkaloidal epinephrin, is to be changed to C 10 H ls NO 3 . That I 
made this small error in the formula is due solely to the fact that 
my earlier preparations were, as a rule, dried at too high a tem- 
perature. I have observed, for example, that the sulphate just 
described when dried in vacuo at 100° loses hydrogen and shows a 
higher carbon content, and if then analyzed will apparently have 
the composition (C 10 H n NO 3 ) 2 H 2 SO 4 , at least in respect to carbon, 
hydrogen and nitrogen. 

The formula of monobenzoyl epinephrin must therefore also be 
changed from C 17 H 15 N0 4 — (C 10 H 10 NO 3 . C 6 H 5 . CO) to C 17 H 17 NO, — 
(C 10 H 12 NO 3 . C 6 H 5 . CO). At least one compound of the monoben- 
zoyl series is stable enough to endure a drying temperature of 100° 
C, and in this instance it is found that no change in the formula 
need be made. I refer to the phenyldicarbamic ester of mono- 
benzoyl epinephrin which was briefly described in an earlier com- 
munication. 1 This ester was made from the sulphate of monoben- 
zoyl epinephrin, and the numerous chemical stages through which 
the compound was made to pass guarantees its chemical individual- 
ity and purity. 

The following analyses of its sulphate further fortify the formula, 



l Amer. Jour, of Physiology, Vol. Ill, 1900; Proc. Amer. Physiol. Soc, p. xvii; 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, Vol. XII, 1901, p. 342. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



319 



C 10 H 13 NO 3 , which I have now finally adopted for the basic substance 
in my whole series of epinephrin compounds : 

Calculated for 

Found. [C 17 H 15 N0 4 (CO . NH . C 6 H 5 ) 2 ]oH 2 S0 4 . 

C =63-14 C =63-48 

H = 4-89 H = 478 

H 2 S0 4 = 8-46 H 2 S0 4 = 8-36 

Analytical data : 

0*2887 gramme substance, dried at ioo° C, gave 0*6684 gramme C0 2 and 0*127 
gramme H 2 0; therefore, C = 63*14 per cent, and H = 4*89 per cent. 

0*2506 gramme dried at ioo° C, analyzed by Liebig's method, gave 0*0505 
gramme BaS0 4 ; therefore, H 2 S0 4 = 8*46 per cent. 

In concluding this part of my work I would add that the sulphate 
just described is insoluble in water and that other salts of the above 
ester are readily formed. Among these salts the picrate is notable 
in that it may be obtained in the form of large, thin crystalline 
plates, from concentrated solutions in very dilute alcohol. There 
are indications also that monobenzoyl epinephrin can take up a 
third molecule of phenylisocyanate (CO : N . C 6 H 5 ) and thus yield 
the phenylcarbamic tri-ester of monobenzoyl epinephrin. 

NOTE ON THE BENZOYL COMPOUND OF THE CRYSTALLINE 
HYDRATE C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^ H 2 0. 

It is apparent that derivatives of epinephrin may now be more 
easily and economically prepared by starting with the hydrate than 
by using the more cumbrous method that necessitates large quanti- 
ties of gland extracts. I have repeated much of my earlier work, 
using the crystalline hydrate as the starting point, and have found 
that the methods formerly applied to extracts now led to identical 
results. In benzoating the hydrate I have found that the best 
method is to use powdered sodium carbonate as an alkali, adding it 
in proper amounts from time to time. 

The white tarry benzoyl compound is easily purified by the 
methods already described. In saponifying the benzoyl compound 
I have found it best not to use sulphuric acid of more than ^ or 1 
per cent., and not to let the temperature of the autoclave rise above 
128 to 130 C. After exposing it to this temperature for two 
hours, it is best to remove the portion already decomposed and to 
add to the undecomposed cake of benzoyl compound a fresh portion 



320 Epinephrin and its Compounds. { Am 'j J u o iy n i903 arm ' 

of the dilute sulphuric acid, and again to subject it for a couple of 
hours to the temperature of 128 C. Only a small portion of the 
undecomposed benzoyl compound now remains, and a repetition 
of the process would still further reduce this amount. 

From the saponified portions, it is easy to prepare the picrate, 
bisulphate and other salts of monobenzoyl epinephrin, C 17 H 17 N0 4 . 
That here, too, a single benzoyl radical is retained, just as in the 
earlier experiments with gland extracts, is easily proved. One has 
but to prepare the bisulphate and to treat it with concentrated sul- 
phuric acid with gentle heat, dilute with water and shake out with 
ether in order to obtain benzoic acid as proof that a benzoyl radical 
had been retained. How many benzoyl groups can be taken up by 
the hydrate C 10 H 13 NO 3 ^H 2 O has still to be determined. It has 
been shown that alkaloidal monobenzoyl epinephrin can take up 
three additional acid radicals, but from this fact we are not justified 
in asserting that the crystalline hydrate can take up only four acid 
radicals. 

ON THE BEHAVIOR OF EXTRACTS OF THE GLAND AND OF THE VARIOUS 
FORMS OF THE BLOOD-PRESSURE-RAISING PRINCIPLE TOWARD 
FEHLING'S SOLUTION. 

In an earlier paper 1 I have pointed out that while epinephrin in its 
native state fails to reduce Fehling's solution, the monobenzoyl com- 
pounds and other products prepared by me agreed with adrenalin 
in their ability to reduce Fehling's solution. Certain preparations 
made in accordance with processes first developed by v. Furth also 
did not in my hands reduce Fehling's solution ; such were his iron 
compound and a very active amorphous and hygroscopic sulphate 
or bisulphate. In maintaining that native epinephrin as contained in 
more or less purified extracts of the suprarenal gland does not re- 
duce Fehling's solution, I stood on common ground with Fraenkel, 
Moore, Metzger, and v. Furth. I have also pointed out, however, 
that Brunner 2 takes the opposite view ; that he has stated positively 
that an alcoholic extract of the gland does reduce Fehling's solution, 
with a resulting deposition of cuprous oxide . Aldrich 3 has also taken 
this position. 



1 Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, November, 1901. 

2 Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, July, 1897. 

3 Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. VII, p. 359. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
July, 1903. / 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



321 



I have lately repeated a part of my work bearing on this question, 
and without entering into details I would say that I now find that a 
purified extract of the gland which contains only such principles as 
are soluble in strong alcohol and insoluble in ether behaves in the 
following manner toward Fehling's solution : if an aqueous solution 
of such an extract be poured into a goodly excess of Fehling's solu- 
tion (Fehling 1 to water J^) and the mixture is kept at the boiling 
point for two minutes and then at once cooled down, no cuprous 
oxide settles out. A flocculent, greenish-white copper compound 
will, however, be found suspended in the fluid. After boiling from 
five to six minutes a considerable reduction occurs and yellow 
cuprous hydrate begins to be deposited in large amount. After boil- 
ing for fifteen minutes the reduction appears to reach a maximum, 
and a heavy deposit of cuprous hydrate, mixed with perhaps a trace 
of the red cuprous oxide, is obtained. 

The extracts used in these experiments contained a large percent- 
age of the active principle, the amount being in each case deter- 
mined by precipitating the principle from a weighed amount of 
extract with ammonia or sodium carbonate, drying and weighing. 

After removing the crystalline active principle from a given por- 
tion of extract with sodium carbonate, the filtrate, contrary to the 
statements of Aldrich, was always found to reduce Fehling's solution 
even in small amounts, provided only that the boiling was continued 
for from five to fifteen minutes as in the experiments with the origi- 
nal extracts. Such a filtrate is estimated, both by colorimetric and 
blood-pressure tests, to contain from 1 5 to 20 per cent, of the active 
principle, and the amount of reduction is apparently proportional to 
this unprecipitated part. 

The ease and rapidity with which the active principle itself 
reduces Fehling's solution, with deposition of cuprous oxide, the 
reaction beginning far below the boiling point, is in great contrast 
to the behavior of the above extracts. These extracts also have 
no difficulty in reducing ammoniacal silver nitrate solutions. A 
fuller knowledge of the chemical composition of the gland, and 
especially of the exact form in which the blood-pressure-raising 
principle exists in the gland, will explain why an extract of the 
gland requires such prolonged boiling before the cuprous hydrate 
is deposited from the Fehling's solution. 

I have observed that the blue color of a Fehling's solution is 



322 Epinephnn and its Compounds. { Am •J'S? r i£3. arm • 

immediately and entirely discharged when the solution is added 
in small quantities at a time to diluted extracts of the gland like 
those above described, but which are kept at the boiling point. In 
this way a considerable reduction of Fehling's solution without 
deposition of cuprous oxide may be obtained. The steam that 
arises from a boiling mixture of this kind is strongly alkaline, and 
this fact at once suggests that ammonia or some other basic sub- 
stance prevents the deposition of cuprous oxide. We may here be 
dealing with something on the order of a Pavy-Fehling solution. 
The prolonged boiling is probably necessary in order to expel 
ammonia and to decompose substances that prevent the deposition 
of cuprous hydrate or oxide. 

While now agreeing with Brunner and Aldrich that long boiling 
will develop the reducing power of a suprarenal extract for Feh- 
ling's solution, I would point out that Aldrich has not correctly re- 
ported my results. He withholds the statement that all of my salts of 
epinephrin as obtained by saponifying iis benzoyl or acetyl derivatives 
are as capable of reducing Fehling's solution as adrenalin itself, and 
thereby gives the reader the impression that no form of epinephnn thus 
far isolated is able to effect this reduction. 

It was stated clearly in my paper 2 that epinephrin in its native 
unaltered state, as found in extracts of the gland and in v. Fiirth's 
lead precipitate, failed in my hands to reduce Fehling's solution, but 
that my own compounds as obtained in various ways all agreed with 
adrenalin in their ability to reduce this reagent, that in this particular 
at least there was no difference between them. 

The suppression of these facts by Aldrich and his distortion of 
the point at issue are entirely unwarranted. 

ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF EPINEPHRIN AND ITS HYDRATE. 

I have repeatedly pointed out that epinephrin and its hydrate 
(adrenalin) behave in exactly the same manner toward the fixed 
alkalies, carbonates of the alkalies, and the hydroxides of the alkaline 



1 See page 360 of Aldrich's paper, where he says: " I consider the failure of 
the various workers in this field to obtain a product capable of reducing Feh- 
ling's solution due to a changed form of the active principle, etc.," as also 
conclusion (6) of his summary. 

2 Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin,Vo\. XII, 1901 , pages 337-338 ; and conclu 
sions i, 2, and 3 of summary on page 343. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.1 
July, 1903. J 



EpinepJirin and its Compounds. 



323 



earths ; that is, that on the addition of any of these to either modifi- 
cation of our substance, a volatile base of a coniin-piperidin-like 
odor is liberated, and in the course of time a pigment which I have 
named epinephrinic acid is also formed. This pigment I assume to 
be the oxidation product of the pyrocatechin-like part of the mole- 
cule. It was shown in my earliest papers that pyrocatechin cannot 
be split off from epinephrin by boiling with mineral acids of ordi- 
nary strength. In a later paper it was mentioned that when mono- 
benzoyl epinephrin bisulphate is heated in a sealed tube with 25 
per cent, hydrochloric acid to 150 C, a small amount of an ether- 
soluble substance is obtained which gives a fine green color on the 
addition of ferric chloride. V. Fiirth has also found that on'dry dis- 
tillation a substance soluble in ether is obtained which behaves 
toward ferric chloride like pyrocatechin. Takamine 1 has obtained 
similar products by fusing adrenalin with caustic potash, but makes 
no reference to these earlier observations. From these observations 
it seems fair to conclude that there exists a residue C 6 H 3 (OH) 2 — or 
C 6 H 2 (OH) 3 in the molecule of our substance. I had already ex- 
pressed this opinion in my preliminary constitutional formula 2 for 
monobenzoyl epinephrin, C 17 H 17 N0 4 , and it may be remarked that 
the subsequent discovery of an unremoved benzoyl group, C 6 H 5 CO, 
in this form of epinephrin does not invalidate the position taken by 
me at that time in respect to the pyrocatechin-like residue of the 
molecule. 

Acting on the supposition that the molecule of the blood-pressure- 
raising principle consists of two cyclic compounds, one a hydroxy- 
lated benzene nucleus, the other a pyrrol-like base, I have lately 
undertaken a study of the action of nitric acid on both epinephrin, 
C 10 H 13 NO 3 , and its hydrate. 

Results thus far obtained indicate that the products of this oxida- 
tion are identical in the two cases. The following example will 
illustrate the process : In very small portions at a time, 10 grammes 
of the purified hydrate is dissolved in 60 c.c. of nitric acid, of 
sp. gr. 1-2, in a platinum bowl on the water-bath. The oxidation 
goes on with considerable violence, and care must be taken to avoid 
loss of material in consequence of foaming. When the evolution of 



1 Am. Jour. Pharmacy, Vol. 73, 1901, page 529. 

2 See Zeitschr.f. Physiol. Chem., Bd. XXVIII, page 347. 



324 



Epinephrin and its Compounds. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



gases has largely subsided, 10 c.c. of fuming nitric acid is added 
and the whole is then concentrated on the water-bath, water being 
added from time to time as the mass begins to thicken. After the 
removal of excess of acid and cooling, the contents of the dish are 
found to be crystalline and odorless. 

The larger part of this crystalline mass consists of oxalic acid. 
The barium, lead, sodium and calcium salts of this acid were pre- 
pared, as also its diethyl ester. The calcium salt CaC 2 4 . H 2 0, as 
prepared from a hot concentrated solution of the sodium salt, was 
found to contain 27-39 per cent. Ca, the theoretical amount of cal- 
cium for CaC 2 4 . H 2 as thus prepared. The tetragonal crystals, 
CaC 2 4 . 3H 2 0, were also prepared from the sodium salt and the free 
acid was oxidized with potassium permanganate, and in other ways 
was shown to have all the properties of oxalic acid. 

The other chief product of the above oxidation consists of a salt 
(oxalate ?) of the unknown nitrogenous base which I have called the 
coniin-piperidin-like body on account of its peculiar offensive and 
penetrating odor. The addition of an alkali to these crystals 
immediately liberates this odor. It is evident, then, that this part 
of the molecule has withstood the very energetic treatment with 
nitric acid above described. Further treatment with iodine trichlo- 
ride does not destroy this base, but enables one to obtain it as a 
salt crystallizing in slender prisms, very soluble in water and alcohol 
and but little soluble in ether. A diazo-compound of these crystals 
has also been formed. 

In its general behavior toward destructive chemicals, as, for exam- 
ple, on fusion with powdered potassium hydrate, this salt reminds 
one forcibly of the behavior of certain pyrrol derivatives under simi- 
lar circumstances. When thus treated an odor like that of pyrrolidin 
arises ; later, as the fusion continues, this gives place to the fishy 
odor of amines, and this in turn gives place to that of pyrrol, as 
proved by the pine sliver reaction. Analyses of this specific part 
of the molecule of epinephrin and adrenalin will soon be published. 

It is evident from the above that the pyrocatechin-like part of the 
molecule, which in some measure resists the destructive action of 
acids in sealed tubes and of fusion with alkalies, is oxidized by nitric 
acid to oxalic acid and simpler products, while the nitrogenous part 
of the molecule remains, in large part at least, entirely unaffected by 
this oxidation. Researches now in progress will, it is hoped, soon 



Am 'J J u ly^9o h 3 arm •} Quantitative Estimation of Phosphates. 325 

throw more light on the constitution of this interesting nitrogenous 
derivative. 

It has been shown that the alkaloidal modification of our sub- 
stance can take up four acid radicals. This is proved by the fact 
that monobenzoyl epinephrin, C 17 H ]7 N0 4 , is capable of taking up 
three acetyl groups. Inasmuch as this monobenzoyl compound was 
formed by benzoylating the native principle as existing in extracts 
of the gland, it may be assumed that epinephrin hydrate also is 
capable of taking up at least four acid radicals. This point is now 
being put to the test by experiment. The above experiments, 
nevertheless, show that we already have some little insight into the 
chemical character of this interesting compound. 



A NOTE ON THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF 
PHOSPHATES IN STOMACH CONTENTS. 

By G. H. A. Clowes, Ph.D., 
Gratwick Research Laboratory, University' of Buffalo. 

Having had occasion in the course of the last two or three years 
to make a large number of analyses on normal and pathological 
stomach contents, I have had the opportunity of remarking how 
absolutely unreliable are the various volumetric estimations, and 
further, that the ideas generally held regarding the significance of 
individual titrations are frequently erroneous. It has been found 
necessary in our work on metabolism to make gravimetric deter- 
minations of the various constituents wherever the stomach con- 
tents were concerned. I do not propose in this paper to deal with 
the various phases of this subject, which will be reserved until the 
completion of some work now in progress on cancer of the stomach ; 
but simply with the estimation of acid phosphates, which affords a 
good illustration of the errors of volumetric analysis. 

Phosphoric acid is tri-basic; that is to say, is possessed of three 
hydrogen atoms capable of being displaced by monovalent bases, as 
sodium, potassium, etc. Each of these hydrogen atoms can be sat- 
urated separately and the end point of each may be very readily 
determined as follows : 

A solution of phosphoric acid is prepared and titrated by means 



326 Quantitative Estimation of Phosphates. { Am j J u ^ > 1 S§ arm ' 

of one-tenth normal soda, different indicators being employed in 
order to determine the point of saturation of the individual acid 
groups. 

(1) Phosphoric acid is completely converted into mono-sodium 
phosphate, XaH 2 P0 4 , at the alizarin end point. 

(2) The acid is completely converted into di-sodium phosphate, 
Na. 2 HP0 4 , at the phenolphthalein end point. 

(3) The acid is completely saturated with the formation of 
Na 3 P0 4 , or its equivalent, when an excess of neutral barium chlor- 
ide 1 and a definite excess of the one-tenth normal alkali employed 
are added to the solution, which is boiled, and the residual excess 
of alkali titrated by means of one-tenth normal acid, phenolphtha- 
lein still being employed as indicator. 

If a solution of phosphoric acid is prepared of such a strength 
that, using alizarin as indicator, 10 c.c. are exactly equivalent to 10 
of one-tenth normal alkali, then 10 c.c. of the same solution would 
require 20 of the alkali, using phenolphthalein as indicator, and 30 
using phenolphthalein in the presence of an excess of neutral barium 
chloride. As regards other indicators which have been carefully 
tested, tropaeolin and phloroglucin vanallin give practically no reac- 
tion. Dimethyl-amido-azo-benzol gives an indefinite end point, 
starting shortly after the commencement of the titration and reach- 
ing the green stage shortly before the alizarin end point. Methyl- 
orange, benzo-purpurin and congo give fair end points in the 
neighborhood of the alizarin end point. Litmus, lakmoid and 
rosolic acid give indefinite end points, somewhere in the neighbor- 
hood of the phenolphthalein end point. In the presence of barium 
chloride, rosolic acid is affected in just the same manner as phenol 
phthalein, giving an indication at the end point, Na 3 P0 4 . We 
should not, however, recommend any of these indicators for use in 
estimation of phosphates, as alizarin and phenolphthalein have been 
found to give excellent results when employed in the manner which 
will be described later. 



x The explanation of this reaction is as follows: Na 2 HP0 4 is neutral to 
phenolphthalein, but Na 3 P0 4 is alkaline. The addition of neutral barium 
chloride to the solution leads to the immediate precipitation of neutral barium 
phosphate, Ba 3 (P0 4 l 2 , so soon as formed, in such a manner that final end point 
with phenolphthalein is obtained on complete saturation of the phosphoric 
acid. See " Sutton's Volumetric Analysis." 



Am j J uiv?i£)3 arm '} Quantitative Estimation of Phosphates. 327 

If we now turn to a consideration of the methods usually em- 
ployed in analyzing stomach contents, and remember that the dif- 
ference between the dimethyl-amido-azo-benzol end point and the 
alizarin end point is usually considered as due to acid phosphates 
and organic acids, whilst the residual portion of the titration from 
alizarin to phenolphthalein is not usually considered to be in any 
sense due to phosphates, but entirely to combined hydrochloric ; it 
is obvious that some discrepancy exists. The results of our analy- 
ses with normal phosphates and phosphoric acid, checked by gravi- 
metric methods, have proved conclusively that two of the three 
available acid groups of the phosphoric acid are neutralized in the 
course of the titration of stomach contents up to the phenolphtha- 
lein end point ; that one only of these is neutralized at the alizarin 
end point; that is to say, that one of the three acid equiva- 
lents of the phosphates present in stomach contents is continually 
mistaken for combined acid, whilst the difference between the 
dimethyl-amido-azo-benzol and alizarin end point is seldom sufficient 
to account for even one of these groups, since dimethyl-amido-azo- 
benzol always reacts to a certain extent to phosphoric acid and the 
alizarin end point is sharp on saturation of one acid affinity. 

Realizing this discrepancy and finding that it interfered seriously 
with a long series of comparative experiments which have been 
carried out in the laboratory regarding chlorides, nitrogen, etc., of 
stomach contents, we at first attempted to estimate the phosphates 
gravimetrically and volumetrically by means of uranium nitrate, 
subsequently allowing for the effect produced by the known quan- 
tity of phosphoric acid, but the amount of available material is usu- 
ally so small as to render either of these methods extremely un- 
satisfactory, and we w 7 ere eventually led to adopt the following 
method, which is comparatively simple and fairly accurate, affording, 
as it does, a means of checking one's results by duplicate experi- 
ments : 

As large a quantity of the contents as possible, in no case less 
than 20 c.c, is evaporated to dryness in a platinum dish and gently 
incinerated in order to destroy organic acids. The residue is ex- 
tracted with a small amount of dilute sulphuric acid free from 
phosphates; made up to 25 c.c, two batches of 10 c.c. each being 
employed for the analyses, which are carried out in the following 
manner : (1) Under ordinary circumstances, a one-tenth normal solu- 



328 Quantitative Estimation of Phosphates. \ Am 'j^ v ;I& &Ym ' 

tion of alkali and acid may be employed, but under exceptional 
circumstances, where the phosphates are known to be present in 
very small quantities, very satisfactory results may be obtained by 
using one-fiftieth normal solutions. Ten cubic centimeters of the 
solution obtained above, containing phosphates, is exactly neutral- 
ized with one-tenth normal alkali to the phenolphthalein end point. 
Alizarin is then added and the mixture is titrated back with one- 
tenth normal sulphuric until the alizarin end point is reached. This 
figure represents the equivalent of one of the acid groups of the 
phosphoric acid. (2) Ten cubic centimeters are neutralized in the 
same way as the previous experiment, using phenolphthalein as an 
indicator, an excess of 2 or 3 c.c. alkali is then added and the mix- 
ture boiled. It is then retitrated with sulphuric acid to see if any 
appreciable loss of alkali has taken place. If the difference is more 
than o-i of a c.c. a further excess of alkali is added, once more 
boiled and retitrated to the neutral point with sulphuric until fairly 
constant. Then a definite excess of alkali, 5 c.c. for example, is 
added to the mixture, and 5 c.c. of an absolutely neutral and phos- 
phate-free barium chloride solution, the whole is boiled vigorously 
for a minute, allowed to cool for a minute, and titrated with one-tenth 
normal acid until the phenolphthalein end point is reached. If 
phosphates are present it will be found that the full amount of acid 
is not required. The difference between the amount of alkali 
added and the amount of acid required to titrate back represents 
another acid group of the phosphoric acid. This figure should exactly 
coincide with that obtained above in the first experiment, since each 
one of them represents one of the three acid affinities of the total 
amount of phosphates present in the mixture. As a matter of fact, 
the phenolphthalein alizarin end point is more nearly correct, the 
other result being usually slightly high. If any great discrepancy 
exists it is necessary to look for some source of error and repeat the 
experiments. Having obtained these results it is comparatively easy 
to calculate the exact effect which would have been produced by 
the phosphates present in the mixture upon the alizarin end point 
and the phenolphthalein end point, allowance being made accord- 
ingly. It is obvious that the effect upon the alizarin end point 
would be exactly half that upon the phenolphthalein end point, since 
one hydrogen was saturated at the alizarin end point and a second 
at the phenolphthalein end point. 



Am j J u °iy!i903 arm '} Quantitative Estimation of Phosphates. 329 

It may further be noted for the benefit of those who have not 
platinum vessels at their disposal, and who have to consider the 
factor of time, that a fairly accurate estimate of phosphates may fre. 
quently be made in the following manner : After titrating the stom- 
ach contents, using phenolphthalein as indicator (in which experi- 
ment as large a quantity of stomach contents as possible should be 
employed), an excess of three or four cubic centimeters of alkali is 
added, the mixture boiled vigorously and neutralized with sulphuric 
acid as in the above experiments. A known excess of alkali is 
then added, and the five cubic centimeters of neutral barium chloride 
solution ; the mixture once more boiled and titrated with one-tenth 
normal acid. The difference between the amount of alkali employed 
and the amount of acid required for titrating back gives the effect 
due to the third acid affinity of the phosphoric acid between 
Na 2 HP0 4 and Na 3 P0 4 , and is equal in quantity to that exerted by 
the phosphates on the alizarin end point for the same quantity of 
material from H 3 P0 4 to Na H 2 P0 4 . It also represents half the effect 
on the phenolphthalein end point from H 3 P0 4 to Na 2 HP0 4 , and is 
equal to that between the alizarin and phenolphthalein end point, 
NaH 2 P0 4 to Na 2 HP0 4 , and, therefore, has to be deducted from that 
quantity in order to obtain a more correct estimate of the so-called 
combined hydrochloric. 

In making use of this method without evaporation and ashing, it 
must be remembered that the phenolphthalein end point is seriously 
interfered with and that certain other disturbing factors prevent as 
much accuracy as is desirable, but still it affords much better results 
than are obtainable either by means of uranium nitrate in the 
stomach contents directly, a method which we employed for a con- 
siderable period of time, or any of the methods previously suggested, 
such as that obtained from the difference between the dimethyl 
amido-azo-benzol and alizarin end points, which, as we have shown 
above, is absolutely incorrect. 

An illustration of our method may make it easier to follow. Fifty 
cubic centimeters of filtered contents were evaporated to dryness, 
ignited, and extracted with boiling water, with addition of a small 
amount of acid. The whole was made up to 25 c.c. Two lots 
each of 10 c.c. were employed for the titrations, which were carried 
out as directed above. 

(1) Phenolphthalein end point to alizarin end point = 8 c.c, 
n/10 acid. 



330 Quantitative Estimation of Phosphates. { Am j J u 1 ^' 19 P ot. arm - 

(2) Difference between phenolphthalein end point and phenoltalein 
end point in presence of BaCl 2 = 0-85 c.c. n/10 acid, from 
which phosphoric effect for 50 c.c. of stomach contents employed 
is altogether equivalent to 4-12 c.c. of a one-tenth normal acid, and 
is made up as follows : 

From alizarin to phenolphthalein end point, == 2-0 c.c. 

From phenolphthalein to phenolphthalein BaCl 2 end point, == 
2-12 c.c. 

Consequently the effect on 1 00 c.c. of stomach contents would be 
respectively 4 c.c. and 4-24 c.c,, total 8-24 c.c, which means that for 
10 c.c of contents, the effect attributable to phosphates would 
be, in this case, 0-41 before the alizarin end point, and 0-41 between 
alizarin and phenolphthalein end points, giving a total effect of 
0*82, on a total acidity of 4.5 c.c. This result was confirmed by 
means of uranium nitrate standard solution. 

Summary. — It has been shown that the usual method of roughly 
estimating the effect due to acid phosphates in the titration of stom- 
ach contents is absolutely incorrect ; that one of the three acid affini- 
ties of phosphoric acid is saturated at the alizarin end point, and a 
second at the phenolphthalein end point. Consequently less than 
one-half of the total effect due to phosphates lies between the diazo 
(so-called) and alizarin end points ; whilst at least an equal effect 
is exerted on the portion usually looked upon as combined HC1. 

A comparatively simple method has been suggested whereby a 
fairly accurate estimate of the phosphates present and the effect 
which they exert may be directly determined, dependent 

(1) Upon the transition from NaH 2 P0 4 to Na 2 HP0 4 between the 
alizarin and phenolphthalein end points; 

(2) The transition from Na 2 HP0 4 to Na 3 P0 4 between the phe- 
nolphthalein end point alone and in the presence of BaCl 2 , whereby 
the alkaline Na 3 P0 4 is converted into Ba 3 (POJ 2 so soon as found and 
thus removed from the scene of action. 

Incidentally, one object of this paper is to draw attention to the 
gross inaccuracies in the accepted methods of titrating stomach 
contents. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



Alkaloidal Color Tests. 



331 



ALKALOIDAL COLOR TESTS, WITH THOSE OF STRYCH- 
NINE AS EXAMPLES. 

By Lyman F. Kebler, 
Chief of the Drug Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Before taking up these tests, a brief review of the general methods 
for recovering the alkaloids from organic mixtures might be of ser- 
vice. 

J. S. Stas, 1 of Brussels, in 1 85 1, first pointed out the underlying 
principles for isolating alkaloidal bodies in general. By this 
method alkaloids are removed by treating the organic matter with 
pure concentrated alcohol, then render distinctly acid with tartaric 
or oxalic acid., heat to about yo° C, cool the mixture, filter, wash 
the residue with alcohol and evaporate the mixed filtrates to dry. 
ness, at a temperature not exceeding 35 C. The residue is then 
digested with absolute alcohol, the filtrate evaporated at a low tem- 
perature, the resulting residue taken up in a small quantity of water, 
the solution treated with a slight excess of powdered sodium carbo- 
nate, and finally violently agitated with four or five volumes of pure 
ether. This operation dissolves the alkaloids in a fairly pure state. 
Separate the ether and evaporate spontaneously on a watch glass as 
occasion requires. Volatile alkaloids must first be converted into 
stable salts before the ether is dissipated. 

For the extraction of many of the vegetable alkaloids, the above 
method is quite applicable, but the operator must bear in mind three 
points: (1) An alkaloid extracted by the above process is very 
liable to be contaminated with coloring matter and certain plant 
principles; (2) that some of these alkaloidal bodies are quite insoluble 
in ether ; consequently, with such chemicals the results are either 
only partially successful or fail entirely ; and (3) the influence of the 
presence of one body on the solubility of another. 

The first difficulty was partially met by F. J. Otto, 2 who treated 
the acidulated solution, containing the alkaloid in the form of a salt, 
with ether, in which alkaloidal salts in general are insoluble, thus 
removing undesirable bodies from the alkaloidal solution. After the 
above treatment, the solution is rendered alkaline with a fixed 

1 Bull, de V Academie de Medecine de Belgique, 9, 304; Ann. (Liebig), 84, 
379- 

2 1856, Ann. (Liebig), 100, 39. 



332 



Alkaloidal Color Tests. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



alkali, and the liberated alkaloid removed by ether as in Stas' proc- 
ess. It must be borne in mind, however, that in treating the acidu- 
lated solution with ether, certain alkaloidal bodies, as well as color- 
ing matter and other associated impurities, may be removed. This 
is especially true of the weaker bases, such as berberine, hydrastine, 
colchicine, etc. 

The second difficulty was overcome by the introduction of chloro- 
form 1 and amylic alcohol. 2 Chloroform and ether are usually em. 
ployed because they volatilize readily at low temperatures, and most 
alkaloids are sufficiently soluble, for most work, in either one or the 
other or mixtures of the two. Amylic alcohol is usually employed 
only tor morphine, which is quite insoluble in the above solvents. 

The third point has never received much attention, consequently 
our knowledge along this line is very fragmentary. There are 
many cases where a substance is insoluble or sparingly soluble in a 
given solvent, but the presence of a third body makes it freely solu- 
ble. For example, iodine, sparingly soluble in water, is rendered 
freely soluble in the presence of potassium iodide or certain other 
alkaline halogen compound^. Some of the metallic cyanides are 
insoluble in water, but these are rendered freely soluble by the pres- 
ence of an. alkaline cyanide like potassium cyanide. Bismuth citrate 
is insoluble in water, but is freely soluble in this menstruum con- 
taining alkaline citrates. Pure water dissolves only traces of the 
essential oils, whereas, concentrated aqueous saccharine and sodium 
salicylate solutions have the power of dissolving considerable quanti- 
ties of these oils. Castor oil is practically insoluble in petroleum 
ether, but this characteristic insolubility is lost at the ordinary 
temperature, when castor oil is mixed with an oil soluble in the 
above solvent, like croton oil. 

G. Dragendorff 3 introduced a most comprehensive scheme, which 
includes all of the good points of his predecessors' methods, by 
not only increasing the number of immiscible solvents employed, 
but also including glucosides, other indifferent plant principles, and 
some synthetic remedies. Ingenious and comprehensive as is this 
scheme, yet very few, if any, of the many organic bodies it is 

1 1856, J. E). D. Rodgers and G. P. Girwood, Lancet, June, 718; Pharm. J. 
Trans., 16, 497. 
2 i86i, h. Uslar and J. Erdmann, Ann. (Liebig), 120, 121. 
3 1867, Pharm. Ztschr.f. Puss., 6, 663; Ztschr. anal. Chetn., 7, 521. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



Alkaloidal Color Tests. 



333 



designed to separate are wholly insoluble in the different solvents 
employed ; and unless a body is present in considerable quantities, it 
might be removed completely from the aqueous solution before 
the best conditions for its recovery were reached. For example, 
morphine and its sulphate are not absolutely insoluble in the seven 
solvents employed, to about exhaustion, before treating the mixture 
with the solvent in which the alkaloid is most soluble, viz., amylic 
alcohol. It may be possible that sufficient morphine is present to 
carry it through these extractions, yet the chances are decidedly 
unfavorable. If in this connection we consider the influence of one 
body on the solubility of another, it can readily be seen how incom- 
plete the separations must be even with this excellent method. 
That such influences exist in the organic world can be shown by 
numerous instances. Take, for example, a simple solution contain- 
ing morphine and hydrastine sulphate, render alkaline and extract 
with ether, evaporate the ethereal solution to dryness, and it will be 
found, contrary to expectations, that sufficient of the morphine is 
removed with the hydrastine so that the color reactions of the 
residue are quite different from those obtained for pure hydrastine. 
Consequently, it seems to the writer that the toxicologist should 
never employ this method, in all of its details at least, unless there 
is absolutely no clue whatever as to the general nature of the poison 
from either symptoms or circumstantial evidence, which very rarely 
is the case. 

T. Graham 1 introduced a method in which he utilized the remark- 
able property that moist organic membranes possess, of allowing 
crystallizable bodies in solution to pass through them, whereas, the 
non-crystallizable mostly fail to pass. Graham and Hofmann 2 
devised a process, supposed to be especially adapted for the isolation 
of strychnine from certain organic substances like beer. In this 
method advantage is taken of a property charcoal possesses of 
absorbing strychnine from an aqueous solution and giving it up 
again to boiling alcohol. These methods are seldom used at present, 
because small quantities of strychnine may escape detection, or will 
be so contaminated with foreign matter as to require numerous 
extractions with ether or chloroform, to render the alkaloidal 
material pure, so that it would be far more expedient to begin the 

1 1862, Jour. Chem. Soc, 15, 216. 

2 l %52» Quart. Jour. Chem. Soc., 5, 173- 



334 Alkaloidal Color Tests. { Am iuiy;fm. cm ' 

ethereal or chloroformic extraction directly with the original 
material. 

F. Selmi 1 further purifies the alkaloids, as usually obtained in 
the ethereal extractive, by precipitating them from this ethereal 
solution, both with and without an excess of water, by means of 
carbon dioxide. This method is said to possess certain merits, but 
on account of the uncertainties usually encountered, the method has 
gained very little prestige. 

Notwithstanding such elaborate and, apparently, faultless schemes, 
this department of chemistry presents many complex problems. 
When it is remembered that nearly 2,000 substances, with definite 
chemical individualities, have been separated from plant tissues, and 
there is scarcely a line of demarcation anywhere between them, but 
they imperceptibly grade into one another ; then add to this the 
host of synthetic bodies, which are employed as medicinal remedies, 
the difficulties to be encountered in isolating in a pure state, even 
some of the most characteristic ones from a heterogeneous mixture, 
becomes quite apparent. 

ANALYTICAL REACTIONS OF STRYCHNINE. 

Most alkaloids are precipitated from aqueous solutions, acidulated 
with a mineral acid, by a number of reagents, such as Mayer's, 
Wagner's, Scheibler's, Sonnenschein's, etc., and they serve very well 
as general reagents for establishing the presence of alkaloids ; but 
further than this, little has been done with these reagents which is 
of distinct service in establishing the individuality of an alkaloid 
either qualitatively or quantitatively. We must, therefore, look for 
other information leading up to the identification of the various alka- 
loids, and this has been largely supplied by way of color reaction. 
But can these color reactions be utilized as the basis of a positive 
opinion? Blyth says, in substance, fairly pure alkaloids give cer- 
tain color reactions more or less characteristic, but they are gener- 
ally untrustworthy and must be looked upon as useful guides only, 
to be confirmed by other characteristics of the substance in quest. 
There are probably very few, if any, of the many alkaloidal color re- 
actions that can be ascribed to definite chemical changes. In many 
cases, the color reactions are probably due to the presence of minute 
quantities of associated impurities, rather than the pure material 
itself. Again, the various shades of color are usually difficult to 



1 1877, Gazett. Chim. Ital., 6, 153 ; Jour. Chetn. Soc, 1, 93. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



Alkaloidal Color Tests. 



335 



describe, and the color frequently changes from one shade to 
another so gradually that mistakes may easily arise. Even in the 
inorganic world, where certain colors are developed as the result of 
chemical combinations, we seldom trust ourselves with such infor- 
mation as positive ; for example, in precipitating a soluble com- 
pound of arsenic with a sulphide, we have produced an almost in- 
fallible indication that arsenic is present; but what chemist is there, 
who would, without further submitting this precipitate to the other 
searching tests that we possess, for absolutely identifying the pres- 
ence of arsenic, say that arsenic is present, without a question oi 
doubt, simply from the color produced as the result of the formation 
of a chemical compound. Again, on passing hydrogen sulphide 
gas into a solution of mercuric chloride, we have formed, as we think, 
a definite chemical compound, and yet, who has not seen the various 
shades of precipitate that result when the above operation is per. 
formed ? 

The quality of the reagents seems to have been lost sight of in a 
large measure. It is an open secret that pure and even C. P. molyb- 
dic acid, the chief constituent of Frohde's reagent, contains as much 
as 15 per cent, of ammonium nitrate and sulphate or the corres- 
ponding salts of sodium. Recently quotations were seen for C. P.. 
phosphomolybdic acid, varying from $1.45 to $11.00 per pound. 
These examples incite thought. Do the reagents employed by the 
various workers the world over vary in quality as the above prices ? 
How are the color reactions of Frohde's reagent affected by the 
impurities of molybdic acid ? 

Within the last quarter of a century there have been isolated a 
large number of ptomaines, some of which give color-reactions 
similar to those of certain alkaloids. 

In connection with the above we must not forget to mention im- 
perfection of vision (color-blindness), which plays such an important 
part in the affairs of mankind. In general, therefore, color reactions 
can be considered useful only as guides and should never be con- 
sidered conclusive in themselves. 

Strychnine is one of the few alkaloids that toxicologists and alka- 
loidal chemists have pointed to with some gratification as being 
singularly invulnerable to the attacks made on color reactions from 
time to time, it being characterized by an infallible display of succes- 
sive color reactions ; and the writer believes that the successive color 



336 Alkaloidal Color Tests. { Am ju O iy"-i9 P 03 arm ' 

changes for strychnine are perfectly reliable when applied to pure 
material; but in the former part of this paper there are pointed out 
some of the difficulties to be encountered in isolating and rendering 
absolutely pure minute quantities of any alkaloid. Not only is it 
difficult to purify small quantities of strychnine, but there may be 
present in the ethereal or chloroformic extracted material certain 
undefined organic substances which will interfere so seriously with 
the test lor strychnine that its presence cannot be recognized even 
when comparatively large quantities of the alkaloid are present or 
are purposely added. 

Evidence as to the presence of strychnine depends on joining the 
following results: (i) No coloration with pure concentrated sul- 
phuric acid; (2) a purple-blue color when oxidation results; (3) 
fading of the purple-blue color to a bright cherry-red tint, etc. 

There are very few organic bodies, usually encountered in the 
search for an alkaloid, that will comply strictly with the first re- 
quisite. Among these may be mentioned gelsemine, acetanilid, 
antipyrin, salicylic acid, benzoic acid and curarine, the non-crystal- 
lizable principle of worara, obtained from botanical sources allied to 
those of strychnine. Among the above are frequently mentioned 
brucine and morphine, and occasionally hydrastine. The two 
former usually produce a slight rose tint, while the latter a faint 
yellowish coloration. After dissolving the strychnine residue in 
sulphuric acid, the mixture ought to be allowed to stand five 
minutes in order to note if any color is developed. 

On treating strychnine, dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, 
with almost any oxidizing agent, there is produced a rich purple- 
blue, which changes more or less rapidly through purple and crim- 
son to a bright cherry-red tint, this latter being somewhat persistent. 
The rapidity of the change is largely influenced by the amount and 
nature of the oxidizing agent employed. Many oxidizing substances 
have been recommended from time to time, and each operator 
seems to have a distinct preference for one or the other, probably 
because of a greater familiarity with the same. 

E. Marchand, 1 in 1843, showed that when strychnine, dissolved in 
sulphuric acid containing a little nitric acid, is treated with a small 
amount of lead peroxide, a series ol colors was developed. Mack, 



x Jour. de Pharm., 4, 200. 



Am j J u°iyj?o3 arm- } Alkaloidal Color Tests. 



337 



in 1846, proposed the use of manganese dioxide, and about the 
same year Otto brought forward the use of potassium bichromate. 
Since then, potassium ferricyanide, ammonium vanavate, and cero- 
soceric oxi^de have all been ardently advocated. Potassium bichro- 
mate is the favorite of many workers ; but on account of the rapid 
change of colors it produces, and the resulting green, chromium 
coloration, others prefer lead or manganese dioxide, both of which 
produce a remarkably well-developed play of colors. 

As can readily be imagined, one or more of the successive colora- 
tions produced in the series of color reactions for strychnine can 
easily be imitated, with a number of organic bodies, under the same 
conditions, such bodies are acetanilid, anilin, antipyrin, curarine, cod- 
liver oil, gelsemine, pyroxanthine, papaverine, narceine, solanine and 
veratrine. In regard to these it may be said in general that there 
is more fiction than truth about these substances interfering with 
the identity tests for strychnine. These reactions are usually classed 
as fallacy tests. 

It is the common belief that most of the above substances, that 
may interfere with the tests for strychnine, will be removed from the 
strychnine by the conventional methods of isolation; but it must 
not be forgotten that the line of separation is very seldom so com- 
plete as to entirely eliminate all associated impurities, except when 
sublimation can be resorted to according to Helwig's 1 scheme, sub- 
sequently improved by Drs. Guy 2 and Wormley 3 and frequently used 
at the present time. 

Within a few years there has come to our attention a mixture of 
morphine and hydrastine, which is supposed to give color reactions 
simulating those of strychnine. Curious enough, it has come to us 
in the form of fiction, «« Stringtown on the Pike," by J. U. Lloyd, 
and, as can readily be imagined, has created some little stir in cer- 
tain circles. The writer has carefully gone over these tests, and 
finds that, while there is a similarity of color reaction, when the 
above mixture is treated with the usual reagents employed for iden- 
tifying strychnine, yet when the first of the above propositions laid 
down is applied to this mixture, it will be found that it will not dis- 
solve without coloration in sulphunc acid, which immediately elimi- 



1 Das Mikroscop in der Toxicologic 

2 1867, Pharm. fourn. Trans. (2), 8, 719, and 9, 10 and 58. 
3 Micro-chemistry of Poisons. 



338 



Father of American Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



nates it as possibly being strychnine. We must not, however, 
forget that it is frequently impossible to purify strychnine to such 
an extent as to produce an absolutely colorless solution in sulphuric 
acid, and, if the remaining portion of the color reactions would 
develop properly, the chemist might conclude that he was justified 
in calling it strychnine. It should be stated here that when strych- 
nine, dissolved in sulphuric acid, is treated with a fragment of 
potassium bichromate, a violet-blue streak follows the crystal, as it 
is moved about, whether the moving is slow or rapid, but the color 
is transient and changes slowly to orange. When a mixture of 
morphine and hydrastine is similarly treated, a greenish-yellow 
streak at first results, changing rapidly to purplish-violet, and finally 
a dirty chrome-green results. The shades of color produced with 
strychnine and morphine-hydrastine are not identical, but resemble 
one another so closely that it would be difficult to describe them so 
as to give a definite idea of their differences. 

Recently 1 A. H. Allen and G. E. Scott-Smith reported that the 
mixed alkaloids, as ordinarily removed from liquid extract of 
ipecac, gave color reactions similar to those obtained from opium 
bases. How many cases of this kind will be met in the future no 
one will venture to predict. 

In view of what has been said above, and the fact that many of 
the color reactions proposed from time to time are short-lived, it 
behooves us to use them with the greatest circumspection; calling 
to our aid every possible assistance, such as the microscope and 
physiological tests. 



THE FATHER OF AMERICAN PHARMACY. 

By John F. Hancock. 

There have been, and are now, many distinguished pharmacists 
in America, but the above title, won by the late Prof. Wm. Procter, 
Jr., has never been disputed ; and for some time past it has been 
the purpose of those who have known him, both personally and 
through his works, to give him appropriate honor. Several meth- 
ods have been suggested to give expression to that respect in 
which we all hold him, and while all have been well intentioned 
and sincere, it seems proper that we should be selective in the trib- 
ute that we would employ, and above all bestow that which is fittest. 



1 i902, Analyst, 27, 345- 



Am 'ju < i"ifo3 arm '} Father of American Pharmacy. 339 

Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., occupied an unique position in the profes- 
sion of pharmacy and, under great disadvantages, rose to the high- 
est eminence. Beginning, with limited means, as an apprentice in 
an apothecary shop, without the advantages of a liberal education, 
he ascended, by diligence and well directed effort, from its rudi- 
ments to the top. In theory and practice he became the most 
accomplished pharmacist of his day and generation, and perhaps 
contributed more to the higher branches of pharmaceutical literature 
than any other pharmacist of the nineteenth century. His work 
was thorough and original, and evidenced the imprint of his charac- 
ter for systematic research ; and the pages of the American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy, beginning with his thesis for graduation from the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1837, and continuing with 
regularity to the year of his death, attest his purpose in life and 
form a monument built by his own hands that will always be a bea- 
con light to those who wish to enter the profession and who are 
interested enough to care for its scientific evolution. The proceed- 
ings of the American Pharmaceutical Association are also periodic 
witnesses to his industry and ability, both as an investigator and a 
writer ; and at every annual meeting he contributed papers that were 
of practical utility to every pharmacist. At the last meeting that he 
attended — 1873 — a few months before his death, he contributed 
papers and took an active interest in the business of the association. 

Professor Procter was successful in the respect, confidence and 
esteem of his associates, and in return was just, honorable and 
upright in his relations with his fellow-men. He loved knowledge 
and sought it, and in his benevolence willingly imparted, what he 
had so arduously learned, to others. 

These are the monuments which he himself has builded, and it 
would now become us who have profited by his labors to make a 
substantial recognition to his memory, for, above all others of his 
class, his example is most worthy of emulation and lasting renown. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association has taken a step in 
this direction, and at the semi-centennial meeting in Philadelphia 
last September a report was presented by the Committee on the 
" Procter Memorial " that was favorably received. Without mean- 
ing to object in any way to the report of this committee, I feel that 
something more should be done to honor and perpetuate the mem- 
ory of this great and good man ; a something that will substantially 



340, 



Father of American Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Phariri. 
July, 1903. 



show to the people of this country the regard that we have for him 
as our common preceptor, and which may be to them an object les- 
son in that loftier patriotism that is even beyond the deeds of war- 
riors and statesmen — the preservation of the race. 

From some has come the objection that a monument in bronze 
does not comport with the unostentatious life of Wm. Procter. 
Granted ; but were that a precluding objection there would never 
have been a monument erected to the truly great, for this blessed 
condition is only attained by those who forget themselves in their 
work, and who are wise enough to not waste and dwarf their 
energy by display. The true heroes never work for the applause of 
the multitude, but 

"Bounded by themselves and un regardful 
In what state God's other works they see, 
In their own tasks all their powers pouring, 
These attain the mighty life we see." 

Under the circumstances the committee has done its best and has 
acted within its scope ; but I would now propose another plan, inde- 
pendent of the existing fund, previously known as the life-member- 
ship fund, and now by its advice to be named the Wm. Procter 
Fund. 

To perpetuate the name and fame of Wm. Procter, Jr., there 
should be erected at Washington, D. C, his statue in bronze on a 
granite base of appropriate design and embellishment, and in accord- 
ance and plan, for instance, with that erected to the memory of the 
late Prof. Saml. D. Gross, the American Surgeon, by the physicians 
of this country. Such an honor paid to one of national character 
and reputation should be located at the national capital, and there 
is no doubt but that a suitable site could be readily obtained on the 
Smithsonian grounds ; and it is even probable that the Government 
would desire to assist in this honor to one of her noble sons, and 
appropriate some portion of the expense. 

The real fund should be open to subscriptions from the pharma- 
cists of the country, in whatever amounts they may each wish to 
contribute, so that they may all feel that they have an interest in 
honoring one who has been a benefactor to the entire profession. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association, being the parent body 
and entirely responsible, should take the initiative and be the custo- 
dian of this Monument Fund, and they should invite the co-operation 



Am "ju°i"'i9o h 3 arm '} Investigations of the Tannins. 341 

of the various State Associations and whoever else that have an 
interest in pharmacy and wish to express it. 

The Maryland Pharmaceutical Association is already on record as 
favoring the monument and I feel that the other associations will be 
glad to act in harmony, and by this united and national action, 
comparatively small contributions will not only suffice, but each 
subscriber will feel his personal interest. 

This would be a substantial and lasting recognition of the Father 
of American Pharmacy, which could not have been expected from 
the recommendations of the Procter Memorial Committee, and its 
fulfilment will redound to the glory of the American pharmacists — 
who will erect this memorial — apart from any particular association 
or associations. 

Baltimore, June 12, 1903. 



SOME OF THE UNPUBLISHED RESULTS OF THE IN- 
VESTIGATIONS OF THE TANNINS BY THE LATE 
PROFESSOR HENRY TRIMBLE. 

By W. B. Ridknour. 

The work herewith recorded was carried on during the years 
1894-95 under the direction ot Professor Trimble. 

The hide-powder method of estimating the tannin was used 
exclusively. 

pinace^e. 



Tsuga Canadensis. — The materials for this work were collected 
at Wissahickon, Pa. 



Part. 


Date of 
Collection. 


Moisture. 


Ash on 

Dry Basis. 


Tannin on 
Dry Basis. 


Remat ks. 


Whole bark . 


May 28, "94. 


4578 


i'-5 * 


774 


Tree about 30 ft. high. 






4272 


r 4 6 


5*46 






July 18, '94. 


12-30 


2-15 


14-00 




Inner " 


Aug. 16. 


48-51 


322 


13*30 




Whole " 




8 63 


1-83 


19"93 






Sept. 16. 


8-87 


2-86 


n-66 


Very hard to peel. 




Oct. 16. 


10-52 


3-11 


"75 






Dec. 22. 


31-92 


2-17 


1042 




Inner " 


Feb. 23, '95. 


32 55 


265 


9'56 


Sap beginning to flow. 


Whole " 


March 30. 


383t 


i'93 


10-25 


Highland, Pa. 



342 Investigations of the Tannins. { Am ju O iy^l > 03 arm ' 

The separation and purification of the tannin was effected as 
follows : The ground dried bark was percolated with acetone ; the 
solvent recovered and the residue treated with water. The solution 
was filtered clear and shaken with acetic ether, and as this did not 
remove the tannin, the watery solution was saturated with salt and 
again shaken with successive portions of acetic ether. The acetic 
ether solution was distilled to dryness, the residue taken up with 
water, the solution filtered and evaporated to dryness under reduced 
pressure. This residue was then dissolved in a mixture of alcohol 
and ether, and the solution filtered and evaporated. This method 
of purification was repeated several times. The tannin was finally 
treated with absolute ether and dried at 120 C. It yielded the 
following results upon combustion : 

Per Cent. Oak Tannin. 

Carbon 60*57 5979 

Hydrogen , 5-38 5*08 

Oxygen ... . 34-05 35*13 

Pinus Echinata. — The materials for these estimations were col- 
lected at St. David's, Pa. 



Part. 


Date. 


Moisture. 


Ash on 
Dry Basis. 


Tannin on 
Dry Basis. 


Remarks. 


Whole bark . 


May 12, '94. 


5-88 


7-29 


8- 20 






June 17. 


8-41 




6-n 




Inner " 


July 27. 


9*3 


3*84 


9-87 




Whole " 


Aug. 28. 


66-43 


2-80 


io'66 






Oct. 3. 


8-52 


3-02 


5 '57 






Nov. 4. 


9-81 


279 


6*04 






Dec. 12. 


19-04 


2*06 


6-54 






Jan. 20, '95. 


8-92 


2-98 


7-905 






Feb. 25. 


7-22 


2-03 


770 


Sap beginning to flow. 



For the separation and purification of the tannin the following 
methods were applied : The dried bark was exhausted with acetone, 
the solvent recovered and the residue taken up in water and filtered. 
The clear solution was shaken with acetic ether, but this did not 
remove the tannin ; the watery solution was saturated with salt and 
again shaken with acetic ether, but still the tannin was not removed. 
The saturated watery solution was then shaken with acetone, which 
only removed a part of the tannin. The acetone solution was 



Atn j^i903 arm '} Investigations of the Tannins. 343 

evaporated, the residue taken up in water, and this clear solution 
shaken with ether. 

As this solvent did not remove anything, the watery solution was 
evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure ; the residue dis- 
solved in alcohol and ether, filtered and evaporated. This method 
of purification was repeated several times and finally gave the tan- 
nin in a puffed condition. 

This tannin was completely soluble in water, and the watery 
solution was tested with the following reagents: 



Reagent. 


Pinus Echinata. 


Quercus Robur. 


Gallotannic Acid. 


Copper sulphate and 


No. ppt. ' 


Ppt. 


No. ppt. 


Amnion, hydrate. 


Purplish-brown ppt. 


Red-brown ppt. 


Brown ppt. 


Pinewoodshavingand 
hydrochloric acid. 


Violet color with so; e 
green. 


Violet color. 


Slight green color. 


Ferric chloride and 


Green, turning yellow- 
ish brown and ppt. 


Bluish-green color 
and green ppt. 


Blue color and ppt. 


Amnion hydrate. 


Purple ppt. 


Purple-brown ppt. 


Purple ppt. 


Ammonio-ferric 
sulphate. 


Brownish-green color 
and ppt. 


Bluish-green color 
and green ppt. 


Blue color and ppt. 



JUGLANDACEZE. 

Hicoria Laciniosa. — This sample of bark was collected at St. 
David's, Pa., July 12, 1894, an d yielded on examination: Moisture, 
9-65 percent.; ash, on dry basis, 5-95 per cent.; tannin, on dry 
basis, 673 per cent. 

Torotee. — This sample was sent to Professor Trimble from New 
Mexico, June 30, 1894, a "d yielded : Moisture, 9-56 per cent.; ash, 
on dry basis, 9-28 per cent. ; tannin, on dry basis, 25-43 per cent. 

Eucalyptus gum from Australia, July 16, 1894, yielded: Moisture, 
I 7'5 3 P er cent.; ash, on dry basis, *I 2 per cent. ; tannin, on dry basis, 
20-6 1 per cent. 

The purified tannin from this sample of gum was submitted to 
ultimate organic analysis with the following results, these being 
the average of three estimations: Carbon, 56906 per cent.; hydro- 
gen, 4-148 per cent.; oxygen, 38 946 per cent. 

Notes on the acidity of the fruit of the sumachs, which is due to 
malic acid. 



344 



Current Notes for Future History. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1903. 



Species. 


Moisture. 


Acidity on 
Dry Basis. 


Date of 
Collection. 


Remarks. 


Rhus copallina . 


437i 


17-97 


July 13, '94. 


Blossom just before blooming. 


" typhina . 


25-68 


I3"43 




Berries well formed. 




n-17 


1312 


Aug. 16. 






8 92 




Sept. 16. 


Leaves not completely turned 
in color. 


" glabra . . 


35*46 


6'54 


July 13- 


Berries formed but not hair}'. 




1 1 '45 


8-70 


Aug. 16. 


Berries fully developed. 




9"59 


6-22 


Sept. 16. 


Leave's all turned. 



In estimating the tannin, difficulty was experienced in percolat- 
ing the infusion of the berries through the hide powder, the malic 
acid having the property to gelatinize the hide powder. It was 
found, by working with solutions of known strength ot malic acid, 
that r gramme of hide powder absorbed 0217 gramme of malic 
acid. 



SOME CURRENT NOTES FOR FUTURE HISTORY. 
By M. I. Wilbkrt. 

According to published reports, pharmaceutic history is being 
made at a very rapid rate at the present time. This history, as 
recorded in the daily papers, does not always reflect creditably on 
the pharmaceutical profession. It must be admitted, however, that 
at times the reports as published are so perverted that they have 
lost all semblance to the true facts of the case. 

Quite a humorous illustration of how news may be garbled was 
given by some of the Philadelphia papers a short time ago, when 
some of the members of a local association of retail druggists were 
discussing a plan to improve trade conditions ; this was promptly 
reported as a scheme for forming a gigantic million-dollar retail 
drug store trust, with the avowed object to compel the sick and 
unfortunate to pay untold profits into the coffers of the prospective 
trust magnates. 

Another flurry of rather a more serious nature was occasioned in 
New York City several months ago, when the daily papers devoted 
considerable space to reporting, and commenting on, the results of 
several series of investigations that had been made by the Board of 
Health of that city, with a view of inquiring into the probable 



Am j J u°iyS arm '} Current Notes for Future History. 345 

degree of adulteration or sophistication of drugs and medicinal 
preparations. 

Unfortunately for all concerned, the officials of the Board oi 
Health devoted their attention at first to investigating and report- 
ing on a patented chemical, one that is not official in the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, and one for which there are no generally 
known or easily applied tests to distinguish it from several other 
preparations of a similar nature. 

The report of the initial investigations ol the Board of Health 
had a tendency to discredit the motives that induced the inquiry; it 
has also had a tendency to vitiate the ultimate results that should 
have accrued: 

A second series of investigations by the same Board, with the 
object of demonstrating the widespread use of wood alcohol in phar- 
macopceial preparations, in place of the official grain alcohol, dis- 
closed a considerable amount of substitution, although it should be 
added that the use of wood alcohol appears to be confined entirely 
to preparations that were intended for external use. This aggres- 
sive action of the Board of Health of the City of New York appears 
to have stimulated other authoritative bodies in different parts of the 
country to make similar investigations. In many instances these 
investigations have occasioned more or less sensational reports to be 
made through the daily papers, though the majority of them have 
had only a local influence. 

One unfortunate outcome of this particular crusade has been the 
passing of a bill by the Legislature of the State of New York, mak- 
ing it a criminal offence for a druggist to substitute any preparation, 
other than the one intended by the physician, on any prescription 
or order. 

Fortunately, the wording of this bill was so ambiguous, and its 
provisions so difficult of execution, that the Governor of the State 
refused to affix his signature to the same. 

This is, of course, only one of a number of similar measures that 
will be introduced into the several State Legislatures in the near 
future. A recent editorial in the American Druggist (May 1 1, 1903), 
in commenting on this mischievous tendency of modern legislative 
bodies says : " One of the most distressing evils of our own time is 
the blundering and bungling legislator, the meddling and muddling 
law-maker who seeks to remedy real or imaginary social or political 



346 Current Notes for Future History, { Am -j° 1 u y r ; 1 f h 3 arnJ ' 

faults by measures inspired by his own ignorance and prejudice, or 
by the cupidity of persons who might be benefited by such laws." 
Unfortunately, the above statement is too true, and as a consequence 
we are suffering from an oversupply of what might be called restric- 
tive legislation. On the other hand, measures that are progressive 
in their tendency, and would result in ultimate good for the com- 
munity at large, are entirely ignored. As an illustration of this we 
may cite the bill that was introduced into the Pennsylvania State 
Legislature, with the object of making it compulsory for candidates 
for examination as registered pharmacists to be graduates of a recog- 
nized school of pharmacy. 

The Cocaine Habit. — The reported excessive use of cocaine has at- 
tracted the attention of law-makers in a number of States. Several 
of the State Legislatures have already adopted bills restricting the 
legitimate sale of this chemical, while in others similar measures are 
pending. 

The Governor of Pennsylvania has recently approved a bill that 
had been passed by the State Legislature, which provides: "That 
no person shall sell, furnish, or give away cocaine, or any patent or 
proprietary remedy containing cocaine, except on the written pre- 
scription of a registered physician, or of a dentist, or of a veterin- 
arian; nor shall any such prescription be refilled ; nor shall any 
physician, dentist or veterinarian prescribe cocaine or any patent or 
proprietary remedy containing cocaine, for any person known to 
such physician, dentist or veterinarian to be an habitual user of 
cocaine." 

" Provided that provisions of this act shall not apply to persons 
engaged in the wholesale drug trade, regularly selling cocaine to 
persons engaged in the retail drug trade." 

Persons violating any of the provisions of this act are to be sen- 
tenced to pay a fine of not more than £100, or to undergo an im- 
prisonment of not more than six months, or both, at the discretion 
of the court. 

The American Medical Association, at its fifty-fourth annual 
session held at New Orleans, May 5, 6, 7 and 8, 1903, transacted 
considerable business that is of more than passing interest to the 
pharmacist. Among other matters, the " Principles of Medical 
Ethics" that were endorsed at this session contain several sections 
that more or less directly involve the members of the pharmaceu- 
tical profession. The first of these is section 8, of article I, chapter 2: 



Am "j'S?ywo3. arm '} Current Notes for Future History. 347 

" It is equally derogatory to professional character for physicians 
to hold patents for any surgical instruments or medicines; to accept 
rebates on prescriptions or surgical appliances ; to assist unqualified 
persons to evade the legal restrictions governing the practice of 
medicine ; or to dispense or promote the use of secret medicines; 
for if such nostrums are of real efficacy any concealment regarding 
them is inconsistent with beneficence and professional liberality, and 
if mystery alone give them public notoriety, such craft implies either 
disgraceful ignorance or fraudulent avarice. It is highly reprehen- 
sible for physicians to give certificates attesting the efficacy of secret 
medicines or other substances used therapeutically." 

The other item is section 5 of chapter 3: 

" It is the duty of physicians to recognize and by legitimate 
patronage to promote the profession of pharmacy, on the skill and 
proficiency of which depends the reliability of remedies ; but any 
pharmacist who, although educated in his own profession, is not a 
qualified physician, and who assumes to prescribe for the sick, ought 
not to receive such countenance and support. Any druggist or 
pharmacist who dispenses deteriorated or sophisticated drugs, or 
who substitutes one remedy for another designated in a prescription, 
ought thereby to forfeit the recognition and influence of physicians." 

To these two sections every fair-minded pharmacist will cheerfully 
subscribe ; for, if lived up to on the part of the several members of 
the two professions, they would go far to eliminate many of the 
existing abuses, and also have a marked tendency of furthering and 
facilitating the demonstration of scientific truths, without which no 
real progress can be made. 

One other action of the American Medical Association that may 
contribute materially to promote the progress of medical science is 
the proposed admission of pharmacists as members of the section 
on Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 

The original amendment, as offered to the House of Delegates by 
the Business Committee, was for Pharmaceutic Associate Members, 
and read as follows : " Pharmacists who are recognized graduates of 
pharmaceutic schools or colleges and are members of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association may be admitted as associate members 
on recommendation of the officers of the section on Materia Medica, 
Pharmacy and Therapeutics, subject to approval by a majority of 
the members of the section." 



348 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am j J u °iyj^ arm - 

This amendment was subsequently referred back to the committee, 
and at a later meeting of the House of Delegates the following 
substitute was adopted : 

"Reputable pharmacists may be admitted as pharmaceutic mem- 
bers on recommendation of the officers of the section on Materia 
Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics, subject to approval by a 
majority vote of the members of the section, the names of such 
members to be sent to the secretary by the secretary of the section." 

The provisions for dental members of the section on Stomatology, 
adopted at the same time, require that the candidate have the degree 
of D.D.S. from some recognized school of dentistry, and also be a 
member in good standing of some recognized dental society. 

The section on Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics also 
adopted several resolutions that are of more or less interest to phar- 
macists. One of these, relating to the abuse of patent medicines, 
has one section that refers to medicines used by physicians. This is 
section 5 of the resolution, and reads: "That manufacturers be 
requested to print the scientific or chemical name under the trade 
name of all pharmaceutic or chemical preparations." 

In another set of resolutions, in which the metric system of 
weights and measures is endorsed, the section recommends the pro- 
posed international standard dropper and also the use of 5 c.c. as 
the equivalent of I teaspoonful and of 1 5 c.c. as the equivalent of 
I tablespoonful. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine. By 
Charles E. de M. Sajous, M.D. Volume I, with forty-two illustra- 
tions. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. 1903. 

The investigator busily occupied, as he usually is, in a more or 
less limited domain, is likely to lose si^ht of the relation of his work 
to that of his colaborers in other directions in the building up of 
fundamental principles of science. Fortunately, there always have 
been some men who have watched the progress of the various inves- 
tigators and co-ordinated these results into a system of principles. 
This work becomes more and more difficult as the number of inves- 
tigators increases and the field of operation widens. Dr. Sajous has 
been since 1888 closely following the development of the various 
branches of medical science, correlating the facts of investigators, 



Am -/u°iy ) ;-]9 P o3 arm -} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 349 

which he has published in the Annual of the Universal Medical 
Sciences," and in the " Analytical Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine." 
The results of these years of labor have given Dr. Sajous an insight 
into what may be considered the essential elements in the construc- 
tion of a more rational system of medicine, and while we may not be 
prepared to accept or reject Dr. Sajous' conclusions, his ability as a 
thinker and student entitle his views to the respect and considera- 
tion of men of science. To say the least, his theories are ingenious. 

The secretion of the adrenals was traced as far as the pulmonary 
alveoli, but not beyond. Here it was found to hold in combination 
the various constituents of haemoglobin, and to endow both the 
latter and the plasma with their affinity for oxygen. Prevailing 
views as to the chemistry of respiration were thus radically trans- 
formed, and our knowledge of the manner in which the blood-pig- 
ments were held together, likewise. This portion of the inquiry 
also revealed that, while haemoglobin absorbed its share of adrenal 
secretion and oxygen, the plasma did likewise. It thus became evi- 
dent that the red corpuscles were not only carriers of oxygen, and 
that the blood-plasma played an important part in the distribution 
of this gas. Indeed, he subsequently ascertained that the red cor- 
puscles were secondary factors in this important function, i.e., mere 
carriers, pack-mules, as it were, and that it was the oxygen-laden 
adrenal secretion dissolved in the plasma itself which carried on all 
the oxidation processes of the organism. 

The many physiological problems awaiting solution appear in 
quite a new light. The ease with which the oxygen carried by the 
plasma could penetrate the minute vascular net-works of all cellular 
elements not only furnished a clue to the physiological chemistry of 
the latter, but it also led to the discovery that various structures, 
the functions of which were unknown, were in reality blood- chan- 
nels, or rather plasma-channels. 

The functions of the other ductless glands were studied. Inves- 
tigations then showed that the adrenals were directly connected 
with the anterior pituitary body, and that this diminutive organ, 
hardly as large as a pea, and now thought to be practically function- 
less, proved to be the most important organ of the body, as govern- 
ing centre of the adrenals, and, therefore, of all oxidation processes. 
In general diseases what has been termed the patient's " vitality," 
or " vital resistance," thus became ascribable to fluctuations in the 



350 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
I July. 1903. 



anterior pituitary body's functional efficiency. The functional effi- 
ciency of this organ was found to be maintained through the thyroid 
gland. The thyroid gland, the anterior pituitary, and the adrenals 
were found to be functionally united : i. e., to form an autonomous 
system, which he terms the "adrenal system." 

Radical changes in prevailing doctrines as to the manner in which 
general infections, or other forms of poisoning, produced their effects 
on the organism thus seemed to impose themselves, and led to the 
conclusion that what was now considered as symptoms of infection 
or poisoning are all manifestations, more or less severe, of overactiv- 
ity or insufficiency of the adrenal system. Indeed, the physiological 
action of remedies was also traced to the anterior pituitary body, the 
governing centre of this system. 

The bearing of this discovery upon the prevailing interpretation 
of the pathogenesis and treatment of disease is well shown by the 
manner in which it at once elucidated our knowledge of even the 
greater scourges of humanity. The symptomatology of Asiatic 
cholera, for example, was found to be a counterpart of the symptom- 
complex of advanced adrenal insufficiency, and due to the effects of 
cholera-toxins upon the anterior pituitary body. The only treat- 
ment of any value whatever, as is well known, is early and active 
stimulation: i. e., the use of agents which, as does the thyroid's 
active principle, reawaken the functional activity of this organ. 
Cholera infantum, arsenic poisoning, various toxalbumins, and other 
intoxications produce identical symptoms ; all these proved likewise 
to be syndromes due primarily to adrenal insufficiency. 

Dr. Sajous seems to us to have shown that the adrenal system 
is the source of the secretion which, with the oxygen of the air, 
forms the oxidizing substance of the blood-plasma. It has also re- 
vealed the origin and mode of distribution of the bodies with which 
this oxygen directly or indirectly combines; i.e., peptones, myos- 
inogen, fibrinogen, haemoglobin, and myelin, to insure the continua- 
tion of life and the efficiency of all organic functions. Finally, it 
has suggested that in addition to these agencies, all leucocytes and, 
under certain circumstances, the plasma, contain a protective agency, 
trypsin, which, with MetchnikofFs phagocytic cells, serves to destroy 
micro-organisms and convert their toxins and other albuminoid 
poisons into harmless products. Considered jointly, these various 
factors seem to represent the aggregate of vital phenomena. 



JOHN MICHAEL MAISCH. 

From a photograph by Gutekunst. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



AUGUST, 1903. 



JOHN MICHAEL MAISCH, AN IDEAL PHARMACIST. 

By M. I. Wilbert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

There are but few active workers in pharmacy that do not know 
and honor the name of John Michael Maisch, the one-time professor 
of materia medica and botany in the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. So deeply impressed is his work on the everyday course of 
pharmaceutical progress in this country, that it is at times difficult 
to realize that his lips have been sealed and his pen has been stilled 
for nearly ten long years. Ten years constitute a period of time 
that is ample to indicate the value or worth of a life that has been 
lived ; a period of time sufficiently long to demonstrate and point 
out to us the strong points of a noble nature, and to spread the name 
and fame of the few able and willing workers who, during their 
active life, thought little of themselves, but were constantly striving 
to improve the condition of others. The same period of time, on 
the other hand, has been amply sufficient to obliterate all trace of 
thousands that insisted on living for themselves alone. 

In the annals of pharmacy, it would be difficult indeed to find a 
name that more nearly represents the ideal of what a pharmacist 
should strive to be, than does that of John M. Maisch. While there 
have been greater chemists whose early training was laid in the 
apothecary's shop, and while there have been more original and 
more thoroughly equipped botanists who at one time may have 
handled a mortar and pestle, there have been but few men connected 
with pharmacy that have had a more perfect knowledge of the facts 
that are needed in connection with a proper understanding of the 

(35i) 



352 



John Michael Maisch. 



/Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ August, 1903. 



great variety of substances that come together on the shelves of the 
pharmacist. 

Before going further, it may be well to consider what is necessary 
to constitute a good practical pharmacist. 

Beside a good foundation in the elements of an ordinary educa- 
tion, including a working knowledge of at least several languages 
besides his own, the practical pharmacist should be sufficiently pro- 
ficient in botany to recognize growing plants, by accepted methods 
of analysis. He should be an expert pharmacologist, at least 
thoroughly familiar with the appearance and properties of the ma- 
terials that are likely to be used in the practice of medicine in his 
own particular neighborhood. To do this he must be so thoroughly 
grounded in the principles of chemistry, that he would be able to 
apply them in a practical way, not only for testing the chemical sub- 
stances with which he comes in contact, for identity and purity, but 
he must also be able to do original work in the analysis and syn- 
thesis of compounds, or in the examination of organic substances for 
their proximate constituents. 

He should also be thoroughly familiar with the construction and 
use of the microscope, so that he can, and does, use it in connection 
with his investigations in the field of botany and chemistry. Then 
he must have such a practical knowledge of the possible application 
and uses of the different substances with which he comes in contact 
that he can give intelligent and practical information to such as 
choose to inquire as to their uses. 

In addition to these necessary rudiments that he should be well 
versed in, our practical pharmacist should have some knowledge 
of the various other subjects that are usually classed together as 
natural sciences, particularly zoology, geology and mineralogy. In 
addition to this necessary practical information he should be able 
to demonstrate that he has within himself the possibilities of doing 
original work, and of thinking for himself. And finally, to show 
that he has the interests of his fellowmen at heart, and has been 
able to raise his ambitions above the ordinary commercial tenden- 
cies of the times, he should be willing and able to impart his knowl- 
edge to others, so as to allow them to advance with, and if need be, 
to surpass him. To do this he must be able to write out his 
experiments and achievements in such a way that others may 
grasp his ideas and duplicate or perfect his discoveries. Such a man 



Am. Jour.Pliarru. \ 
August, 1903. J 



John Michael Maisch. 



353 



was John Michael Maisch. Who of the thousands that visited the 
historical exhibition that was held in Philadelphia in 1902, in con- 
nection with the semi-centennial celebration of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, was not impressed with the number and 
variety of the exhibits bearing his name. A simple enumeration of 
these different objects would emphasize the fact that here, indeed, 
had been a fair example of the practical pharmacist. Then there is 
the other criterion : as a man who has the welfare of his fellowmen 
at heart, a true pharmacist will communicate the results of his re- 
searches to others. Here again, John M. Maisch comes fully up to 
the requirements, his published essays number upwards of 400, and 
are of such # high ethical and scientific standard that they may well 
be considered a proper and a lasting monument of a life that was 
spent for the betterment of his fellowmen. 

Any one who will take even a casual survey of the number and 
variety of subjects that were inquired into, in these numerous papers, 
will naturally ask, What manner of man was John M. Maisch, and 
what phenomenal educational advantages did he enjoy, to bring him 
in contact with these numerous subjects, or to enable him to deal 
with them in the thorough and matter-of-fact way that immediately 
evidences the master ? 

Those who are interested in the more detailed accounts of his 
early history will find interesting material in the biographical 
sketches published in the Alumni Report of the P.C.P., by the edi- 
tor (Vol. XXX, 1893, p. 5), in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
by Prof. Joseph P. Remington (1894, p. 1), and in the proceedings 
of the Philosophical Society, by Dr. Charles S. Dolley (1894, p. 345). 
The object of the present sketch is more to collate and record his 
achievements and the recognitions that were awarded to him. It 
may be well, nevertheless, to incorporate an outline of his early life 
so as to show that he not only did not enjoy any phenomenal edu- 
cational advantages, but that he, in many respects, was sadly ham- 
pered and sorely disappointed, by the failure to realize his wish for 
a university training. 

John Michael Maisch, who, as is well known, died September 10, 
1893, was born in Hanau, Germany, on January 30, 1 83 1. After 
attending the elementary schools of his native city he was appren- 
ticed to one of the goldsmiths of Hanau, for which the city had been 
celebrated for a great number of years. This apprenticeship was of 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1903. 



John Michael Maisch. 



354 



short duration, however, lasting only a few days, as the boy, being 
only twelve years of age, was still required by law to attend school, 
and the necessary release, by the proper authorities, was not obtain- 




JOHN M. MAISCH 
at the age of 26, taken from an oil painting. 

able. Young Maisch then attended the higher schools of his city, 
and also received private instruction in French, Latin, chemistry 
and the natural sciences, from several of his teachers, who took a 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1903. j 



John Michael Maisch. 



355 



personal interest in him with a view of preparing him for a university 
course. 

The physical strength of the young man had been overestimated, 
however, and before he had finished his preliminary studies he was 
prostrated by a prolonged illness that brought all his hopes of a 
university training to an abrupt termination. 

The now seventeen-year-old boy, who had been brought in close 
contact with the higher ideas and ideals of the more progressive 
German scholars, was just in the proper frame of mind to be carried 
away by the agitation for personal rights that swept over the central 
part of Europe in 1848. It is not surprising therefore that we hear 
of him as having been arrested in a neighboring State for teaching 
and believing what was then considered a revolutionary doctrine — 
the necessity of a united fatherland with a constitutional govern- 
ment. 

Like many other progressive Germans who were years ahead of 
their times, John M. Maisch emigrated to America, where free insti- 
tutions such as his fancy had depicted already existed. 

Mr. Maisch arrived in the city of Baltimore in 1849, and not find- 
ing any more congenial occupation was employed in a box factory 
for several months. Later he made the acquaintance of a Dr. Wiss, 
who was about to open a drug store, and who saw in the compara- 
tively well-educated and studiously inclined young German the 
possibility of an able assistant. The store was opened in 1 850, and 
from this time we may date John M. Maisch's connection with 
pharmacy. 

This store, for some unknown reason, was sold a few months later, 
but young Maisch, seeing here a possibility for congenial occupation, 
continued in the drug business. 

From Baltimore he went to Washington, from there to Philadel- 
phia, and later to New York ; this period constituting practically 
a series of " Wander- Jahre " in his now chosen profession. 

That he was not idle during these years is evidenced by two silver 
medals, dated 1853, that were shown at the historical exhibition last 
year: one from the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the 
Mechanic Arts, Baltimore, and the other from the Metropolitan 
Mechanic Institute; both of these were awarded to John M. Maisch 
for an exhibition of a collection of chemicals of his own manufac- 
ture. In 1856 Mr. Maisch returned to Philadelphia, where he was 
subsequently employed in the store of Robert Shoemaker & Co. 



356 



John Michael Maisch. 



[ Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
I August, 1903. 



This constitutes practically the beginning of his active and serious 
career. In the same year he became a member of the American 

Philadelphia, October, 1859. 

SIR : — 

The undersigned takes this method to inform you that lie lias as- 
sumed the position of Superintendent of the practical department of 

PARRISH'S SCHOOL OF PHARMACY. 

It will be his endeavor to continue the course of instruction upon 
the same basis that has been pursued in this establishment here-, 
tofore, and he hopes thereby, to preserve the high reputation in 
"which it has been held during the ten years of its existence. 

The Pharmaceutical classes will consist of four students , the 
sessions will be held twice a week — one and a-half hour each.— 
The instructions will embrace all manipulations required in a phar- 
maceutical establishment, 

Besides the instruction in practical pharmacy, a 

Laboratory for Practical & Analytical Chemistry, 

designed in particular for the wants of pharmaceutists and physi- 
cians, will be opened. A limited number of students can be ac- 
commodated. 

The course of instruction in Practical Chemistry will embrace the 
preparation of elementary bodies and their compounds, researches 
on the properties, reactions, combinations and decompositions of 
the same, and the most approved modes for investigating their 
purity. 

In Analytical Chemistry, the preparation of the test liquids, the 
qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic, and of the more 
prominent organic compounds, and the analysis by means of the 
blow pipe, will be taught. Instruction will also be given in the 
proximate analysis of crude vegetable bodies, to which the particu- 
lar attention of medical and pharmaceutical students is visited. 

For students sufficiently advanced, it is the intention to pursue 
a practical course of toxicological analysis, for which purpose the 
various organs and secretions of poisoned animals, as well as food, 
which has been intentionally poisoned, will be subjected to quali- 
tative, and as far as possible, also to quantitative analysis. 

The Chemical Laboratory will be open every day during the 
week, Saturdays excepted, from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. A convenient 
hour will be set apart on each Saturday for examination, and to 
review and discuss the labors of the preceeding week. 
Teems — For a quarterly course, in practical pharmacy, $10 00 
Including the Lectures of Mr. Edward Parrish, 15 00 

For Practical or analytical chemistry per month, 25 00 
^The use of apparatus, tests, &c, included.) 

Applications for instructions, or for further particulars, may be 
made at Mr. Parrish's Lectures, in College Avenue, on Wednesday 
and Saturday mornings between 8 and 9 o'clock, or at the Lab- 
oratory, 800 Arch Street. 

J. M. MAISCH. 

Leaflet Announcing J. M. Maisch's First Work as a Teacher. 

Pharmaceutical Association, and three years later he joined the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

An interesting anecdote, illustrating the studious habits of the 



Aa ASus r ;,X m "} John Michael Maisch. 357 

young pharmacist, was at one time told by Mr. Shoemaker (P.C.P. 
Alumni Report, Vol. XXX, p. 7). 

Some time after being employed by Robert Shoemaker & Co., 
Mr. Maisch was taken quite ill and went home. His employer, 
who took more than an ordinary interest in the young man, called 
several days later to inquire how he was progressing. He found 
him, still sick, propped up in bed, with a book on his lap and a table 
with retorts, test tubes and other chemical appliances alongside, car- 
rying on chemical experiments. This anecdote also illustrates the 
indomitable spirit and the ceaseless activity that permeated his 
whole subsequent career. 

A man with the scientific turn of mind possessed by young Maisch 
would naturally grasp at an opportunity to develop himself along 
lines of original research and the practical application ot his knowl- 
edge. It is not surprising, therefore, that when Edward Parrish 
offered young Maisch the opportunity of superintending the practi- 
cal instruction in his school of pharmacy, it was eagerly seized. 

A reproduction of the small leaflet, published at the time, to 
advertise the new arrangement will be found on opposite page. 

This advertisement represents, too, his first appearance as a 
teacher of pharmacy, an occupation which he continued in almost 
uninterruptedly to the time of his death. 

In 1 86 1 he was offered, and accepted, the chair of materia medica 
and pharmacy in the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York. 
His time here not being fully occupied, he was fortunate enough to 
connect himself with the manufacturing establishment of Dr. E. R. 
Squibb, and thus found an opportunity of cultivating a personal 
acquaintance and friendship that was not alone lasting, but was also 
of practical advantage to him. 

It was on the personal recommendation of Dr. Squibb that Pro- 
fessor Maisch, in 1863, was appointed Superintendent of the Army 
Medical Laboratory, about being established in Philadelphia. 

The story of this laboratory, the kind and amount of work that 
was done in it, and the political as well as commercial objections 
that were raised to it, would make interesting reading at the present 
time. Some insight into its history may be had from opinions and 
accounts published in the American Journal of Pharmacy during 
the latter years of the Civil War; also from a statistical account of 
the work done, given in a paper by Professor Maisch, read before 



358 John Michael Maisch. { Al AuJusi, ^9 ^ m * 

the American Pharmaceutical Society in 1866. From this latter 
paper it appears that the aggregate value of the products amounted 
to several million dollars, while the net profits resulted in a saving 
to the United States Government of more than $750,000. 

We must go back here a few moments to outline the connection 
of John M. Maisch with the Philadelphia College and the American 
Journal of Pharmacy. His contributions to the Journal com- 
menced in 1854 and continued uninterruptedly to the time of his 
death, a period of forty years, during which time by far the greater 
number of his original essays were published in its pages. 




U. S. Army Laboratory, Philadelphia. 

As noted before, he became a member of the College in 1859, and 
took an active part in the work of the institution from that time. 
He was elected to the Board of Trustees in 1 860 and to the Publica- 
tion Committee in 1861. 

When, in the latter part of that year, J 861, he went as professor 
to the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, he offered his 
resignation to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. This was not 
accepted, however. The secretary, pro tent., at that time, Mr. Wm. 
C. Bakes, was instructed to notify Professor Maisch that his resig- 



Am iuSJ 9 h o!!; m '} John Michael Maisch. 359 

nation had been laid on the table, and that the annual dues con- 
nected with active membership had, on motion, been remitted for 
the time. On his return from New York, and while engaged at the 
Army Laboratory, Professor Maisch again entered actively in the 
work of the Philadelphia College. 

After the close of the Civil War, the Army Medical Laboratory in 
Philadelphia was discontinued. Professor Maisch then opened a 
store at 1607 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia. In the same year, 1866, 
he was elected to succeed Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., in the chair of 
pharmacy in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. In the follow- 
ing year, 1867, with the sanction of the Board of Trustees, he 
exchanged chairs with Prof. Edward Parrish, who was teaching 
materia medica at that time. This latter branch was subsequently 
enlarged so as to include botany. 

In this field, as professor ofjnateria medica and botany, Professor 
Maisch continued for twenty-six years, striving earnestly to incul- 
cate such rudiments of the science as would be most practical to the 
prospective pharmacists. How successful he was is best evidenced 
by the hundreds of his former students who have courted success by 
putting the knowledge obtained from him to practical uses. 

When, in 1870, the Alumni Association decided to open the 
laboratory of practical chemistry and pharmacy, Professor Maisch 
was selected as the proper person to inaugurate the new laboratory 
and to direct it. The difficulties which he had to overcome in this 
direction are indicated in his report to the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association in 1872. (Eighth Annual Alumni Report.) 

When Professor Procter decided that the American Journal of 
Pharmacy should be published more frequently, and that his advanc- 
ing years necessitated his retirement from the active direction of the 
editorial management, he nominated as his logical successor the 
occupant of the chair of materia medica and pharmacy. 

This position, as editor of what was now a monthly publication, 
Professor Maisch filled for twenty-two years, to the satisfaction of 
officers of the college and to the material advantage of the contribu- 
tors as well as subscribers of the Journal. 

As noted before, Professor Maisch as a young man had joined the 
American Pharmaceutical Association in 1856. He was quite a 
regular attendant at the meetings and a liberal contributor to the 
proceedings. He was elected corresponding secretary at the Phila- 



360 John Michael Maisch. { Am ^|usi P im m ' 

delphia meeting in 1862, first vice-president at Baltimore in 1863, 
and in 1865, when he attended the meeting at Boston as one of the 
delegates of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, he was elected 
permanent secretary, which position he filled uninterruptedly to the 
time of his death, never missing a meeting until 1893, when failing 
health prevented his attendance. 

His services for the American Pharmaceutical Association are 
amply evidenced in the twenty-seven volumes of the proceedings 
that were published under his direct supervision, and to which he 
not only contributed a large number of original articles and the 
regular and very complete annual reports of the permanent secre- 
tary, but his name also appears more frequently than any other 
among those that took an active part in the discussions of the vari- 
ous papers. 

When, in 1870, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy elected 
delegates to the decennial convention for the revision of the Phar- 
macopoeia, John M. Maisch, with Wm. Procter, Jr., and Alfred B. 
Taylor, were selected to represent the College. John M. Maisch 
and Alfred B. Taylor were subsequently elected to serve on the 
revision committee, Professor Maisch serving through three decen- 
nial revisions. 

This then brings us up to the period of his most active work. A 
review of the number of official occupations will give us a fair idea 
of the amount and variety of work he was able to accomplish regu- 
larly and uninterruptedly for more than twenty years. 

We should, however, mention that again in 1870, at the sugges- 
tion of Professor Maisch, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
decided to reinaugurate the system of monthly pharmaceutical 
meetings that had been allowed to lapse during the exciting days of 
the Civil War. These meetings were under the special patronage 
of Professor Maisch, who was a regular attendant, a liberal contribu- 
tor and, what is more, was always on the outlook for new and orig- 
inal material from various sources. 

In addition to the work in connection with these meetings, then, 
it will be remembered that Professor Maisch, during the same 
period, occupied the chair of materia medica and botany in the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy; was editor and a liberal contribu- 
tor to the American Journal of Pharmacy; was a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy; was 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
August, 1903. / 



Jo hi Michael Maisch. 



361 



permanent secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
and a member of the Pharmacopceial Revision Committee. 

In addition to these occupations, John M. Maisch took an active 
interest in the work of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia, and also of the German Society, and in later years in the pro- 
ceedings of the Philosophical Society. 

In 1878 he was instrumental in founding the Pennsylvania State 
Pharmaceutical Association, in the annual meetings of which he 
always took an active interest, being a regular attendant and a fre- 
quent contributor to the proceedings. He, however, persistently 
refused to accept any office. 

In addition to the numerous contributions to contemporary jour- 
nal literature, Professor Maisch, in i860, edited and revised a trans- 
lation of Rochleder's Proximate Analysis of Plants and Vegetable 
Substances. This first appeared in serial form in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy in 1 861-62, and was later issued as a sepa- 
rate volume, sold by Charles Ellis & Son. (See review, A. J. P., 
1862, p. 492.) In 1874 ne edited and revised Griffith's Universal 
Formulary, the resulting volume being an octavo of about 500 pages, 
containing more than 5,000 formulas. 

The first edition of the National Dispensatory appeared in 1879, 
followed in six months by the second. The third appeared in 1884, the 
fourth in 1887, the fifth in 1888, and the sixth, to which he had also 
contributed many corrections, in 1893, only a few months after his 
death. 

The first edition of his Organic Materia Medica appeared in 1882, 
the second in 1885, the third in 1887, the fourth in 1 890, the fifth 
in 1892, while a sixth, edited by his son, appeared in 1895. These 
last two works are so well and so favorably known that it will not 
be necessary to describe them, or even to refer to the huge amount 
of work that books of this kind usually represent. 

The argument that working under such high pressure would 
have a tendency to shorten his life never appealed to Professor 
Maisch as a reason for relinquishing or even shirking any of the 
duties that fell to his lot. He gave to everything that his name was 
connected with his personal attention. It mattered little what the 
work at hand was, whether it was the writing or revision of a book 
or essay, the editing of the Journal, the work in connection with the 
office of permanent secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 



362 



John Michael Maisch. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1903. 



ciation, or as a member of a special or standing committee, he always 
managed to give the necessary work close and personal attention. 

It would be surprising, indeed, if as a result of the gigantic 
amount of original work which he was able to accomplish, and did 
accomplish, he should not receive some material recognition of its 
value. That this recognition was meted out to him is evidenced by 
the list of honorary memberships in pharmaceutical or in scientific 
societies that is appended. 

The one recognition that must have pleased Professor Maisch 
greatly, and the one that came as a fitting close to his eventful and 
active life, was the presentation of the Hanbury gold medal for 
original research in the natural history and chemistry of drugs. 

This tribute, coming as it did on what was practically the eve of 
his death, has to us a particularly pathetic interest. It was 
brought to this country by Mr. Michael Carteighe, the then Presi- 
dent of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, who had 
expected to present the same to Professor Maisch at the annual 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association at Chicago, in 
1893. The letter accompanying the medal, a reproduction of which 
is appended, fully explains the origin and significance of this award. 
The earlier recipients of the medal were : Fliickiger, Dragendorff, 
John Elliot Howard, Dymock, Planchon and Hesse. This was 
the first, and so far the only, time it had been awarded to an 
American. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 
17 Bloomsbury Square. 

London, August 3, 1893. 

Prof. John. M. Maisch. 

Dear Sir:— I have the pleasure to inform you that the adjudicators appointed 
under the deed of settlement of the Hanbury Memorial Fund have awarded 
the Gold Medal to you. 

The fund, as you may be aware, was raised to establish a memorial to Daniel 
Hanbury, the memorial taking the form of a gold medal, which is awarded 
biennially for the prosecution or promotion of research in the chemistry and 
natural history of drugs. 

The adjudicators of this award to you are the President of the Linnean 
Society, President of the Chemical Society, the President of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, the President of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, and Mr. 
Francis Ransom, a pharmaceutical chemist who was, prior to the award, nomi- 
nated by the last named two presidents. 

I am, yours faithfully, 

Richard Bremridge, Secretary. 



Am. Jour. Fharm. 
August. 1903. 




John Michael Maisch. 
J)bartnarnttical ^(fcictv pi (great ^rtfttitt. 

17.SZO OMSH UR Y S QUAKE. Z OJVZ) ON. ^ c 



0^ <f -^W^^- dCestCtdL^' ur>&*^&> 




/ 





Letter from the Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

The appended synopsis of the accomplishments of, and the recog- 
nitions that were awarded to, the late Professor Maisch have been 
added to facilitate a review of the really wonderful amount and 
variety of lasting work that he was enabled to accomplish in addi- 
tion to the everyday, and ofttimes irksome, duties of a teacher. 
Probably no one that did not come in close contact with Professor 
Maisch personally can ever appreciate the continued and painstaking 
care with which he followed each detail of a subject that he was 
interested in. Those who came in contact with him at the meetings 



3^4 



John Michael Maisch. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August. 1903. 



of the American, or Pennsylvania State, Pharmaceutical Association 
will remember how he was always willing to accord credit to anyone 
that had recorded or observed a new fact, and also how mercilessly 
he exposed any attempt at plagiarism. 

The appended list of papers it was thought might be an incentive 
for others to either follow along the same lines, or at least take up 
and elaborate on some of the subjects that are here mentioned or 
partially developed. 

Many of the included papers are, even to-day, of great practical 
interest, while all of them bear witness to an earnest attempt to 
discover and disseminate scientific truths. As a whole, they consti- 




Obverse and Reverse of Hanbury Medal. 

tute a monument to the industry and ability of an earnest and inde- 
fatigable worker, who, without exceptional educational advantages, 
without rare gifts of genius, and hampered with a marked accent 
that indicated his foreign birth, strove honestly and earnestly to 
cultivate and improve that portion of the field that was apportioned 
to hjm. 

A Synopsis of the Achievements and a List of the Recognitions 
Awarded to John Michael Maisch. 

Member of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1856. 
Member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1859. 
Member of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, 
1 86 1. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
August, 1903. J 



John Michael Maisch. 



365 



Member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1863. 
Member of the American Chemical Society, 1876. 
Member of the Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Association, 
1878. 

Member of the Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, 1879. 
Member of the American Philosophical Society, 1884. 
Member of the American Academy of Political and Social Sci- 
ences, 1892. 

OFFICIAL POSITIONS. 

Superintendent of the practical department of Parrish's School of 
Pharmacy, 1859-61. 

Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in the College of 
Pharmacy of the City of New York, 1861-63. 

Superintendent of the United States Army Laboratory, Philadel- 
phia, 1863-66. 

Professor of Pharmacy in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
1866-67. 

Professor ot Materia Medica and Botany in the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, 1867-93. 

Permanent Secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, 1865-93. 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871-93. 
Author, with Alfred Stille, M.D., LL.D., of the National Dispen- 
satory, five editions, 1879-93. 

Author of Organic Materia Medica, 5 editions, 1882-92. 

A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL PAPERS CONTRIBUTED BY PROF. JOHN M. 
MAISCH TO PHARMACEUTICAL LITERATURE. 

I854— 

On the Adulteration of Drugs and Chemical Preparations. A. J. P. 

On the Changes to Which Liquor Ferri Iodidi is Subject and its 
Restoration. A. J. P. 
1855- 

On the Incompatibility of Sulphate of Quinia with the Acetates. 
A. J. P. 

Examination of Bitartrate of Potassa. A. J. P. 
Effects of Sunlight on the Syrup of Iodide of Iron. A, J. P. 
Translation of M. Strecker's Paper on Quinine. A. J. P. 
Contributions to Toxicology. A. J. P. 



366 



John Michael Maisch. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1903. 



I856 

On Convenient Modes of Administering Cod-liver Oil. A. J. P. 
On the Relations of Physicians and Pharmaceutists. A. J. P. 
Contributions to Toxicology (three articles). A. J. P. 
On an Expeditious Mode of Making Mercurial Ointment. A. J. P. 
On Solution of Gutta Percha. A. J. P. 

On Sulphate of Quinia and Carbonate of Ammonia in Pills. 
A. J. P. 

On Wine of Colchicum Seed. A. J. P. 

On Effervescing Powders. Proc. A. Ph. A. (A. J. P., 1857.) 
1857— 

On Protiodide of Mercury. A. J. P. 

Solubility of Iodides in Syrupus Ferri Iodidi. A. J. P. 

On Fluid Extract of Arnica. A. J. P. 

On Fluid Extract of Uva Ursi. A. J. P. 

On the Detection of a New Falsification of Oil of Almonds. 
A. J. P. 

On the Use of Indigenous Plants. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
American Eclectic Resinoids. Buch. Rept. f. Phar., Vol. VI. 
1858 — 

Remarks on Some Pharmaceutical Preparations. A. J. P. 

On Diluted Acetic Acid. A. J. P. 

On the Preservation of Drugs from Insects. A. J. P. 

Note on Syrup of Hypophosphites. A, J. P. 

On the Decomposition of Quinia by the Acetates. A. J. P. 

Effervescing Powders. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

On the Detection of Adulterations of Volatile Oils. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
On the Sale of Poisons in the United States. Buch. Rept. f. 
Phar., Vol. VII. 

On Fluid Extracts in the United States. Buch. Rept. f. Phar., 
Vol. VII. 
1859- 

On Extractum Ferri Pomatum. A. J. P. 
On the Preservation of Fluid Extracts. A. J. P. 
On the New System of German Weights. A. J. P. 
On the Proper Menstruum for Fluid Extracts. A. J. P. 
Notes on Fluid Extract of Buchu, Cimicifuga, Serpentaria and 
Valerian. A. J. P. 

On the Solubility of Phosphate of Iron. A. J. P. 



Am iSsMm r1 *'} John Michael Maisch. 367 

On a New Mode of Preparing some Syrups. A. J. P. 
The Behavior of Essential Oils to Iodine and Bromine. Proc. 
A. Ph. A. 

Manufacturing Pharmacy in the United States. Buch. Rept. f. 
Phar., Vol. XVIII. 
i860— 

Examination of Oil of Peppermint. A. J. P. 
On some Preparations of Calamus Root. A. J. P. 
Gleanings from German Journals (three articles). A. J. P. 
Alumen Exsiccatum. A. J. P. 

Analysis of Commercial Glacial Phosphoric Acid. A. J. P. 
Note on Benzoic Acid and some Benzoates. A. J. P. 
On the Detection of Croton Oil in Mixtures. A. J. P. 
Analysis of Milk. A. J. P. 
Chemical Notes. A. J. P. 

Alumen Ustum. Buch. Rept. f. Phar., Vol. IX. 
Pharmacy in the United States. Buch. Rept. f. Phar., Vol. IX. 
On Narcotic Fluid Extracts. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
Hydrobromic Acid. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1861 — 

On Chelidonium Majus. A. J. P. 
On the Adulteration of Carmine. A. J. P. 
On Commercial Iron by Hydrogen. A. J. P. 
On the Importation of Mineral Waters. A. J. P. 
Analysis of the Chalybeate Waters of Sharon Springs, N. Y. 
A. J. P. 

On Anacahuite Wood. A. J. P. 

On the Tincture and Ferrated Tincture of Bark. A. J. P. 
On the Origin of Bay Rum. A. J. P. 
On the Volatile Oil of Myrcia Acris. A. J. P. 
On the Ferrated Tincture of Cinchona. A. J. P. 
On the Conversion of Monohydrated into Common Phosphoric 
Acid. A. J. P. 

Gleanings from the German Journals (four articles). A. J. P. 
Chemical Examination of Coca Leaves. A. J. P. 
Report of the Committee on Botany. A. J. P. 
On the Mineral Water Trade in the United States. Buch. Rept. 
f. Phar., Vol. X. 

On the Medicinal Flora of the Vicinity of Philadelphia. Buch. 
Rept. f. Phar., Vol. X. 



368 



John Michael Maisch. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1903. 



I 862— 

Gleanings from the German Journals (two articles). A. J. P. 

On Commercial Belladonna Leaves. A. J. P. 

Report of Committee on Herbarium. A. J. P. 

Report of Committee on Progress of Pharmacy. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

On the Standing of the Pharmacist in the United States Army. 
Buch. Rept. f. Phar., Vol. XI. 

On Snake-Bite Remedies in the United States. Buch. Rept. f. 
Phar., Vol. XI. 
1863— 

On Copaiba Pills. A. J. P. 

Gleanings from the German Journals. A. J. P. 

Note on the Alkaloids of Menispermum Canadense. A. J. P. 

Note on Podophyllum. A. J. P. 

On the Solution of Tartaric Acid. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1864— 

Practical and Scientific Notes. A. J. P. 
On Impurities and Adulterations. A. J. P. 
Gleanings from the German Journals. A. J. P. 
On the Contamination of American Sulphuric Acid with Arsenic. 
A.J. P. 

On the Assay of French Brandy and Whiskey. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

On the Quality of the Sherry Wine of our Commerce and its 
Assay. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

On Some Medicinal Spirits. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

Report on Drug Market. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1865— 

On the Preparation of Heavy Oil of Wine. A. J. P. 

On the Active Principle of Rhus Toxicodendron. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
(A. J. P., 1866). 
1866— 

Assays of Sherry Wine. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
Examination of Whiskey and Brandy. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
Specific Gravity of Medicinal Chloroform. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
(A. J. P., 1867). 

Statistics of the U. S. A. Laboratory at Philadelphia. Proc. 
A. Ph. A. 
1867— 

On Liquor Magnesias Citratis. A. J. P. 



Am. Jour. Phariu.) 
August, 1903. J 



John Michael MaiscJi. 



369 



On Liquor Ferri Acetatis. A. J. P. 
On Colchicia. A. J. P. 

On Tests for the Purity of Glycerin. A. J. P. 

On Carelessness in the Collection of Drugs. A. J. P. 

Note on Cheap Glycerin. A. J. P, 

Gleanings from the German Journals (two articles). A. J. P. 
On a Permanent Solution of Pyrophosphates of Soda and Iron. 
A. J. P. 

Review of the Pharmacopoeia Helvetica (three articles). A.J. P. 
1868- 

Gleanings from the German Journals (three articles). A. J. P. 

On Chloroform. A. J. P. 

Note to Editor on False Jalap. A. J. P. 

Milky Juice of Lactuca Elongata. Muhl. Proc. A. Ph. A. (A. 
J. P., 1869.) 
1869— 

Gleanings from the German Journals (four articles). A. J. P. 
On some Panama Drugs. A. J. P. 

On the Nomenclature and Definitions of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia. A. J. P. 

Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report 

Lycopodium Clavatum. Proc. A. Ph. A. (A. J. P., 1870.) 

Preparations from Lactuca Canadensis Lin. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1870— 

On the Weeds of the Western Peppermint Plantations. A. J. P. 
Gleanings from the German Journals (three articles). A.J. P. 
On Pharmaceutical Legislation. A. J. P. 
Solubility of Glue in Glycerin. A. J. P. 
1871 — 

Decomposition of Acetate of Morphia in Aqueous Solutions. 
A. J. P. 

Detection of Turmeric in Powdered Rhubarb and Mustard. A.J.P. 

Ferrated Elixir of Cinchona. A. J. P. 

Gleanings from Foreign Journals. A. J. P. 

Gleanings from German Journals (four articles). A. J. P. 

Fluid Extract of Chestnut Leaves. A. J. P. 

Note on Amylo-Nitrous Ether. A. J. P. 

Note on Hydrocyanate of Morphia. A. J. P. 

Note on some Pill Masses. A. J. P. 



370 



John Michael Maisch. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1903. 



Precipitation of Quinia by Iodide of Potassium. A. J. P. 
Seeds of two Species of Strychnos. A. J. P. 
Solutions of Alkaloids in Medicated Waters. A. J. P. 
Syrupus Asafcetida. A. J. P. 

African Saffron. Proc. A. Ph. A. (A. J. P., 1872.) 
1872— 

Gleanings from the European Journals (twelve articles). A. J. P. 

Loss of the Herbaceous Parts of Plants in Drying. A. J. P. 

Monobromated Camphor. A. J. P. 

On an Asserted Specific for Ague. A. J. P. 

On some Pectoral Powders of European Pharmacy. A. J. P. 

On the Botanical Origin of the Root of Cypripedium. A. J. P. 

Pharmacognostical Notes. A. J. P. 

Use of Petroleum Benzine in making Oleoresins. A. J. P. 

Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 

Report of the Superintendent of the Laboratory. P. C. P. 
Alumni Report. 

Chinese Blistering Bugs. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

Sneezeweed. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1873— 

Chloride of Mercurethyl. A. J. P. 

Impurities among Rhizomes of Cypripedium. A. J. P. 

Levico Mineral Water. A. J. P. 

Gleanings from European Journals (twelve articles). A. J. P. 
Medicinal Use of Green Soap. A. J. P. 
Remarks on Elixirs. A. J. P. 

Selected Formulas from the Pharm. Germ, (five articles). A. J. P. 
Spirit of Nitrous Ether as a Supposed Test for some Alkaloids. 
A. J. P. 

Assay of Preparations of Cantharides. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
Reaction of Chloral Hydrate. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
Time of Collecting Biennial Plants. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1874— 

Balsams, Liquidambar Styraciflua and Orientale. A. J. P. 
Gleanings from European Journals (nine articles). A. J. P. 
Notes on some North American Plants. A. J. P. 
Occurrence of Arbutin in some Ericaceous Plants. A. J. P. 
Pharmacognostical and Chemical Notes. A. J. P. 



AE iu J g°ust , jS) a 3y m '} John Michael Maisch. 37 1 

Remarks on Resin of Podophyllum. A. J. P. 
Introductory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
1875— 

Constituents and Properties of Potentilla. A. J. P. 
Gleanings from European Journals (nine articles). A. J. P. 
Medicated Waters. A. J. P. 
Note on Tinctura Opii Muriatica. A. J. P. 
Remarks on Cinchoquinine. A. J. P. 
Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
Matico. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1876— 

Asserted Presence of Tannin in Gentian. A. J. P. 
Fucus Vesiculosus and Some Allied Species. A. J. P. 
Gleanings from the Foreign Journals (eleven articles). A. J. P. 
Notes on the Genus Teucrium. A. J. P. 

Notes on the International Exhibition (four articles). A. J. P. 

Notes on the Quinine Flower. A. J. P. 

Remarks on Cinchoquinine. A. J. P. 

Remarks on Extract of Jalap. A. J. P. 

Use of Metrical Weights in Prescriptions. A. J. P. 

1877— 

Detection of Castor Oil in Copaiba. A. J. P. 
Examination of a Cure for Love of Liquor. A. J. P. 
Formulas and Preparations of New Medicaments (three articles). 
A. J. P. 

Gleanings from Foreign Journals (eight articles). A. J. P. 
Note on Dialysed Iron. A. J. P. 
Note on Xanthium Spinosum. A. J. P. 
Note on the Permanent Exhibition. A. J. P. 
The Metrical System in Prescriptions. A. J. P. 
The Strength of Tinctura Opii. A. J. P. 
Introductory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
1878— 

Aspidium Marginale. A. J. P. 

Berberis of the Pacific Coast. A. J. P. 

Gleanings from Foreign Journals (six articles). A. J. P. 

Notes on a few American Drugs. A. J. P. 

Useful Species of Viburnum. A J. P. 

Valedictory Address. P. C. P Alumni Repoft. 



372 



John Michael Maisch. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Puarm. 
August, 1903. 



IS/9— 

Artificial Fruit Essences. A. J. P. 
Poisonous Species of Astragalus. A. J. P. 
Sulphocarbolate of Potassium. A. J. P. 
Supposed Alkaloids of Podophyllum. A. J. P. 



1880— 



Note on Some American Species of Artemesia. 
Presence of Tannin in Gentian. A. J. P. 
Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 



A. J. P. 



1881 — 



Compound Spirit of Cinnamon. A. J. P. 
Dose of Extractum Physostigmatis. A. J. P. 
Georgia Bark. A. J. P. 

Manufacture of Quinia in the United States. A. J. P. 
Oleum Betula Empyreumaticum. A. J. P. 
Gleanings in Materia Medica (four articles). A. J. P. 
Origin of False Senega. A. J. P. 
Orthography of the Metric Units. A. J. P. 
Poisonous Principle of Anacardium. A. J. P. 
Practical Notes from Foreign Journals (four articles) A. J. P. 
Stearopten of Buchu Leaves. A. J. P. 
Tinctura Rusci. A. J. P. 
Xanthorrhcea Resins. A. J. P. 
Introductory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
1882— 

Gleanings in Materia Medica (ten articles). A. J. P. 
Practical Notes from Various Sources (ten articles). A. J. P. 
Preparation of Mercurial Ointment. A. J. P. 
Syrupus Ferri Protochloridi. A. J. P. 
Chia and Allied Species of Salvia. A. J. P. 
Useful American Myrtles. A. J. P. 
Introductory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Reporc. 
1883— 

Comparison of Galenical Preparations (six articles). A. J. P. 
Galenical Preparations of the German Pharmacopoeia (four 
articles). A. J. P. 

Practical Notes from Various Sources (six articles). A. J. P. 
Relative Strength of Certain Preparations. A. J. P. 
Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1903. J 



John Michael Maisch. 



373 



1884— 

Chemical and Pharmacognostical Notes. A. J. P. 
Laboratory Notes — Abstracts from Theses (two articles). A.J. P. 
Notes on Researches on Capillarity. A. J. P. 
Practical Notes. A. J. P. 
1885 — 

Gleanings in Materia Medica (eight articles). A. J. P. 
Materia Medica of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia (eight articles). 
A. J. P. 

Pharmaceutical Preparations of the Mexican Pharmacopoeia (four 
articles). A. J. P. 

Practical Notes (two articles). A. J. P. 

Commercial Spanish Saffron. A. J. P. 

Indigenous Species of Croton. A. J. P. 

Useful Plants of the Verbenaceae. A. J. P. 

Introductory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 

Purity of Commercial Spanish Saffron. Proc. A. Ph. A. 
1886— 

Commercial Sulphate of Quinia. A. J. P. 
Gleanings in Materia Medica (six articles). A. J. P. 
Materia Medica of the New Mexican Pharmacopoeia (four articles). 
A. J. P. 

Note on Yerba and Raiz del Indio. A. J. P. 
Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report, 
Report on Legislation. Proc. A. Ph. A. 

Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg as a Botanist. Hoffman's 
Phar. Rund. 
1887— 

Chemical Notes from Theses. A. J. P. 

Gleanings in Materia Medica (six articles). A. J. P. 

Jalap Resin and Jalapin. A. J. P. 

Practical Notes from Various Sources (six articles). A. J. P. 
Remarks on a Cancer Cure. A. J. P. 
1888— 

Blue Coloring Matter in Flowers. A. J. P. 
Gleanings in Materia Medica. A. J. P. 
Notes on Some New Remedies. A. J. P. 
Practical Notes from Foreign Journals. A. J. P. 
Notes on Some Old Remedies. A. J. P. 
The Genus Luffa. A. ]. P. 



374 



John Michael Maisch. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1903. 



I889— 

Note on Andromedotoxin in Ericaceae. A. J. P. 
Note on Filicic Acid. A. J. P. 
Note on Use of Magnolia Leaves. A. J. P. 
Notes on Some Indigenous Remedies. A. J. P. 
On Soluble Gum Tragacanth. A. J. P. 
Origin of False Senega Root. A. J. P. 
Preparations of Mustard for Internal Use. A. J. P. 
Useful Plants ol the Genus Psoralea. A. J. P. 
Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
1 890— 

Botanical Origin of Some Pharmacopceial Drugs. A. J. P. 
Gleanings in Materia Medica (two articles). A. J. P. 
Morphine Salts and Hydrocyanic Acid. A. J. P. 
Notes on Scopola. A. J. P. 

Pharmacopceial Assays of Drugs and Galenicals. A. J. P. 
Plant Groups and their Constituents and Properties. A. J. P. 
Practical Notes from Various Sources (two articles). A. J. P. 
Prospective Camphor Industry of Florida. A. J. P. 
Some North American Medicinal Plants. A. J. P. 
1891 — 

Galenical Preparations Added to the British Pharmacopoeia. 
A. J. P. 

Some North American Medicinal Plants. A. J. P. 

Vegetable Drugs Used in Mexico (two articles). A. J. P. 

Introductory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
1892 — 

Polygala Alba. A. J. P. 

Soda Mint. A. J. P. 

Vanilla Plant an Epiphyte. A. J. P. 

Valedictory Address. P. C. P. Alumni Report. 
1893— 

On the Tubers of Dioscorea Species. A. J. P. 

A LIST OF HONORARY, ASSOCIATE AND CORRESPONDING MEMBERSHIPS TO 
WHICH PROFESSOR MAISCH HAD BEEN ELECTED. 

(Copied from a list that had been made out by himself.) 

Associate member of the Societe Pharmacie Royale de Bruxelles, 
1867. 



Am Au J g us ^ t^9 Ll o!' m •} John Michael Maisch. 375 

Honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of St. Petersburg, 
1868. 

Corresponding member of the Societe de Pharmacie d'Anvers, 
1870. 

Honorary member of the New Jersey State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1 871. 

Honorary member of the California State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1 87 1. 

Honorary member of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, 
1 871. 

Honorary member of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, 
1872. 

Honorary member of the Ontario College of Pharmacy, 1873. 

Honorary member of the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, 1873. 

Honorary member of the St. Clair Pharmaceutical Society of 
Southern Illinois, 1874. 

Honorary member of the Camden Pharmaceutical Association, 
1874. 

Corresponding member of the Societe Royale des Sciences Medi- 
cales et Naturelles, Bruxelles, 1874. 

Corresponding member of the Academie Royale de Medecin de 
Belgique, 1874. 

Honorary member of the New Hampshire State Pharmaceutical 
Association, 1875. 

Honorary member of the Societe Royale de Pharmacie de Brux- 
elles, 1876. 

Corresponding member of the Acadernie Royale de Medecin de 
Bruxelles, 1 876. 

Corresponding member of the Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Nat- 
ural, 1876. 

Corresponding member of the Sociedad Mexico Pharmaceutica- 
Medica de Yucatan, 1878. 

Honorary member of the Neu Yorker Apotheker Verein, 1878. 

Honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Association of South 
Carolina, 1878. 

Honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, 
1878. 

Honorary member of the Schweizerische Apotheker Verein, 1878. 
Honorary member of the Zeta Phi Alpha, P. C. P., 1879. 



37 6 John Michael Maisch. { Am Aigu!i,mf w - 

Honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of New South 
Wales, 1880. 

Corresponding member of the Wetterauische Gesellschaft der 
Gesammten Naturheilkunde, 1881. 

Honorary member of the Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1882. 

Honorary member of the Alabama State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1882. 

Honorary member of the Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association, 
1882. 

Honorary member of the New York State Pharmaceutical Asso 
ciation, 1882. 

Honorary member of the Wisconsin State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1882. 

Honorary member of the Iowa State Pharmaceutical Association, 
1883. 

Honorary member of the Virginia State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, 1883. 

Honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Association of the 
Province of Quebec, 1885. 

Honorary member of the Societe de Pharmacie d'Anvers, 1885. 

Honorary member of the Maryland State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1886. 

Honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Brit- 
ain, 1887. 

Honorary member of the Nebraska State Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 1887. 

Honorary member of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, 1888. 

Honorary member of the Georgia State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, 1890. 

Honorary member of the Trinity Historical Society of Dallas, 
Tex., 1 891. 

Honorary member of the Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1892. 
Honorary member of the Colorado State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, 1892. 

Honorary member of the Association Internationale pour le Pro- 
gress de l'Hygiene, Bruxelles, 1893. 



Am. Jour. Pharaa. ) 
August, 1903. / 



Tincture of Kino. 



377 



THE HONORARY DEGREES CONFERRED ON PROFESSOR MAISCH WERE | 

Degree of Graduate in Pharmacy, by the Maryland College 
of Pharmacy, 1 871. 

Degree of Doctor in Pharmacy, Maryland College of Pharmacy, 
1871. 

Degree of Master of Pharmacy, by the Philadelphia College ot 
Pharmacy, 1889. 

TINCTURE OF KINO. 1 
By George M. Beringer. 

Although kino is recognized as a valuable astringent medicine, 
the tendency of the tincture to gelatinize and become immiscible 
and inert, has proven such an objection that in many localities the 
use of this preparation is being discouraged. 

Various investigators have attributed this gelatinization to differ- 
ent constituents. The earlier writers claimed that it was due to 
insoluble extractive, the apotheme of Berzelius. Subsequently, this 
tendency was ascribed to pectin or pectic acid. Mr. Redmond 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, XIV, folio 259) concluded from 
his experiments that neither pectin nor pectic acid were present in 
the gelatinous mass and he considered the change due to the forma- 
tion of " ulmic acid " or " humus." More recently, Mr. J. H. Maiden 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, 1889, folio 633) states that he 
could not detect gum or pectin in the gelatinized mass and writes 
that he " has little doubt that this gelatinous-looking mass consists 
wholly or mainly of phlobaphene." By direct experiments he has 
shown "that insoluble phlobaphenes break down after a longer or 
shorter period of digestion in alcohol and form a substance already 
likened to red currant jelly." 

A number of formulas for tincture ot kino have been published 
at various times claiming to obviate this trouble, and to attain the 
same purpose the official formula has been changed in the various 
revisions of the Pharmacopoeia. These official changes have been 
in the direction of increasing the alcoholic strength of the menstruum 
and the introduction ot glycerin to the extent of 15 per cent, by 
weight in the 1 880 edition, increased in the 1890 revision to 15 per 



1 Presented at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, June, 1903. 



378 



Tincture of Kino. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1903. 



cent, by volume. In the writer's opinion, changes in neither of 
these directions were desirable, and the present official formula has 
not in my experience been satisfactory, and from the fact that this 
year queries are again presented to both the Pennsylvania and the 
New Jersey Pharmaceutical Associations " requesting a formula for 
tincture of kino that will keep," I presume that the experience of 
other pharmacists is in harmony with my own. 

A very serious and practical objection to the use of glycerin, at 
least to the extent officially directed, is the fact that it makes filtra- 
tion exceedingly slow, greatly protracting the exposure and thus 
inducing the very changes that cause gelatinization. 

One operation by a clerk who prepared 200 c.c. of the tincture 
adhering closely to the official process, required several weeks to 
complete. Better results were obtained by adding the glycerin to 
the filtered alcoholic tincture instead ot using in the menstruum. 

Displacement has been highly recommended in the preparation 
of this tincture, but in my hands was not satisfactory. An attempt 
to prepare 200 c.c, using equal bulk of sand to powder and distribute 
the kino and using the official menstruum (1890), required nearly 
six weeks to complete. 

The use of 15 grammes of sugar to distribute the kino and replace 
the glycerin in 100 c.c. of tincture was tried and shortened the time 
of percolation decidedly. Other experiments tried consisted in the 
addition of potassa and of ammonia. 

But the addition of all such extraneous substances was considered 
undesirable and the same may be said of the suggestions in some 
of the published papers to add magnesium carbonate, catechu, 
logwood, etc. After experimenting practically for more than a 
decade with the various suggestions as to additions and menstruums, 
I have obtained the most satisfactory results with the following 
formula : 

Take of 

Kino 100 grammes. 

Diluted alcohol, sufficient quantity to make 1,000 c.c. 

Rub the kino in a mortar with 250 c.c. of diluted alcohol previ- 
ously warmed to 50 C. When saturated decant the solution and 
repeat with successive portions of warm diluted al:ohol until 1, 000 c.c. 
of the mixed solution is obtained. Filter and wash the filter and 
dregs with sufficient diluted alcohol to obtain 1,000 c.c. of finished 



Am. Jour. Pharm.1 
August, 1903. / 



Tincture of Kino. 



379 



tincture. This should be bottled in small well-corked vials holding 
from 60 to 120 c.c. and kept in a cool, dark place. 

I have sometimes modified the manipulation by warming the 
diluted alcohol in a well-tinned can (an ether can will answer) and 
adding the powdered kino and agitating occasionally for a few days 
while standing in a warm place, then filtering and making up to 
bulk by washing the filter with diluted alcohol. However, in fol- 
lowing such a method of manipulation care must be taken to see 
that the can is thoroughly tinned, as any exposed iron surface will 
blacken and spoil the product. 

I desire to call attention to the following points necessary to be 
observed in order to obtain a satisfactory preparation of kino : 

(1) The kino selected should be fresh and have a bright trans- 
parent garnet-colored fracture and should be almost entirely soluble 
in alcohol, and give with cold water a deep red-colored solution 
and only a moderate amount of insoluble residue. Mr. J. H. Maiden 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, 1889, fol. 633) fixed the qualifi- 
cations for Australian kino necessary to obtain a satisfactory tinc- 
ture as follows : " If kino is not completely and readily soluble in cold 
water, forming a clear ruby solution, with no gelatinous ruby-col- 
ored residue of phlobaphene, it should be rejected." This qualifica- 
tion will apply with but slight modification to the official or Indian 
kino. 

In regard to the solubility of kino, I must note an error in the 
present Pharmacopoeia in the statement that kino is " only slightly 
soluble in cold water." As this is an East Indian product, the fol- 
lowing statement from the Pharmacographia Indica (Vol. I, fol. 465) 
is taken as authority: " The greater part of it is soluble in cold 
water, and all in boiling water, but a portion is deposited on the 
water cooling." The Pharmacographia of Fliickiger and Hanbury, 
page 196, states: " In cold water they (pieces of kino) sink, but 
partially dissolve by agitation, forming a solution of very astringent 
taste and a pale flocky residue. The latter is taken up when the 
liquid is made to boil, and deposited on cooling in a more volumi- 
nous form." These statements are correct, and the forthcoming 
Pharmacopoeia will no doubt correct this error in the U.S. P., 1 890. 

(2) Selection of Menstruum. — The writer is aware that in prefer- 
ring the use of diluted alcohol for making tincture of kino, he has 
placed himself in opposition to some of the heretofore accepted 



3 8o 



Tincture of Kino. 



fAm. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1903. 



authorities, as, for example, the National Dispensatory, in which 
occurs- the following unqualified statement : " Made with alcohol 
and properly preserved, it will remain limpid, but if made with 
diluted alcohol it will gradually lose its astringency and become 
gelatinous." 

However, a critical review of some of the previously published 
papers and notes convinces me that the favorable results reported 
for some of these formulas was largely due to the diluted alcohol 
recommended as the menstruum. Although the proposers attributed 
the success to other causes, a number of sign boards point toward 
the menstruum. 

The use of strong alcohol was probably advocated on the theory 
that pectin was supposed to be an ingredient of kino and the cause 
of the gelatinization. Regarding this theory, Mr. Redwood 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. XIV, folio 259) writes : 
"On the presumption, therefore, that the gelatinization of this tinc- 
ture depends on the presence of pectin, rectified spirit has been used 
in its preparation instead of proof spirit, with the view of obviating 
this result, pectin being insoluble in rectified spirit. This substitu- 
tion, however, has not been found to effect the intended object, as 
the tincture prepared with rectified spirit is subject to the same 
change as that made with proof spirit." And then this author, at 
that time already blazoned the path for a more satisfactory prepara- 
tion in the following sentence : " The most effectual means of pre- 
venting this change would probably be in preparing the tincture, 
to extract as speedily as possible the most soluble part of the kino, 
without allowing the solution thus formed to remain long in contact 
with the altered and less soluble constituents." 

In a letter to the editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol XXI, folio 297), Mr. Benja- 
min Canavan states <( that by making the preparation with proof 
spirit, instead of rectified spirit, I obtained a tincture which keeps 
perfectly well, is more astringent and less stimulating than we have 
been before able to obtain it." This statement is subsequently con- 
firmed by R. H. Stabler (American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 
XXIII, folio 123). 

L. Myers Connor (American Journal of Pharmacy, 1873, folio 
260) ascribes the permanency of his preparation to the use of mag- 
nesium carbonate, but it is to be noted that the menstruum used was 
diluted alcohol. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. \ 
August, 1903. f 



Tincture of Kino. 



38i 



G. W. Kennedy (American Journal of Pharmacy, 1880, folio 
78) attributes the success of his formula to the addition of logwood, 
but it is to be noted that he likewise used diluted alcohol. 

R. Rother (American Journal of Pharmacy, 1886, folio 333) 
considers glycerin " as unsatisfactory as all other agents previously 
tried," and says " the addition of glycerin before or after the gela- 
tinization had no visible effect either, in preventing the alteration 
or regenerating the spoiled tincture." He proposes the use of Cate- 
chu as a preventive, but strangely attributes no value to the alco- 
holic weakness of his formula, which contains only four fluid ounces 
of alcohol in a pint. 

The British Pharmacopoeia directs twelve fluid ounces of rectified 
spirit in twenty fluid ounces of tincture of kino equivalent to about 
50 per cent, alcohol in the finished tincture. 

These various excerpts indicate that I am only digging out a half 
buried truth. The fact is that if proper gum kino is used, diluted 
alcohol will satisfactorily extract it, and is preferable to a stronger 
alcoholic menstruum because less stimulating. 

(3) The proper preservation of the product. Not only should 
the tincture be divided into small well-stoppered vials, but they 
should be preserved in a cool place protected from the light. The 
effect of the sunlight in causing the change in this tincture is quite 
pronounced, yet the pharmacopoeia fails to caution against such 
exposure, and the various papers examined also fail to direct atten- 
tion to this cause of change, which is probably quite as potent as 
the atmospheric exposure. It has been my custom to keep only 
the one small vial in use in the prescription department, the re- 
mainder of the stock in small vials being stored in the dark in the 
cellar. 

In concluding this paper I exhibit the following specimens : 
No. 1, a two-ounce bottle, that contained tincture of kino made 
January, 1899, which was gradually used up leaving only a few 
drops. This bottle has since been preserved intact to note if a 
change would take place. No. 2, a four-ounce bottle that contained 
some tincture made June, 1900. On June 10, 1902, this had been all 
used up but about 2 c.c, and was set aside for preservation. Under 
this unfavorable condition the tincture shows no signs of gelatiniz- 
ing. No. 3, a full four-ounce vial of the same lot of tincture, made 
June, 1900, shows no precipitation or tendency to thicken. 



382 Ferrous Carbonate Preparations. {^ugusum 113, 

NOTE ON THE ASSAY OF FERROUS CARBONATE 
PREPARATIONS. 1 

By Frank X. Moerk. 

In recently assaying some samples .of pill-mass and pills of ferrous 
carbonate results were obtained which show that it is impossible to 
determine accurately the quantity of ferrous carbonate in presence 
of organic excipients. Some of the results obtained are given in 
the following table : 

la. Ib, II. III. 

Pills (293) 072 gr. o'66gr. — 0-54 gr. 

" (517) o-6ogr. — 0-644 gr. 0*525 gr. 

Pill Mass 3578 p. c. — 3810 p. c. 32*80 p. c. 

la. Three pills, or about 1 gramme of the pill-mass, were heated 
with 10 c.c. diluted sulphuric acid and 50 c.c. distilled water in a 
current of carbon dioxide to prevent oxidation of the ferrous salt ; 
after complete disintegration resulted, the mixture was cooled and 
titrated with deci-normal Potassium Bichromate V. S. and results ex- 
pressed in grains per pill, or per cent, in case of the mass of ferrous 
carbonate. 

Id. Carried out as under la, with the exception that about 90 per 
cent, of the volumetric solution required in la was added at once 
and then the titration completed by the careful addition of the volu- 
metric solution. 

II. To Determine Total Iron. — The same quantities as above were 
boiled for fifteen minutes with 10 c.c. hydrochloric acid and 50 c.c. 
water; after cooling, 10 c.c. stannous chloride solution (5 per cent.) 
were added (to reduce ferric to ferrous salt), the excess of stannous 
chloride oxidized to stannic chloride by the addition of 20 c.c. mer- 
curic chloride solution (5 per cent.) and the mixture titrated with 
deci-normal Potassium Bichromate V. S.; the results were expressed 
as above. The results being higher than in I were at first inter- 
preted as showing the presence of ferric compounds. 

III. To obtain a check on II, the same quantities were carefully 
ignited in porcelain dishes until free from carbon, allowed to cool 
and then heated with 10 c.c. hydrochloric acid with the occasional 
addition of a few drops of stannous chloride solution until the ash 
was perfectly dissolved and a colorless solution produced (a yellow 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
June 1903. 



Anj. Jour. Pbarm. i 
August, 1903. J 



Bashams Mixture. 



383 



color indicates ferric salt, which is easily reduced by the addition of 
stannous chloride); dilute with 50-75 c. c. water, add 10 c. c. 
mercuric chloride solution (5 per cent.) and titrate with potassium 
bichromate ; calculate results as before. 

The results obtained in III, which gives the total iron contents as 
ferrous carbonate, being the lowest of the several determinations, 
clearly prove the statement made in the beginning of this paper. 
Methods I and II give too high results, due to the action of the 
organic matter upon the volumetric reagent. Method III, while 
giving the quantity of ferrous carbonate originally present, cannot 
give the amount actually present at the time of the assay, although 
under no condition could the quantity found in III be exceeded, as 
I and II would indicate. 

Attention is directed to a source of difficulty which may be expe- 
rienced in titrating ferrous salts with potassium bichromate. In 
preparing a fresh solution of potassium ferricyanide for use as an 
indicator, the crystal should be washed several times with small 
quantities of distilled water until these washings give only a brown- 
ish color with a pure ferric salt, before making the solution ; this is 
necessary to remove potassium ferrocyanide, which is produced by 
exposure of the ferricyanide to light and air. 



BASHAM'S MIXTURE. 1 
By Joseph W. England. 

In this section of the country, at least, there is probably no more 
popular ferruginous diuretic than the well-known solution of iron 
and ammonium acetate, or Basham's Mixture. As a matter of his- 
tory, it is interesting to note that the preparation originated with 
Dr. William Richard Basham, of London, who, I am informed, on 
the authority of Dr. William Murrell, the well-known therapeutist 
of London, was a physician to the Westminster Hospital from 1843 
to 1877. "In the latter year," writes Dr. Murrell, "he was seized 
with apoplexy while in the hospital, and died a few months later. 
He rarely contributed to medical literature, but, I think, wrote a 
book on ' Diseases of the Kidneys.' There is a portrait of him in 
the board room of the hospital." 



x Read at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, June, 
1903, and communicated by the author. 



3§4 



Bashaw's Mixture. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1903. 



The work that Dr. Murrell refers to is doubtless Dr. Basham's 
book on " Dropsy," the 1 866 edition of which is to be found in the 
Medical Library of the Philadelphia Hospital. On page 218 the 
following statements are made : 

" The preparations of iron in the Pharmacopoeia are numerous, 
but there is one which, in cases of renal dropsy, stands pre-eminent for 
its efficacy and should be preferred before all others. It is the tincture 
of the sesquichloride (of iron). But it is not as a sesquichloride that 
its efficacy is most perceived. It is as an ammonio-chloride kept in 
solution by acetic acid that its beneficial influence becomes most 
apparent. It is a very simple preparation ; a few drops of the tinc- 
ture, according to the age of the patient, are added to a drachm of 
the liquor ammonii acetatis previously acidulated with acetic acid." 

By " a few drops of the tincture " Dr. Basham evidently meant 
a small dose, or 5 to 10 minims, as may be inferred from the fol- 
lowing statement on page 193 : 

" In cases of renal dropsy no preparation answers as well as the 
tincture of the sesquichloride (of iron). Small doses are better than 
large, and 5 or 10 minims three times a day will answer all the 
purposes designed in its administration." 

It will be observed that Basham gave no specific formula for the 
mixture bearing his name, and it may be possible that the working 
formula was originated by someone else. I have searched a num- 
ber of English pharmaceutical books and journals published prior 
to 1876 for formulas of Basham's Mixture, but have searched in 
vain. A few years ago Peter MacEwan, while editor of the Chemist 
and Druggist, of London, wrote me that Basham's Mixture was 
not much used in Great Britain. 

The first formula given for Basham's Mixture in an American 
pharmaceutical journal appears to have been published in the 
American Journal of Pharmacy for March, 1876, and was reprinted 
from the " Pharmacopoeia of the Philadelphia Hospital " being 
named " Mistura Ferri Chloridi Composita " (Basham's Mixture). 
As the first portion of this little formulary was printed in the Febru- 
ary issue of the Journal, and as the city appropriations to the Board 
of Guardians of the Poor (the then governing body of the Philadel- 
phia Hospital) were scarcely available for use so early in the 
year, it is reasonably sure that the formula must have been employed 
at the Hospital in 1875 or earlier. 



AJ AuS,TX m '} Bashams Mixture. 385 

The following is the formula : 

Tr. ferric chloride 2^f^ 

Ac. acetic dilute 1 f 3 

Sol. ammon. acetate 3 f% 

Curacoa or alcohol 2 f 3 

Syrup, 

Water, of each, to measure 6 f 5 

This formula was superseded by one in which the quantity 
of the tincture of iron was slightly reduced and the acetic acid in- 
creased. It was as follows: 

Tr. ferric chloride 2 f 3 160 m. 

Ac. acetic dilute 3 f 3 4 f 3 

Sol. ammon. acetate 3f"5 4 f ^ 

Elixir orange 6 f 5 1 f"3 

Glycerin 6 1 f § 

Water sufficient to measure . . . 6 fj 8 



It should be stated that at a pharmaceutical meeting of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, held January 18, 1876 (Amer. Jour. 
Pharm., 1876, 90), reference was made by James T. Shinn to the 
fact that there were differences in Basham's Mixture as obtained 
from different sources, the statement being made that 20 minims of 
the tincture of chloride of iron and I fluidounce of solution of 
ammonium acetate were the right proportions, but no other 
ingredients or working formula were given. 

In May, 1877, Thomas S. Wiegand (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1877, 
232), reported the following formula: 

Parts. 



Tr. ferric chloride 3 

Ac. acetic dilute 4 

Sol. ammon. acetate 32 

Curacoa cordial • 8 

Syr. orange peel 12 

Water to make 64 



By " parts," Mr. Wiegand tells me that he meant " fluid parts," or, 
for example, fluid drachms. He states that he first learned of this 
formula through the late Charles Bullock, who, he thought, had 
copied it from an English journal. 

This is quite similar to the Philadelphia Hospital formula, and 
likewise to that used in the '70's by the late Dr. Philip Leidy, a lead- 
ing Philadelphia practitioner some years ago, and one time chief 
resident physician of the Insane Department of the Philadelphia 



336 



B as ham's Mixture. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( August. 1903. 



Hospital, by whom it was given to Edwin M. Boring, of Philadel- 
phia. It is as follows : 

Tr. ferric chloride 3 f 3 

Ac. acetic diluted 4 f 3 

Sol. ammon. acetate 3/4 f% 

Curacoa cordial 1 

Syrup 1 1 fg 

Water sufficient to measure 8 f § 

Basham's Mixture was first officially recognized by the U.S. Phar- 
macopoeia 1880, under the name of " Mistura Ferri et Ammonii 
Acetatis," and the following was the equivalent formula of the 
" parts-by-weight " formula: 

Tr. ferric chloride 83 m. 

Ac. acetic diluted 2 f 3 

Sol. ammon. acetate 14 f 3 

Elixir orange 6 f 3 

Syrup . . 1 il 

Water sufficient to measure ' 8f^ 

In the 1890 U.S. Pharmacopoeia the title was changed to "Liquor 
Ferri et Ammonii Acetatis," and the equivalent formula of the 
metric formula given is: 

Tr. ferric chloride 77 m. 

Ac. acetic diluted 115 m. 

Sol. ammon. acetate 12*8 fg 

Aromatic elixir 6*4 f 3 

Glycerin 7'68f3 

Water sufficient to measure 8 f 3 

These formulas have been given at some length for the purpose 
of showing the radical departure of the Pharmacopoeia from the 
formulas originally used and upon which the reputation of the prep, 
aration was first established. Practically the older formulas repre- 
sented in each dessertspoonful of the mixture, 5 minims of tincture 
of iron and 60 minims of solution of ammonium acetate ; the 
official formula represents, in the same quantity, but 2j£ minims of 
tincture of iron and 24 minims of solution of ammonium acetate. 

As the usual dose of Basham's Mixture is from a dessertspoonful 
to a tablespoonful, and as the usual dose of tincture of iron is from 
5 to 10 minims, and of solution of ammonium acetate from 1 to 2 
fluidrachms or more, the usual dose of the mixture should represent 
the usual doses of tincture and solution, especially as the iron 
salt used is chemically changed from a stronger into a weaker 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1903. / 



Basharri s Mixture. 



387 



(therapeutically) compound. From this the absurd weakness 
of the U.S.P. product may be seen. In an attempt to secure 
pharmaceutical elegance and permanency of product, therapeu- 
tical efficiency has been sacrificed or largely nullified. And this 
attempt has been as unnecessary as it was ill-judged, because by 
proper procedure the preparation can be made both attractive and 
permanent for months. The most necessary factor is simply to see 
that the solution of ammonium acetate used is neutral, or, better, 
faintly acid in reaction, and the acidity should not be that of the 
freed carbonic acid gas, but of the free acetic acid. Unless the gas 
be first eliminated before testing, litmus paper is of no value in 
showing acetic acidity. Practically, the best guide in obtaining 
neutrality or faint acidity is the sense of taste. 

There are reasons for believing that the weakness of the official 
product has given weak therapeutic results, and that this has lessened 
the use of the mixture and prevented general growth in its 
favor especially in the Western States, where the older formula is 
not widely known and the official one is followed. 

The chemistry of Basham's Mixture is interesting. The iron 
present is in the form of an acetate, and there is also formed, as one of 
the products of decomposition, a certain amount of ammonium 
chloride, the larger proportion of ammonium acetate remaining 
unchanged. The reaction is as follows : 

Fe 2 Cl 6 + 6NH 4 C 2 H 3 0. 2 = Fe 2 (C 2 H 3 2 ) 6 + 6NH 4 C1 
324 462 466 320 

Calculations will show that in the 38^ minims of the official 
solution of ferric chloride (s. g. 1-387; 37-8 per cent, anhydrous salt) 
used for 1 pint of the official " Liquor Ferri et Ammonii Acetatis " 
there are about 20 grains of ferric chloride represented, and that this 
requires 28 grains of ammonium acetate to decompose, yielding 28 
grains of ferric acetate and 20 grains of ammonium chloride; the 
amount of ammonium acetate remaining undecomposed is about 80 
grains. In other words, each dessertspoonful dose of the official 
Basham's Mixture contains about ]/ 2 grain of ferric acetate, ^ grain 
of ammonium chloride and 1 y£ grains of ammonium acetate, quanti- 
ties entirely too small to be of much therapeutic value. The older 
formulas represented, practically, twice as much iron and two-and-a- 
half times as much ammonium acetate. 



1 



388 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1903. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Tests and Reagents, chemical and microscopical, known by 
their authors' names, together with an index of subjects, compiled 
for the use of chemists, microscopists, pharmacists, students, etc. 
By Alfred I. Cohn. New York: John Wiley & Sons. London: 
Chapman & Hall, Limited. 

This book is in the nature of a compilation from a great number 
of sources (the small brochures of Altschul, Schneider, and Wilder 
having served as a nucleus), and, with very numerous additions, 
was published in a series of monthly installments in Merck's Report, 
from March, 1900, to September, 1902; it is here republished by 
the kind permission of Messrs. Merck & Co. Since its first appear- 
ance in serial form, however, the matter has been further greatly 
amplified. 

The compilation has been made with a view to supplying the 
busy chemist, microscopist, and pharmacist with data which are 
frequently desired, but which are often either not at hand, or inac- 
cessible. The names of authors are given alphabetically, with 
numerous cross-references. The methods are concise and unusually 
free from ambiguity. The index of subjects at the end serves to 
make the book useful to the investigator who wishes to make a test 
for a particular substance, the reagents of which may not be known 
to him, or may be forgotten for the time. The book serves another 
useful purpose, and that is to make all more cautious of speaking, 
for instance, of von Jaksch's test, or Schultze's reagent, as there are 
at least a half-dozen tests or reagents known by these names. It is 
necessary to specify not only the name of the test, but the uses to 
which it is applied, as " von Jaksch's test for sugar in urine," dis- 
tinguishing it from "von Jaksch's test for uric acid," or " Schultze's 
test for cellulose," distinguishing it from "Schultze's macerating 
mixture," etc. The book will be found to be very valuable to the 
pharmacist and physician, as well as chemist and biologist. 

A Text-Book of Volumetric Analysis, with special reference to 
the volumetric processes of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 
By Henry W. Schimpf. With sixty illustrations. Fourth edition. 
New York : John Wiley & Sons. London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd. 

It is always a pleasure to have in hand a book which is written 
with a special object and the author of which expects to reach a certain 



Am A5ust,w h 03 mi '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 389 

circle. Professor Schimpfs book was designed for the use of pharma- 
cists and pharmaceutical students and that is one of the reasons 
why it has been so successful. The present edition differs materially 
from the preceding in that the volumetric analysis of the alkaloidal 
drugs are considered at even greater length than heretofore. Among 
the newly added subjects are included the following : Gordin and 
Prescott's Method with Wagner's Reagent; Gordin's Modified 
Alkalimetric Method ; Kebler's General Method of Extracting 
Alkaloids from Drugs; A. B. Lyons' Methods for the Assay of 
Vegetable Drugs. Assay of Galenical Preparations, Methods of 
Lloyd, Katz, Kippenberger, and Farr and Wright. 

Detailed methods from various sources are given tor the assay of 
aconite, belladonna, cinchona, coca, colchicum, hyoscyamus, ipecac, 
nux vomica, opium, strophanthus, stramonium, tobacco, wild-cherry 
bark, commercial acetate of lime, and boric acid. 

One of the valuable features of the book is the numerous refer- 
ences to original literature. The value of the book would be en- 
hanced with a few more cross-references to authors of methods. 

For those of our readers who may not be familiar with the book 
it should be stated that the general principles underlying volumetric 
analysis are considered, together with the kinds of apparatus to be 
employed as well as their use. There are also considered the follow- 
ing subjects : Indicators, calculating results, analyses by neutraliza- 
tion, analyses by precipitation, oxidimetry, analysis by indirect 
oxidation, estimation of substances readily reduced, the examination 
and estimation of acetic acid and acetates, etc., as well as the sanitary 
analyses and volumetric analysis of various organic substances, as 
water, milk, butter, air, soap, sugars, pepsin, peptone, malt prepara- 
tions, urine, volumetric assaying of vegetable drugs, assay of galeni- 
cal preparations, etc. 

The book is convenient in form as well as well written, and will 
prove valuable to the progressive pharmacist. 

The Praxis of Urinary Analysis. A guide to the chemical 
analysis of urine. With directions for preparing artificial patho- 
logical urines for practising the various tests, and an appendix on 
the analysis of stomach contents. By Lassar-Cohn. Authorized 
translation from the author's enlarged and revised second edition 



390 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { A % J g O u u s r t*,i903. rm ' 

by H. W. F. Lorenz. New York : John Wiley & Sons. London : 
Chapman & Hall, Limited. 

In this well-known work of Lassar-Cohn the author confines 
himself to the chemical determination of those constituents of urine 
and stomach contents, the results of which will prove valuable in 
diagnosis. The title of the book is unfortunately, however, mislead- 
ing, as the work contains more than the title indicates. The follow- 
ing is an enumeration of the contents : 

Part I. Urinary analysis, {a) Qualitative tests for the detection 
of albumen, sugar, acetone, acetoacetic acid, bile-pigment, urobilin, 
blood-pigment, indican, sulphuric acid, ester-sulphuric acids, chlo- 
rine, phosphates in urine, and ammonia in urine, (b) Quantitative 
methods. Quantitave estimation of albumen, sugar, and total sul- 
phuric acid and ester-sulphuric acids, (c) Normal urine. 

Part II. Analysis of stomach contents : Detection of hydrochloric 
acid, lactic and volatile acids, test for absence of pepsin, alphabeti- 
cal list of all the reagents required, reagents used in urinary analy- 
sis, reagents and apparatus for the quantitative, etc., estimation of 
constituents of urine, and reagents used in the analysis of stomach 
contents. 

The book is original and written with clearness and directness, 
and will no doubt have a success equal to that of the German edition. 



PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 1 

The twenty-sixth annual meeting was held at Eaglesmere, Sulli- 
van County, Pa., June 23d to 25th. The Association convened on 
Tuesday evening with nearly 200 members in attendance, and the 
President, C. L. Hay, in the chair. The members were welcomed 
by Mr. Henry Clay, and J. H. Redsecker and M. N. Kline responded 
on behalf of the Association. The delegates from the various associa- 
tions, including the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the Alumni 
Association of the P.C.P., the Philadelphia Association of Retail Drug- 
gists, the Western Pennsylvania Association of Retail Druggists 



1 Credit is due to Dr. J. A. Miller, Prof. C. B. Lowe and Dr. C. A. Weide- 
mann for courtesies in the preparation of this report ; in fact, the report of Dr. 
Weidemann, as chairman of the delegates of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, has been largely drawn upon for the facts presented. 



Ar August,^£ m '} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 391 

and a large number of county associations, were cordially welcomed 
by the President on behalf of the Association, and the delegates 
responded with an earnestness and vigor that seemed to indicate a 
new life in the Association. 

The President's address was a very able resume of the conditions 
of the drug trade and contained a number of valuable suggestions 
which were subsequently adopted. 

The Treasurer's report showed a balance of $807.03. 

The Committee on Legislation made a very interesting report, 
giving in detail their efforts at preventing vicious legislation as well 
as supporting meritorious legislation. 

The Committee on Trade Interests had been very active during 
the year. A large amount of work had been done, and as a result 
fifty-three county associations are now organized, including those 
previously organized; these include 2,200 druggists. All these 
county associations are affiliated with the N.A.R.D., and much 
stronger fraternal feeling exists now than ever before. 

The N.A.R.D. received a cordial endorsement and an order was 
passed for the payment of the per capita assessment. The Associa- 
tion endorsed the resolutions referred to them by the New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Association. The first called for a reduction by the 
Government of the internal revenue tax upon proof spirits ; the 
second protested against the patenting of chemical products intended 
for use as medicines ; the third requested that any of the new syn- 
thetic compounds introduced into the U.S. P. should be called by 
their chemical names, where practicable, or by names coined for the 
purpose. 

The Association learned with pleasure of the appointment of their 
fellow-member, VV. L. Cliffe, to the Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board. 

The Committee on Botany had nothing to report, but asked 
" why Rhus Toxicodendron and other noxious plants should not be 
placed under ban of the law as Canada thistle is?" 

The Executive Committee in their report alluded to the disposi- 
tion of the Legislature to enact vicious legislation against pharma- 
cists, and to the necessity of continued watchfulness on the part of 
pharmacists to prevent it. They also referred to the herculean 
efforts that had been put forth to increase the membership, whereby 
426 new members had been obtained, which is 300 more than the 



392 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. ) AI August im m ' 

highest number ever joining at any lormer meeting, thus doubling 
the membership. The injustice of the patent laws in relation to 
medicines was discussed, and it was urged that appeals for readjust- 
ment of the same be made and that the pharmacists agitate the 
subject until relief is obtained. 

During the year seven members died, two being ex-Presidents. 

The Board of Pharmacy presented a report, stating that during 
the year 1,338 applicants had presented themselves for examination, 
of which number 705 had passed ; 312 complaints had been re- 
ceived ; many of the complaints appeared to be due to malice, many 
were not within the jurisdiction of- the Board, and only ninety-five 
were of a serious nature and a number of these were unintentional 
violations. This is a much better condition than formerly existed. 

The Committee on Papers and Queries had been active, and 
as a result the unusually large number of thirty-three papers was 
received ; most of these were answers to the printed list of 
queries, the rest were volunteer papers. The papers read covered 
a variety of subjects and the discussions that followed were very 
instructive and interesting. The papers being so numerous and the 
business of the meeting so large, a number of the papers could only 
be read by title and referred for publication. 

One of the most important things done was the election of five 
members, whose names are to be presented to the Governor, with 
the request that he select one to fill the next vacancy in the Board 
of Pharmacy. The following named members were elected : E. M. 
Boring, D. J. Thomas, C. N. Boyd, J. H. Stein, and W. F. Horn. 

Cambridge Springs, Crawford County, was selected as the next 
place of meeting — the time, June 21-23, 1904. 

The following officers were elected : W. O. Frailey, of Lancaster, 
President; L. L. Walton and B. E. Pritchard, Vice-Presidents; Dr. 
J. A. Miller, Secretary ; Joseph L. Lemberger, Treasurer ; Chas. 
Griffith, George A. Gorgas and Chas. Rehfuss, members of the 
Executive Committee ; and F. E. Siggins, Local Secretary. 

This twenty-sixth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association proved one of the most noted in its history, 
largely so because of the remarkable increase in its membership, 
also for the enthusiasm evident for continued efforts to still more 
increased membership, and the hearty fraternal spirit from all sec- 
tions of the State was so marked as to lead to the thought that the 



An August, wo"™'} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 393 

pharmacists throughout the State had realized the value of organiza- 
tion more than ever before, and had determined to mak~ the Penn- 
sylvania Pharmaceutical Association a stronger representative body 
than ever. 

Of the papers presented at the meeting the following are pub- 
lished in full in this issue of this Journal, or will appear in later 
issues: " Standard Sieves," by Jos. P. Remington; "Tincture of 
Kino," by George M. Beringer ; " Note on the Assay of Ferrous 
Carbonate Preparations," by F. X. Moerk ; " Basham's Mixture," 
by Jos. W. England ; " Syrup of Calcium Lactophosphate," by Chas. 
H. LaWall ; "Granular Effervescent Salts," by E. Fullerton Cook; 
"'Headache Powders' Prepared from Coal-Tar Derivatives," by 
Richard V. Mattison. 

The remainder of the papers are abstracted as follows: 

Syrup Ferrous Iodide. 

By Wilbur F. Horn. 

The author introduces the iron into a bottle or flask, adds 100 c.c. 
of distilled water, and without disturbing the flask adds the iodine. 
The vessel is surrounded with water and ice and set aside away from 
the light for at least two hours. The syrup is added to another 
bottle provided with a funnel with filter paper and containing a little 
metallic iron. The iodide-of-iron bottle is then shaken, heated if 
necessary, and the solution filtered into the syrup, the remainder of 
the distilled water being used, as also of syrup, to conform to the 
U.S.P. 

The author still clings to the notion that the discoloration is due 
to free iodine. 

Tincture of Kino. 

By Frederic E. Niece. 

The author states that the following formula furnishes a prepara- 
tion that is all that can be desired in keeping qualities : Kino, 4-5 
ounces; alcohol, 25 ounces; water, 7 ounces; and glycerin, 13 
ounces. Reduce the kino to a fine powder ; add to it by mixing 
about 10 ounces of large, well-washed bird-gravel. Place this into 
a suitable wide-mouth vessel and add the alcohol and water pre- 
viously mixed. Macerate for two weeks, occasionally stirring with 
a wooden implement, keeping the vessel well covered. Allow this 



394 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { A A U J g°ust,i9of. rm ' 

to stand two days, after two weeks of maceration, without agitation, 
and pour off the supernatant liquid, pass through a pleated filter ; 
to the filtrate thus obtained add the glycerin by agitation. Fill a 
bottle with the entire amount, cork well, allow to stand a few days, 
then pour the tincture off carefully into 8-ounce bottles, which 
should be well filled and well corked with paraffined corks. Store 
in cool, dark place. 

Extract and Fluid Extract of Ergot. 
By J. Percy Remington. 

The author calls attention to some of the precautions to be 
observed in making the most valuable medicinal preparations of 
ergot. He also calls attention to the fact that it has been sug- 
gested for the trial of physicians and pharmacists who are accus- 
tomed to make up a solution of the extract for hypodermic use, to 
enclose the solid extract in tinfoil capsules (60 grains each), so as to 
avoid the inconvenience of weighing it. One of these capsules, 
dissolved in 6 fluidrachms of sterilized water with 3 drops of chlo- 
roform added to preserve it, makes an aqueous solution of the same 
strength as the fluid extract, which is the strength generally em- 
ployed for hypodermic use. 

A Powder-Mixer and Percolator Support. 
By H. F. Ruhl. 

The author has devised a powder-mixer which is constructed on 
the principle of a butter-churn, which, by means of a crank, is made 
to revolve on its axis, thus turning end-over-end and causing the 
contents to become thoroughly mixed. He has also devised a sup- 
port for a percolator which is intended for showing a pharmaceutical 
operation in the show window. 

The Preparation of Fruit Syrups for the Fountain. 
By Frederic E. Niece. 

The author submits a formula for the preparation of the fresh 
stock syrup, which is then diluted with syrup for the fountain. The 
fruit is first thoroughly cleaned, then washed with warm water, cut, 
then reduced to a pulp by mashing under pressure in a large mortar. 



Am Augu r st, P i903 rm "} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 395 

This pulp is then placed into a spacious vessel and allowed to remain 
exposed in a warm place until it has completely undergone fermenta- 
tion, being occasionally stirred to assist the process. The pulp thus 
obtained is placed into a folded cheese-cloth, allowed to drain, then 
expressed by pressure. To each quart of this juice add about y 2 
ounce of pure skimmed milk; allow to stand twenty-four hours, 
occasionally stirring it. After this it is gently'warmed and passed 
through a double-pleated filter (first moistened with water) and 
returned several times until it comes through clear, using talcum if 
necessary. To each pound of the clarified juice add from 4 to 5 
pounds of the best granulated sugar, using heat (carefully applied) 
to dissolve it, assisted by frequent stirring and removal of the scum 
as formed. Finally, strain the finished product through a muslin 
strainer. While still hot place the syrup into clean jugs, completely 
filling them to the top in order to expel all traces of air, cork well 
and seal with paraffin. 

\ 

The Labeling of Articles. 

By Melvin W. Bamford. 

The author contends that it is important to label articles just 
what they are. He divides the articles into classes, and shows by 
examples how they can be labeled just what they are, without 
breeding distrust in the minds of the laity. 

Headache Remedies Prepared from Coal-Tar. 

By Louis Emanuel. 

The author cited a case in his own experience of a suit instituted 
for damages for selling in a careless manner a package of a proprie- 
tary headache remedy. Inasmuch as the remedy was not of his 
own manufacture, and he had not recommended the remedy, the 
Court ruled that druggists are not responsible for the composition 
of proprietary medicines sold by them. 

Laboratory Notes. 

By Willard Graham. 

The author submits the results of a number of analyses of man- 
drake root, formaldehyde (40 per cent.), licorice extract and man- 
ganese dioxide. 



396 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { An k^Just5£ m ' 

A Pharmacist's Note Book. 

By Clement B. Lowe. 

The author gives the results of his every-day experience in the 
conduct of the prescription department, innovations in shop furni- 
ture, printing, the care of drug store grounds, the Sunday question, 
etc. The work of the association will be made most profitable by 
such comparison of ideas and methods among the members. 

The Estimation of Free Hydrochloric Acid and Lactic Acid. 
By Frederic E. Niece. 

The author gives methods which involve gravimetric and volu- 
metric procedure, and which have proven trustworthy and accurate, 
so far as chemical requirements are concerned. 

Substitution Legislation. 
By M. I. Wilbert. 

The author takes as his text the enactment of the Bostwick- 
Dowling Bill in New York. The bill, as passed by the Legislature 
of the State of New York, made it a misdemeanor " to substitute 
any drug, medicine, food or preparation in lieu of any article pre- 
scribed, ordered, required or demanded ; or in any other way to 
deviate from the terms of the prescription, order or demand." The 
author says : 

" Without mincing matters in any way, we must admit that 
restrictive measures of this kind are but the logical outcome of loss 
of confidence, and lack of respect and appreciation on the part of 
the public and its servants. Unfortunately, too, this measure may 
be considered as a public indorsement of opinions that have been 
repeatedly expressed, not alone in the daily papers, but also in 
various medical journals, and even in medical text-books. The 
reasons for this marked decline in the social status of the pharma- 
cist is, no doubt, to be found in the rampant spirit of commercial- 
ism that appears to pervade all branches of the drug business at the 
present time, to the almost total neglect of progress along profes- 
sional lines. A rather short-sighted commercial policy appears to 
be particularly well developed among retail druggists, to the almost 
absolute disregard of professional or scientific matters." 



AD August5m nJ "} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 397 

The solution of this problem appears to be an educational one, 
and Mr. Wilbert says that " the standard of education for pros- 
pective pharmacists must be higher, and that the necessary curricu- 
lum must be materially enlarged if the pharmacist of the future is 
to fit in with other advances in scientific thought. The discussion 
that is going on in the pharmaceutical journals of England at the 
present time should not be lost sight of in this country. In Eng- 
land, it appears, there is a movement on foot to either include phar- 
maceutical training in the university courses, or to enlarge the cur- 
ricula of the pharmaceutical schools so as to make them conform 
more closely with scientific courses of the universities." 

Scraps from a Note-Book. 
By H. F. Ruhl. 

This paper contains much information of a practical character for 
the retail pharmacist, and covers a wide range of subjects, as the 
calculation of discount, the preparation of a tincture of benzoin, 
glycerin and rose-water that is free from precipitation, etc. 

Home-made Conveniences. 
By William O. Frailey. 

The author has constructed a simple device for holding glass 
funnels, making a convenient powder-folder, and gives a plan for 
indexing the store. 

The Prescription Counter. 
By Isaac M. Weills. 

The author has devised a holder or folded powders which will 
facilitate the handling of them in case one is suddenly called to 
attend other matters while getting ready a stock for the box. 



State Pharmacy Board. 
By Louis Emanuel. 

The author cites a number of letters indicating some of the 
methods whicn have been resorted to by those who are desirous of 
securing certificates of proficiency and registration from the State 



398 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, \ Am iigusta9o£ m " 

Pharmacy Board, and yet who are unable to answer 75 per cent, of 
the questions. 

Membership in Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 
By C. A. Weidemann. 

Dr. Weidemann believes that the principal cause why 90 per 
cent, of the pharmacists of the State of Pennsylvania are not affili- 
ated with this association is due to their ignorance of the aims and 
work of the association. 

Fred. E. Niece also had a paper on this subject, in which he sug- 
gested the offering of prizes to those members proposing the largest 
number of new members. Another plan which he proposed for 
arousing the interest of members as well as non-members was the 
distribution of printed slips asking for suggestions in regard to a 
number of questions pertaining to the interests of pharmacy. 

Membership in a Local Association. 
By D. J, Reese. 

The author said that the benefits to be derived from membership 
in a local association were manifold. The druggist's horizon is not 
only widened, but he learns to look upon his neighbor as a. friend 
and helper, rather than as a foe. 

B. E. Pritchard also presented a paper on this subject, urging 
druggists never to fail to attend their association meetings, and to 
exploit their individual opinions. In addition, he spoke of the satis- 
faction felt by the druggist who cultivates a feeling of cordiality and 
good-will toward his fellow-druggists. 

Boomerang Advertising. 
By Wm. O. Frailey. 

The author referred to the recent newspaper attacks on the integ- 
rity of pharmacists and then asked : " Is not the advertising pharma- 
cist largely to blame for the suspicion and lack of confidence on the 
part of the public and lay press ? " A number of questionable forms 
of advertising were then given, after which the writer pointedly 
asked : " What inference can a heretofore unsuspecting public take 



Al AuJust,^9o a 3! m '} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 399 

from such mercenary appeals as the above, but that the profession 
of pharmacy is a thing of the past and that pharmacists as a class 
are dishonest and unscrupulous ? " He said that the pharmacist 
who advertises himself to the discredit of his competitors is engaging 
in a practice which not only reflects on pharmacists in general, but 
which sooner or later will react on his own business. 



The Pharmacist and His Neighbor. 
By Jacob Eppstein. 

Mr. Eppstein alluded to the question of drug-store consolidation, 
arid said that if the small dealer would retain the trade of his neigh- 
borhood, he must reciprocate by patronizing his neighbors in other 
lines of business. 



Post-Office Stations in Drug Stores. 
By O. W. Osterlund. 

The speaker stated that in view of the amount oi clerical work 
connected with a postal sub station, it could not be looked upon as 
other than a side line for attracting and accommodating patrons. 



Pharmacy Abroad. 
By C. N. Boyd. 

Mr. Boyd gave an interesting account of the drug shops he visited 
while on a recent trip through Southern Europe, Northern Egypt, 
and parts of the Holy Land. 



Prevention of Deterioration and Waste of Stock. 
By D. J. Thomas. 

The author advised taking a frequent inventory of stock, once a 
year at least, as this reveals just what is on hand and its medicinal 
and commercial value. He also said that each article should have 
assigned to it a specially selected place, as it was only by having a 
definite knowledge of the physical characteristics of each item that 
loss by deterioration could be prevented. 



400 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A ^ u J g ° u u s Vjm m ' 

The Relation of the Pharmacist to Public Affairs. 
By John F. Patton. 

This question was discussed at some length, and in conclusion 
Mr. Patton said that the man who undertakes to serve the public in 
so responsible an occupation as that of pharmacy, can not do it 
successfully without improving every opportunity for intellectual 
development. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the College was held Monday, 
June 29th, at 4 p.m., in the Library, the President, Howard B. French, in the 
chair. There were sixteen members present. The minutes of the semi-annual 
meeting, held March 30th, were read and approved. The minutes of the Board 
of Trustees for April 7th and May 5th were read by the acting Registrar, F. P. 
Stroup, and approved. The Historical Committee presented a preliminary 
report. They had held a number of meetings, and had made a systematic 
endeavor to gather all available information relating to the early history of 
pharmacy, chemistry, and allied callings in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, 
and the early history of the College. It had been proposed to enlarge the 
work and prepare a list of the graduates of the College, with the career of 
each. A circular letter and list of queries will be forwarded to every Alumnus 
and to others who can furnish information for the work. The Chairman of 
the Committee asks the prompt co-operation of all who can assist in this work, 
which will probably extend over quite a period of time, and require persistent 
systematic labor and correspondence. 

The Committee on Necrology reported the names of four active and three 
corresponding members who had died during the year, as follows : Active 
members: George W. Kennedy, of Potlsville, Pa.; T. Morris Perot, of Phila- 
delphia ; Jacob L. Smith, of Philadelphia ; W. Nelson Stem, of. Philadelphia. 
Corresponding members — Frederick Baden Benger, of Manchester, England ; 
Ernst Biltz, Erfurt, Germany ; Bruno Hirsch, Dresden, Germany. Appropri- 
ate memoirs of all these deceased members have been published in recent 
issues of the American Journal of Pharmacy. 

The delegates to the twenty -sixth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Phar- 
maceutical Association at Eaglesmere, June 23-25, reported (see this Journal, 
page 390) that the meeting was one of the most successful in its history. 

The President announced the following appointments : Delegates to the 
American Pharmaceutical Association — Professor Joseph P. Remington, Pro- 
fessor Henry Kraemer, Professor C. B. Lowe, Mr. Mahlon N. Kline, and Mr. 
William L. Cliffe. Committee on Nominations — Professor Samuel P. Sadtler, 
Professor C. B. Lowe, E. M. Boring, William Mclntyre and M. I. Wilbert. 
Committee on Necrology — Professor Henry Kraemer, Gustavus Pile and Joseph 
W. England. Adjourned. 

C. A. Weidemann, Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, igoj. 




SALICYLIC ACID AND SODIUM SALICYLAIE. 
By E. H. Cone, P.D. 

Salicylic acid and sodium salicylate have come into prominence 
of lace years as specifics for the treatment of rheumatism. Their 
introduction was followed by reports of cases of remarkable recovery;; 
but immediately following these reports came reports of less favor- 
able nature; gastric disturbance, cardiac depression and irritation of 
the kidneys accompanied their use in certain cases. These unfavor^ 
able symptoms were found to be due to the impurities contained in 
the synthetic salicylic acid. 

Dr. Latham, of Cambridge, in the Croonian Lectures for 1886, 
thus formulated a rule for the administration of salicylic acid in the 
treatment of acute rheumatism : " The true salicylic acid from the 
vegetable kingdom must alone be employed. If you have to give: 
large doses, avoid giving the artificial product from carbolic acid,, 
however much it may have been dialyzed and purified. An impure 
acid will quickly produce symptoms closely resembling delirium, 
tremens." 

Dr. H. M. Lyman, at a meeting of the Chicago Society of Inter- 
national Medicine and Chicago Medical Society, in the course of his 
remarks gave the following early experiences which he had in the 
use of salicylic acid and salicylate of sodium. When on duty as. 
attending physician in Cook County Hospital, at the time when, 
rheumatism was treated with large doses of alkaline salts given on. 
the hypothesis that there was an excess of acid in the blood and 
circulating fluids of the body, and by the administration of alkalies 
it was thought that these could be neutralized, he read of the dis- 

(401) 



402 Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate. { September, h i a m- 

covery of a new agent for the treatment of rheumatism that was 
called salicylic acid. It was being reported by German physicians 
that it was an agent with remarkable and undoubted power to relieve 
the symptoms of acute articular rheumatism. After considerable 
time and effort, he succeeded in securing a quantity and prescribing 
it, certainly for the first time in any of the public hospitals of 
Chicago, and the first time in his own practice. The effect was 
wonderful. In three days patients who previously would lie weeks 
and weeks in a state of perspiration and suffering, requiring Dover's 
powders at night, were sufficiently relieved from pain to sleep. 
Opiates were withdrawn entirely. Under the influence of this 
remedy, in three days' time these patients would be out of bed, 
walking around, asking to be allowed to return home. But in a few 
days he found that the patients thus cured, who went home, were 
brought back to the hospital again. Physicians had not yet learned 
that it is necessary to continue treatment, even after the relief of the 
pain and disappearance of the swelling that affected the joints, one 
of the facts which goes to prove that the disease does not consist 
merely of a painful swelling ; it is a disorganization of the joints of 
a more serious nature than mere local tenderness, and it is very 
essential to continue the administration of salicylic acid for two or 
three weeks after the relief of the pain. It was not long before it 
was learned by experimentation that the salts of salicylic acid were 
even better and a more convenient means of medication than the 
salicylic acid itself. Then it was not long before it was found that 
patients did not do as well with the salicylates prepared in this 
country as they did with those prepared in Germany. For a con- 
siderable time disagreeable results followed the use of sodium salicy- 
late prepared in America. It was impure ; it deteriorated with 
keeping ; it did not produce the effects that were secured from the 
original German article. 

One day he was called to see a young man suffering from acute 
articular rheumatism, and prescribed sodium salicylate. The patient 
took it according to direction, and having taken it for three days, 
he went to the house on the morning of the third day of his illness, 
was met by the mother with an expression of horror, who said: "I 
was not aware that my son was such a boy ; that he ever touched 
liquor of any kind ; he has got delirium tremens ; " and, in fact, he 
presented the symptoms. There were delirium, picking of the 



A ^ P t 9 mber?i a 903?'} Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate. 403 

clothes and tremor, all the classic symptoms of the disease, but it 
was sodium salicylate which had produced the effect. Withdrawing 
the drug and allowing its effects to pass off, the delirium disap- 
peared, and the mother was intensely relieved. 

At a meeting of the Section on General Medicine of the New 
York Academy of Medicine, the scientific business of the evening 
consisted of a Symposium on Articular Rheumatism. Dr. Simon 
Baruch said that to get the effect from the salicylates without their 
inconveniences, pure salicylic acid should be used ; only that derived 
from the oil of gaultheria should be employed. With this Dr. 
Baruch gives 10 grains of sodium bicarbonate, making an extempo- 
raneous sodium salicylate. He gives 20 grains at about 4 in the 
afternoon, and the same dose at 6, 8 and 10, until the patient has 
taken 80 grains. The tendency to salicylism is slept off, though 
the ears may ring until about noon the next day. Compresses of 
cool water give comfort to the joints. If the temperature be high, 
water should be used abundantly. 

Dr. Abraham Meyer thinks that only the salicylic acid from 
genuine oil of wintergreen should be used. There are two other 
kinds of salicylates, the synthetic and that made from synthetic oil 
•of wintergreen. These cause disturbance of the stomach and 
■delirium. 

An examination of the oils of wintergreen, salicylic acid and 
sodium salicylate upon the market has brought out the fact that 
there is a wide range of quality, and no doubt the contradictory 
reports of clinical observations can be attributed to the source, viz. 
an impure article. 

We are indebted to M. Charteris, M.D., Dr. MacLennan and Pro- 
fessor Dunstan for the careful, painstaking and impartial manner 
with which they have investigated the chemical composition and 
reported the therapeutic value of this complex subject. 

To briefly summarize the first experiments which M. Charteris, 
M.D., carried on with Dr. MacLennan, a 10-grain dose of the arti- 
ficial salicylic acid and 18-grain dose of the artificial sodium salicyl- 
ate were sufficient to cause the death of a rabbit weighing 2^ to 3 
pounds, while natural salicylic acid with its salt of sodium in pro- 
portionate doses caused no bad results. The deductions from these 
experiments indicated that artificial salicylic acid and its sodium salt 
were dangerous to animal life, while natural salicylic acid and its 
sodium . c alt were not. 



404 Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate. {^tS^ hann ' 



1903. 



Further, it was shown that the difference was due to an impurity 
in the artificial acid — not a trace of which existed in the natural 
salicylic acid. Dr. Charteris from these experiments concluded that 
artificial salicylic acid contained an impurity or impurities, and that 
until this or these could be extracted by the aid of chemistry, the 
internal administration of the acid or its salt should be discounte- 
nanced. Large and repeated doses of the sodium salt were necessary 
in the treatment of acute rheumatism, and hence the restlessness, 
the confusion and the delirium attendant at times on their use. He 
observed that the retarded convalescence also, which occurred in 

- some cases of acute rheumatism after the salicylate treatment, was 
due in all probability to the great and protracted prostration to 
which the impurity gave rise. In connection with these symptoms 
it was noted that prescriptions for the salicylate of sodium were 
invariably made up — unless otherwise indicated — from the artificial 
and not the natural salt. In a paper read before the Royal Medico- 
Chirurgical Society, Dr. Charteris's attention was called to a method 
of purifying salicylic acid by the late M. Williams, and following 
along lines laid down by M. Williams an acid was made by repeated 

'crystallization from water instead of rectified spirit, and an artificial 
acid was obtained identical in its chemical form, its solubility, its 
melting-point and its physiological action with that of the natural 
acid. It was also shown that if the form, the solubility and the 
melting-point varied from that of the natural, no uniform physio- 
logical result could be obtained. 

In October, 1890, Professor Dunstan sent Dr. Charteris a sample 
of artificial salicylic acid and samples of these substances extracted, 
labeled O-acid, P-acid and M-acid, the several creosotic acids. 
These were examined in their physiological action by dissolving 2 
grains in rectified spirit and injecting into a rabbit weighing \ y 2 
pounds. The O-acid produced death in thirty hours, the P-acid in 
forty-two hours, while the M-acid did not produce any unhealthy 
action. 

The results of these investigations proved that an impurity existed 
in the artificial acid that was a poison, and that poison was not found 
in the acid from vegetable origin. We are therefore interested in 
securing a source from which a pure acid and its salts can be made, 
and we find in oil of wintergreen such a source. At present a very 
large percentage of the oil of wintergreen on the market is adul- 



^epfemberfim'} Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate. 405 

terated mostly with the synthetic methyl salicylate, and this adul- 
teration has been of the most difficult to detect, possessing, as it 
does, about the same chemical composition and with physical 
characteristics nearly identical. At one time it was possible to 
obtain this oil from the distillers direct, without any fear of sophisti- 
cation ; but at present, especially in Pennsylvania, the distillers 
themselves are adulterating their product before shipment, and large 
consumers of this product have been compelled to withdraw from 
this source of supply and now buy in other localities. 

Very ingenious means are employed both by jobbers and distillers 
to deceive the consumer. For instance, they will furnish several 
shipments of a high grade of oil of wintergreen at a low price ; then 
follow with shipments of an oil that is shamefully adulterated, and 
it can be readily seen the source of profit if such methods are suc- 
cessful. At present, the lowest price at which the true oil of winter- 
green from the wintergreen leaves is sold is $2.25 per pound. The 
true oil from birch is $1.90, while the synthetic oil is easily procured 
at 42 cents, and so-called " true oils " can be purchased at almost 
any price, depending upon the amount of adulteration. To show 
the inconsistency ot prices sometimes offered, I relate an experience 
of a large buyer. This gentleman, at one time, held two letters, 
one from a prominent jobber of New York offering a distiller of this 
oil $2.25 per pound for his product, and the other'an offer from the 
same jobber to this gentleman to supply an oil of wintergreen 
"guaranteed strictly pure natural" at $1.75. The price asked for 
true oil of wintergreen is not always a criterion of its purity, and it 
is necessary to employ such tests as prove the absence or presence 
of adulterants ; but at the same time it is out of the question to 
suppose that a pure product either in the oil, acid or sodium salt can 
be obtained at a price which is below the first cost of the true oil 
or cost of manufacture from such an oil, which is at times as high as 
$2.50 a pound. It must be admitted, however, that the retailer 
cannot be held responsible for an article that is impure when he has 
endeavored to secure this article by specifying and paying for a 
product supposed to be pure. It is impossible for a small purchaser 
to employ exhaustive methods of analysis, and to a large degree 
he must be dependent upon the integrity of the jobber and manu- 
facturer. 

The specific gravity, boiling-point and optical rotation are useful 



406 Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate. {^pfeS^Sos?" 

in assisting the analyst to determine adulteration ; but the most 
accurate and convincing test is what is known as crystallization test, 
giving large, square-ended, laminated, opaque prisms, while the 
crystals of the synthetic acid are pointed and of different appear- 
ance generally. This method enables a careful analyst to differen- 
tiate quite satisfactorily between a pure and impure oil. 

In making the crystallization test two stock solutions are required: 

SOLUTION NO. I. 

NaOH 320 grammes. 

Water, q. s 4,000 c.c. 

SOLUTION no. 2. 

HC1 1,280 c.c. 

Water, q. s 4,000 c.c. 

Place 6 c.c. of the oil in a 500 c.c. round-bottomed flask, and add 
25 c.c. of solution No. 1 and 25 c.c. of water. Boil until clear, i.e., 
saponified. Pour in about 350 c.c. of hot water and bring to a boil. 
Now add 25 c.c. of solution No. 2 and boil for a few moments, then 
set aside to crystallize in a moderately warm place so that crystalli- 
zation will be slow. A pure oil will give the characteristic large, 
square-ended, opaque crystals. The specific gravity is also of assist- 
ance in determining adulteration, a pure oil running from 1-84 to 1-83 
at 1 5 C, boiling-point from near 21 8° to 221 C. 

This .test, however, will not detect the adulteration of a pure oil 
with a synthetic methyl salicylate of less than about 5 per cent., 
and to be employed successfully it is necessary, of course, that the 
operator be perfectly familiar with the crystallization of the synthetic 
oil and comparative characteristics of the crystals. 

This test does not distinguish between the oil of wintergreen and 
oil of sweet birch, and while these two oils may possess different 
physical and physiological characteristics, the acid made from 
them is identical. But it is essential that we have the means of 
noting the presence of synthetic methyl salicylate which acts physio- 
logically, as we have seen, in an entirely different manner. 

Referring to the physical characteristics of these oils, an expert 
can readily distinguish by the odor the different oils. It is particu- 
larly marked between the synthetic oil and the oils of vegetable 
origin. It is interesting to note that distillers of oil of sweet birch 
often add the leaves of the wintergreen plant in distilling, evidently 
with the purpose of imparting a certain characteristic odor to the 



A s™ptembef h i903."} Powder Mixer and Percolator Support. 407 

oil which is distilled, and to those who employ these oils for their 
flavoring properties, it is essential that they are not substituted one 
for the other, both from an economic as well as a practical stand- 
point. 

In conclusion, we would say, that with our present knowledge of 
these oils, it would seem advisable to continue in the Pharmacopoeia 
Oleum Gaultheriae, Oleum Betulae Volatile and Methyl Salicylas. 



A POWDER MIXER AND A PERCOLATOR SUPPORT. 1 

By H. F. Ruhi,. 

The accompanying photographs illustrate a home-made powder 
mixer made by the writer, except the iron work, which was done by 
a neighboring blacksmith. It is constructed on the principle of a 
butter-churn, which, by means of a crank, is made to revolve on its 
axis, thus turning end over end and causing the contents to become 
thoroughly mixed. 

The dimensions of the frame are as follows : The side up- 
rights are of 2 x 4 lumber, and are 48 inches long; the cross 
pieces of the frame are of 1 x 3 lumber and 28 inches long. The 
box, or powder mixer proper, is 18 inches square and 30 inches 
high. The lid is made of two boards, with the grain of the 
wood crossing at right angles to prevent warping. The board on 
the under side of the lid is an inch smaller all around, as shown in 
the smaller photograph, and fits snugly into the top of the box ; 
the lid is fastened in place by four door-shutter screws, such as were 
used years ago on the front doors of many pharmacies. 

The iron work for each axle consists of two pieces of iron 
x 12 inches, crossed at right angles, to the centre of which (at right 
angles) is fastened the axle proper, 1 inch thick and about 10 
inches long. (See smaller photograph.) On the inner side of the 
frame, where the uprights cross, iron plates 4 inches square and 
3x16 inches thick, with a hole I inch through the centre, are fas- 
tened, in which the axles revolve. On each oi the axles inside of 
the iron plates, a flange is made, so as to keep the mixer from shift- 
ing from side to side. Each axle is fastened with eight bolts (two 



1 Read at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
June, 1903, and communicated by the author. 



A s™pt J e°mber, b i9o™"} Powder Mixer and Percolator Support, 409 

on each arm). The end of each axle is shaped to receive a crank, 
though two are hardly ever needed except when very large quan- 
tities of powder are to be mixed. In using the mixer the powder is 
passed through a coarse sieve into the mixer (to break up any pos- 
sible lumps), the lid screwed down, and by turning the crank the 
box is caused to revolve. The height of the box, and the fact ot 




the box being square, causes the powder to shift from end as the 
mixer revolves and mixes the powder thoroughly if the mixer is 
not run too rapidly. 

The cross-pieces of the frame, the lid and all the wood work, 
except the box, are fastened together with screws. The box is 
nailed securely. 



4io 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September, 1903. 



As a mixer for horse and cattle powder, this home-made arrange- 
ment has been the source of a great deal of satisfaction to the 
writer. As much as 128 pounds of powder has been mixed at one 
time with perfect ease. 

A Simple Percolator Support. — At one time a support for a per- 
colator had to be devised tor showing a pharmaceutical operation 
in the show window. The regular retort stand not being high 
enough, an iron rod r 5 g- inch thick (same thickness as retort 
stand rod), and about 22 inches long, shaped by a blacksmith 
into a flat U, 2 inches high and about 16 inches wide, with two 
holes at each end for fastening with screws against the wall, was the 
happy solution. After the window display was over, this rod, fas- 
tened against the wall, back of the working counter, has done excel- 
lent service when the retort stand would not support the weight ot 
a heavy percolator, or if the retort stand was not high enough. 
The excellent feature of this simple support is its rigidity. No 
matter how large a percolator is fastened to it (with the regular 
retort rings) it is always firm. 

A support like this could be made longer, and thus offer a wider 
range of usefulness, but the writer would much prefer to have two 
or three of them, and have them fastened at different heights to 
the wall, for greater rigidity is thus secured. No investment of a 
dime has ever brought as great returns as the one spent for this 
percolator support. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING ADVANCES 
IN PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

BY M. I. WlI,BERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Foreign pharmaceutical journals have been giving considerable 
attention to historical matters relating to pharmacy, among others 
the PharmaceutiscJie Post has published, serially, a contribution to 
the " History of Pharmacy in Germany and Austria," while the 
Zeitschrift des Allgemeinen Oesterreichisclien Apotheker-Vereines has 
been publishing installments of a lengthy u History of Glycerin as a 
Medicinal Agent," by Dr. J. Hockauf. 

In England the Dalton Centenary was the occasion for more or less 



^epSw^S 1 -} Progress in Pharmacy. 411 

lengthy historical articles in the British Pharmaceutical Journal. 
The celebration itself, which occurred on May 19th and 20th, was 
under the auspices of the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Manchester, and was attended by representatives from chemical 
societies of many countries. In connection with this celebration 
Prof. F. W. Clarke, of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C. r 
delivered the Wilde Lecture on "The Atomic Theory." (Phar. 
Jour., 1903, page 759.) 

The Liebig Centenary . — The one hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of Justus von Liebig, on May 12, 1903, was the occasion for a rather 
widespread rejuvenation of interest in the work of this great chemist. 
The German chemical as well as pharmaceutical journals devoted 
considerable space to reviews of Liebig's life and work. Many of 
the biographical notices were contributed by men who had come more 
or less intimately in contact with Liebig and were therefore able to 
contribute a number of additional personal reminiscences that, it is 
to be hoped, will be gathered together in some form of memorial 
volume. 

Hoffmann Medal, instituted by the German Chemical Association 
in memory of the German chemist A. W. von Hoffmann, to distin- 
guished foreign chemists, was awarded for the first time on May 5th, 
of this year, to Prof. Henri Moissan, Paris, for his investigations into 
the chemical and physical properties of fluorine, and to Prof. W.. 
Ramsay, London, Eng., for his investigations into the composition 
of atmospheric air. 

The Hanbury Medal was awarded this year to M. Eugene Collin,, 
of Paris, France, for the prosecution of research in the natural his- 
tory of drugs. {Phar. Jour., May 9, 1903, page 659.) 

Rice Memorial. — American pharmacists and the committee on 
revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, have honored them- 
selves by marking, with a suitable monument, the grave of the late 
Charles Rice, in Woodlawn Cemetery, New York. 

The unveiling of this memorial took place on the afternoon of July 
7f 1 9^3, in the presence of representatives of the Pharmacopoeia 
revision committee and a number of friends. 

The monument consists ot a massive granite block, on a suitable 
base, and is fully in keeping with the life and wishes of the man whose 
last resting-place it is to mark. On a panel composing the front of 
the stone is the following legend: 



412 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
i September, 1903. 



« Charles Rice, Ph.D., 
Born October 4, 1841 
Died May 13, 1901 

Erected by his friends in grateful appreciation of his eminent ser- 
vices to Medicine and Pharmacy." 

The Fifth International Congress for Applied Chemistry met in 
Berlin, Germany, from the 2d to the 8th of June. According to 
the extensive reports in the German journals the congress was a 
truly representative one, and all of the meetings of the twelve sec- 
tions into which the practical work was divided, were well attended. 

Section 8 was devoted to Hygiene, Medical and Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry. Among the numerous papers that were presented to 
this section, one, by Dr. Mjon, on "The Control of Active Medica- 
ments," elicited considerable discussion. Dr. Mjon asserted that the 
present system of official inspection, in European States, was far 
from satisfactory and that the public was not receiving the protec- 
tion it was entitled to, particularly in connection with patented 
chemicals and so-called proprietary articles, which are not included 
in the present system of inspection. (Phar. Zeit., 1903, page 462.) 
Another paper, of considerable historic interest, was contributed by 
Dr. Kunz Krause, Dresden, " On the Relations of Applied Chemis- 
try to German Pharmacy." In this paper the writer calls to mind 
that scientific as well as applied chemistry has been greatly advanced 
by contemporary pharmacists, and quotes the names of a large 
number of well-known chemists who at some time in their life were 
connected with pharmacy. 

Absorbent Cotton. — Dr. F. Keppler (Siid-Deutsche Apoth. Zeitg., 
l 9°3> P a g e 439) reports the examination of seven samples of ab- 
sorbent cotton, of which only two were considered to be very 
satisfactory, the remaining five gave a distinct acid reaction with 
litmus paper and also a distinct turbidity with barium nitrate test 
solution, indicating the presence of sulphuric acid. The fat present 
varied from 0-27 per cent, for the best, to 0-53 per cent, for the 
poorer quality. 

Alkaloidal standards in the new Italian Pharmacopoeia. Accord- . 
ing to a paper by G. Frerichs [Apoth. Zeitg., 1903, page 420) the 
following drugs and preparations are to be standardized, gravimetri- 
cally : Cinchona bark, to contain 5 per cent, of total alkaloids ; 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 1903. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



413 



extract of aconite, to contain not less than 05 per cent, of alkaloid ; 
extract of belladonna, to contain not less than 0-5 per cent, of alka- 
loid ; extract of hyoscyamus, the same as belladonna ; extract of nux 
vomica, 10 percent, of total alkaloids; extract of opium, 15 per 
cent, of morphine; opium, not less than 10 per cent, of morphine ; 
cantharides, 0-4 per cent, of cantharidin. 

Anesthol. — This is the name given by Prof. W. Meyer to a mixture 
of chloroform, 43-25 ; ether, 56 75 ; and ethyl chloride, 20-50, to be 
used as a general anesthetic. (Phar. Zeitg., 1903, page 544, from 
Centralb.f. Gynecol?) 

Anthrasol, a limpid, light-yellow oil, resembling olive oil in 
appearance, is obtained from coal tar, and is described by the manu- 
facturers as being a purified, colorless tar of great activity. It is said 
to be readily soluble in absolute alcohol, acetone, fatty oils, paraffine 
and paraffine oil. It has been used with some success in various 
skin diseases in which tar and preparations of tar have been found 
useful. {Zeitschr. d. Allgem. Oest. Apoth. Ver., 1903, page 661.) 

Cod-Liver Oil Substitutes. — A correspondent of the Pharmaceutische 
Zeitung (1903, page 428) suggests oil of sesamum as a desirable 
substitute for cod-liver oil. If thought desirable the addition of a 
minute quantity of iodine would serve to make the resemblance still 
more eligible. 

Empyroform. — A formaldehyde tar preparation, to be used in 
various skin affections, is described as a dry, non-hygroscopic, brown 
powder. It is insoluble in water but soluble in chloroform, acetone 
and the solutions of the caustic alkalies. The preparation is said 
to be quite as efficient as tar and to be devoid of the disagreeable 
and penetrating odor so characteristic of the latter. [Phar. Zeitg., 
1903, page 544.) 

Filmaron is the name given by Kraft [Phar. Zeitg., 1903, page 
275) to an amorphous acid that he considers to be the active con- 
stituent of Male Fern rhizome. Filmaron is described as being a 
bright yellowish-brown powder, insoluble in cold alcohol or petro- 
leum spirit , freely soluble in chloroform, ether or carbon disulphide. 
The rhizome of male .fern contains about 5 per cent, of filmaron. 
The dose is said to be from 0-50 to 0-70 at one time. 

Gasu Basu, the name of an Indian plant discovered by Dalma. 
This plant contains an alkaloid that is said to be a satisfactory local 
anesthetic. Under the trade name Nervocidin it has been used to 



414 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September, 1903. 



some extent in solutions of from o-oi to o-i per cent. (Phar. Centralh., 
l 9°3> P a g e 3°3» ^ rom l es Nov. Rem.) 

Hyoscyamus Muticus. — As a direct result of the published investi- 
gations into the composition of this plant the Pharmaceutical Journal 
( r 9 3»P a g e 585) records the importation and sale of several bales of 
Hyoscyamus muticus, presumably to manufacturers of hyoscyamine, 
which alkaloid has been demonstrated to be present in unusually 
large quantities. 

Ichthyol Applications in Smallpox. — A Siberian physician, Dr. 
Kolbassensko (quoted by Sud-Deut. Apoth. Zeitg., 1903, page 439) 
recommends the application of ichthyol or thyol, to prevent the 
progress of this disease. He ascribes the reported favorable results 
entirely to the black color, on the theory that the development and 
progress of smallpox is largely dependent on the chemically active 
rays of the spectrum. 

Iodeugenol. — A preparation somewhat similar to aristol, made by 
allowing iodine to react with eugenol in an alkaline solution. It is 
described as being a yellowish powder having a slight odor of 
eugenol. Iodeugenol is insoluble in water but freely soluble in 
ether, fatty oils and solution of sodium hydrate. It is said to be a 
more efficient disinfectant than aristol. [Phar. Zeitg., 1903, page 487.) 

Manganese Saccharate and Syrup of Manganese. — The following 
formula for this appears in one of the recent pharmaceutical journals 
(Sud-Deut. Apoth. Zeitg., 1903, page 298) : 

Dissolve 87 grammes potassium permanganate in from 4 to 5 
liters of hot water, allow to cool to about 30 C. and pour into a 
mixture of 250 grammes of syrup with I liter of water. After com- 
plete reduction of the permanganate, the resulting magma is washed 
with irom 6 to 8 liters of a I per cent, solution of sugar, and final y 
strained and pressed to free it from an excess of water, then add 
about an equal weight of sugar; finally add a solution of 7 5 
grammes of sodium hydrate in 30 grammes of distilled water and 
allow to stand for about twelve hours at about 20 C. ; finally dilute 
the whole, with distilled water, to weigh 1,500 grammes. The 
syrup contains about 2 per cent, of manganese. 

Methyl Acetyl Salicylate — Methyl Aspitin, has been recommended 
as an anti-rheumatic. Methyl aspirin occurs as colorless, insoluble 
crystals in water, but soluble in alcohol, glycerin, chloroform and 
the fatty oils. It is not decomposed by dilute acids, but is readily 



Am. Jour. Pharra.l 
September, 1903. I 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



415 



decomposed by alkalies. Given in daily doses of from 5 to 8 
grammes. (Sud-Deut. Apoth. Zeit. y 1903, page 295, from Repertoire 
de P/iar.) 

Melting Point of Paraffin. — This is given in the German Pharma- 
copoeia as being from 74 to 8o° C. Thede {Phar. Zeitg., 1903, page 
373) says that in twenty years' experience with different kinds of 
paraffin he has never met with a sample that had a higher melting 
point than 65 to 66° C. By far the greater number of paraffine 
samples have a melting point of from 54 to 6o° C. Thede further 
suggests that the Pharmacopoeial Commission no doubt intended 
that ceresin be used in place of paraffin. 

Narcotile. — An abstract in American Medicine (June 6, 1903, page 
930) describes the method of administering narcotile. From the 
description given it would appear to be a compound somewhat 
similar, in its effects at least, to chloride or bromide of ethyl. It is 
used for general anesthesia of short duration or as an introduction 
to ether-narcosis. 

The Gelatinization of Tincture of Kino. — Edmund White (Phar. 
your., 1903, page 644) gives a preliminary report on some experi- 
ments that he has been making with tincture of kino, with a view 
of determining the cause of its frequent gelatinization. 

From his experiments White has come to the conclusion that the 
gelatinization is due to an enzyme, probably an oxydase, and sug- 
gests that a simple heating of the preparation to the boiling point 
would effectually prevent gelatinization. This he further demon- 
strates by reporting some comparative experiments. The sample of 
tincture which had been heated remained ljmpid after the main or 
unheated portions had become gelatinized. 

Note on Kino Enzyme. — Following the report of the experiments 
made by Edmund White, David Hooper, F.C.S. [Phar. Jour., 1903, 
page 840), publishes some experiments which he made with several 
varieties of kino with a view of determining the nature of the 
enzyme, and also the degree of heat necessary to destroy the same. 
Hooper finds that the enzyme is an oxydase, and will readily with- 
stand a dry heat of 90 C. for several hours. Its activity is readily 
destroyed, however, when boiled in water at 100° C. 

If, in practice, these reports are found to be based on fact, they 
would indicate a very simple procedure to prevent gelatinization in 
this highly useful astringent tincture. Simple boiling in water of 



416 American Pharmaceutical. Association. { '^pimbef,^™* 

the kino, with the subsequent addition of the necessary amount of 
alcohol. 

Leaves of the Coniferous Plants are the subject of a communication 
by A. Tschirch, from the Pharmaceutical Institute of the University 
of Berne (Schweiz. Wochenschr. f. Chem. u. Phar. t 1903, page 254), 
in which he gives descriptions accompanied by illustrations of trans- 
verse sections of thirty-three typical varieties of leaves of coniferous 
plants. Tschirch suggests, as a practical application of a study of 
these leaves, that in many cases it would be possible to obtain addi- 
tional evidence as to the origin of a resin or other product, by a 
careful examination of the accompanying leaf remnants. 

Velopurin is an ointment base that is said to be produced by dis- 
solving from 80 to 150 grammes of an olein soap in 100 of alcohol, 
after filtering from 50 to 100 grammes of olive oil are added, and 
the whole emulsified in a mortar. The resulting mixture is particu- 
larly recommended as a base for ointments of mercury on account 
of the ready absorption of the latter. (Zeitschr. d. Allg. Oest. Apoth. 
Ver., 1903, page 689.) 

Medicated Waffles. — This appears to be the latest fad in Germany. 
The waffles are said to be prepared so that each one contains the 
required average dose of the desired medicament. 



AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The fifty-first annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association was held at Mackinac Island, Mich., August 3d to 10th, 
the Grand Hotel being the headquarters of the Association. 

Immediately upon convening the first session on Monday after 
noon, President Geo. F. Payne, of Atlanta, Ga., introduced Dr. J. R. 
Bailey, a resident of Mackinac Island and one of the oldest drug- 
gists of Michigan, who welcomed the members of the Association 
in a short but pleasing address. Prof. Jos. P. Remington, of Phila- 
delphia, being invited to respond for the older members of the 
Association, spoke of the representative character of the Association 
and the custom of holding the meetings in various sections of the 
country, and among other things said that as early as 1634 Macki- 
nac Island was discovered by the French explorer Jean Nicolet. 
Mr. O. W. Bethea, of Meridian, Miss., was also called upon to speak 
and graciously responded as the representative of the younger 
members. 



^eptembef^S 1 '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 417 

The President then called upon several of the official delegates 
present. Frederick T. Gordon, a pharmacist of the Navy, said that 
this was the first time the U. S. Navy had recognized pharmacy by 
sending a delegate to the Association. The Public Health and Marine 
Hospital Service was represented by Albert W. Roehrig and Henry 
Gahn, the former of whom said that pharmacy had made wonderful 
progress, although the Government had been slow to recognize it. 
This, he said, was largely due to precedent, a factor of much import 
with the Government. Lyman F. Kebler, of the Bureau of Chem- 
istry, (J. S. Department of Agriculture, said that by a recent Act of 
Congress a number of adulterated drugs can be kept out of our 
markets, but that this Act does not apply to many chemicals and 
other products, and the question often arises as to whether a product 
is a drug or some other commodity. He said that much legislation 
is needed along this line, and that the aim should be to establish 
patent processes rather than to sanction patent products. Thomas 
P. Cook, of New York, cordially greeted the Association on behalf 
of the National Association of Wholesale Druggists, and Lewis C. 
Hopp, of Cleveland, O., spoke of the work and purpose of the 
National Association of Retail Druggists. 

The fact that over fifty organizations, including three departments 
ot the U. S. Government, sent delegates to the meeting is significant 
as showing the interest taken in the deliberations o the Association 
and as indicating the extent of the power and influence ot" the 
A. Ph. A. in various ways. 

First Vice-President Wm. L. Cliffe, of Philadelphia, was asked to 
take the chair while the presidential address was being read by 
George F. Payne. 

The address was rather lengthy, being devoted to the consideration 
of a number of subjects, and contained twelve recommendations. It 
was referred to a committee consisting of Frank G. Ryan, John F. 
Patton and John W. Baird. At a later meeting this committee 
reported and the Association adopted the ollowing resolutions : 

(a) That the names of all committees to be appointed by the President for 
each year be arranged in a complete separate list by the General Secretary 
before the close of each annual meeting and a copy of the same be given the 
incoming President, preferably at the close of the last general session or as 
soon thereafter as practical. The General Secretary is very familiar with all 
the standing committees and can have them written out in advance with spac i 
between to insert any new committees which may be formed. This will prov 



41 8 American Pliarmaceutical Association. { A ^pf e mber h i a 9oT.' 



a saving of time taken up in correspondence between the General Secretary and 
the new President, and will enable the President to arrange his committees 
with much more promptness and satisfaction to himself. A president only has 
a few months to serve, and such a full list would save much time which is now 
necessarily lost in looking up these matters. 

(b) That the committees appointed by the President be printed together 
in the proceedings and not mixed up with those of the council, that the com- 
mittees to be appointed by the President may be seen by him at a glance and 
more easily studied and provided for. 

(c) That the various professors of colleges of pharmacy and members of State 
Boards of Pharmacy present be requested to unite in a joint conference at some 
convenient time during our meeting for an interchange of ideas and views in 
regard to what should be : ( I ) The generally adapted requirements of those 
who come before State Boards of Pharmacy for examination to secure license to 
practise pharmacy. (2) What should be the proper character of Board exami- 
nations. (3) What should really constitute a standard college of pharmacy. 

{d) That an index to his report be prepared each year by the reporter on the 
progress of pharmacy and attached to the work. (This was referred to the 
Committee on Publication.) 

{e) That the exhibit feature which was omitted at this meeting on account 
of the distance from any large city, be again resumed at the next meeting, as 
it is far too valuable in its instructive features to be discontinued. 

(J) That the work for a lower tax on alcohol be actively continued. 

(g) That the name of the Auxiliary Committee on Membership be changed 
to that of General Committee on Membership. It being a very important inde- 
pendent committee, the latter seems more appropriate. 

[h) That a committee be appointed to investigate the feasibility of publishing 
formulae for domestic remedies. (This was referred to the Committee on 
National Formulary.) 

Albert E. Ebert, of the Committee on Scope of Work of the 
Drug Laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, moved 
that the committee be continued, which motion prevailed. 

C. S. N. Hallberg, chairman of the Committee on Credentials, read 
the names of the various organizations which had sent delegates. 

The following named members were appointed on the Committee 
on Time and Place of Next Meeting : E. G. Eberle, chairman ; O. 
F. Claus, Wm. L. Cliffe, J. W. T. Knox, C. S. N. Hallberg. 

After the reading of the minutes of the previous session by Sec- 
retary Caspari, the first matter taken up at the Second General 
Session on Tuesday morning was the report of the Committee on 
Membership of the Council, which report was presented by Henry 
M. Whelpley, who had been chosen to succeed the late Geo. W. 
Kennedy as Secretary. The report showed that the Association 
now has 1,282 contributing members, 117 life members and ten 



^September! wo?'} American Pharmaceutical Association. 419 

honorary members. Sketches of the members who had died during 
the year were given, the one on the late Secretary Geo. W. Ken- 
nedy, eulogizing his life and work, being read in full. 

On motion of C.'S. N. Hallberg the report was adopted by a rising 
vote in honor of Mr. Kennedy. 

The Nominating Committee, Chas. E. Dohme, chairman, unani- 
mously reported in favor of the following candidates, who were 
accordingly chosen as the officers for the ensuing year : 

President, Lewis C. Hopp, Cleveland, O. ; First Vice-President, 
Wm. C. Alpers, New York ; Second Vice-President, A. M. Roehrig, 
U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, New York; 
Third Vice-President, Otto F. Claus, St. Louis; Treasurer, S. A. D. 
Sheppard, Boston; Secretary, Chas. Caspari, Jr., Baltimore ; Reporter 
on Progress of Pharmacy, C. Lewis Diehl, Louisville ; Members of 
the Council for three years: Leo Eliel, South Bend, Ind. ; Geo. F. 
Payne, Atlanta, Ga. ; E. G. Eberle, Dallas, Tex. 

National Bureau of Medicines and Foods. — Dr. H. H. Rusby, 
chairman of the Committee for the Establishment of a National 
Bureau of Pure Foods and Drugs, first read the resolutions adopted 
by the committee, which were as follows: 

Whereas, The foods and medicines supplied in the United States do not so 
uniformly agree with proper standards of .purity, quality and strength as they 
should ; and 

Whereas, A degree of mistrust and want of confidence concerning quality 
of such foods and medicines prevails to a discouraging extent ; therefore it is 

Resolved, That a more perfectly organized system for remedying the above 
mentioned conditions than that now existing should be devised and put into 
operation ; and 

Resolved, That the A.Ph.A. and the American Medical Association, acting in 
harmony with the United States Government authorities, constitute the most 
competent and trustworthy means for obtaining the object named ; and 

Resolved, That the American Pharmaceutical Assoeiation shall co-operate to 
this end with the above-mentioned institutions, provided that a plan be devised 
satisfactory to those institutions, and that the committee of this Association be 
continued and instructed to report to the council in the event that a plan satis- 
factory to the council of this Association be reported to them previous to the 
next meeting of this Association. Said council shall be authorized to select 
from the members of the A.Ph.A. a Board of Directors consisting of five mem- 
bers to act with a similar board in the event of its appointment by the American 
Medical Association and with the United States Government authorities in the 
establishment of a National Bureau of Medicine and Foods, and the council 
shall immediately upon the election of such board report the same to the Presi- 
dent of the American Medical Association. 



420 American Pharmaceutical Association. { A ^ptemberfSS" 

Resolved, That in carrying out these resolutions the following general prin- 
ciples shall be adhered to : j 

(1) That neither this committee nor the proposed Board of Directors shall 
have any authority to draw upon any funds of the A. Ph. A. 

(2) That the methods employed for attaining the foregoing objects may in- 
clude combination of worthy ones as both, provided that said methods of con- 
demnation do not in any way involve the A. Ph. A. in legal responsibility. 

(3) That nothing to be undertaken by such bureau shall be in conflict with 
the spirit of the U.S. P. or with the U. S. Government authorities. 

(4) That the operations of the proposed bureau shall be free from any attempt 
to secure financial profit for any of the institutions named herein nor for any 
of their members or agents, but said bureau is authorized to employ proper 
means of securing the funds necessary to defray its legitimate expenses. 

Dr. Rusby in the course of his remarks said that he considered 
this the most important work ever brought before the Association. 
The committee had been informed on the question even before their 
appointment three months ago, but had gained much information 
since. He said that the American Medical Association had appointed 
a committee of five to consider the question and report at the last 
meeting, but all that that association could do was to continue their 
committee until it was decided what the A. Ph. A. was going to do. 
He therefore considered it important for the A. Ph. A. to appoint a 
board of directors to consider the subject, and he recommended the 
appointment of this board by the council temporarily. 

The committee has issued a general statement giving the plans 
contemplated by the proposed bureau. The plan has grown out ot 
the evils connected with the lack of standard in pharmaceutical 
preparations, adulterations of drugs, chemicals and food-stuffs, and 
the exceedingly complex condition of the many remedial prepara- 
tions constantly offered to the medical profession. It is proposed 
to establish standards (" levelize " the products up or down to one 
standard, viz , the U. S. Pharmacopoeia) (or medicinal and food 
products to which manufacturers shall adhere. The standards shall 
be made by a bureau of control consisting of ten directors, five to be 
elected by the American Medical Association and five by the A.Ph. A. 

" Manufacturers who desire to place the production of their goods 
under the supervision of the Bureau may become associate members 
upon a vote of eight of the ten directors ; and each product is then 
to be submitted to the Bureau for the establishment of the standard. 
Permission will thereupon be given to print upon each package of 
the product a statement expressing the Bureau's approval. More- 



A se/tember?i9o n 3.'} American Pharmaceutical Association, 421 

over, advertising matter will likewise be examined by the Bureau's 
censor, and will, if it conforms to the established requirements, be 
given the official 'O. K.' mark. 

" In order to have the proper legal and business standing, the work 
should be done by a corporation. As it is not intended that profit 
shall be made from the undertaking, the corporation should be a 
membership and not a joint stock corporation. It is proposed to 
incorporate under the laws of the State of New York, a membership 
corporation to be known as the National Bureau of Medicines and 
Foods. 

" The membership of this bureau should be of two or more classes. 
All members of the American Medical Association and the American 
Pharmaceutical Association should be scientific members of the 
bureau. The organization should be so effected as to fully protect 
the American Medical Association and the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, their agents and all their members who become mem- 
bers of the proposed bureau, from all possibility of being involved 
in legal or other complications that might assail the proposed 
bureau. Those manufacturers whose goods it might be requested 
to vouch for should be admitted to associate membership, but should 
have no voice in the control of the bureau." 

The legal aspects of the question had been investigated by Dr. 
Philip Mills Jones, of San Francisco, who said that the corporation 
as proposed had been pronounced by one of the leading law firms 
in New York City to be one of the strongest that could be organized. 

After some discussion Professor Diehl moved the adoption of the 
preamble and first resolution and referring the remaining resolutions 
to council. This motion was unanimously adopted. 

The report of the financial accounts in the care of the General 
Secietary was read by Professor Caspari and adopted. 

The Committee on General Prizes, Dr. Rusby, chairman, recom. 
mended that the John M. Maisch prize be awarded to Pierre Felix 
Perredes for his paper on " The Anatomy of the Stem of Denis 
Uliginosa Benth." (an Eastern Fish Poison); the Hager prize to L. 
W. Famulener and A. B. Lyons for their paper on " The Relative 
Strengths of Various Preparations of Digitalis and Kindred Drugs 
as Shown by Experiments with Frogs" ; first general prize to H. M. 
Gordin for his paper on "The Quantitative Estimation of Strychnine 
in Mixtures of Strychnine and Brucine " ; second general prize to 



422 American Pharmaceutical Association. {^p t J e°mbef, h i9o.3?" 

Ed. Schaer for his paper entitled " On Guaiac-Blue and Aloin-Red, 
and Their Use for Chemical Reactions"; and the third general prize 
to J. O. Schlotterbeck for his paper on " The Color Compound of 
Stylo phomm dip hy Hum and Chelidonium ma/us." 

The Auxiliary Committee on Membership, Wm. Mittelbach, chair- 
man, suggested that this committee be appointed at the annual 
meeting or soon thereafter, and that each member of the Association 
securing a new member be allowed Si to cover the expenses incurred. 

The Committee on Procter Memorial, Joseph P. Remington, chair- 
man, recommended that a canvass be made among members to 
secure life members so as to increase the Procter Fund (i. e., the life- 
membership fund) to $25,000. 

Carnegie Institution. — C. A. Mayo, chairman of the committee, 
reported that the following address had been submitted to the Board 
of Trustees of the Carnegie Institution and a reply was received to 
the effect that the Board did not consider it desirable at this time 
to establish an Advisory Committee on Pharmaceutical Research : 

To the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution : 

Gentium ex. —At the semi-centennial meeting of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association the following preamble and resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, Pharmacy in its higher branches is confronted with many grave 
problems which can only be solved by original research conducted along broad 
lines, and involving labors so great as to be wholly outside the possibility of 
individual performance under ordinary conditions ; and 

Whereas, The solution of these scientific problems is fraught with immense 
possibilities of good to the human race in the discovery of new drugs and the 
simplification of our materia medica and its more complete comprehension ; and 

Whereas, According to the articles of incorporation, the objects of the Car- 
negie Institution are — 

' ' (a ) To conduct, endow and assist investigation in any department of science, 
literature or art, and to this end to co-operate with governments, universities, 
colleges, technical schools, learned societies and individuals. 

" (b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research. 

" (c) To publish and distribute documents ; " therefore be it 

Resolved, That the American Pharmaceutical Association hereby petition the 
Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institution to establish an Advisory Com- 
mittee on Pharmaceutical Research, with a view to promoting original research 
in pharmaceutical science, etc. ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the President of the American Pharmaceutical Association be 
instructed to appoint a committee of twenty-five members, which committee 
shall be charged with the duty of laying the above resolutions before the Car- 
negie Institution, together with suggestions as to how the work of this Advisory 
Committee be conducted and made most effective. 

In pursuance of these resolutions a committee has been appointed represent- 



Am. Jour. Pharru. ) 
September, 1903. j" 



American Pliarmaceittical Association. 



423 



ing leading institutions of learning connected with pharmacy, to lay the matter 
before your board, and to proffer their services to the board in furnishing any 
information that may be desired regarding research in this particular field. 

In the original deed of trust the donor says that it is proposed to found an 
institution which " shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage 
investigation, research and discovery — show the application of knowledge to 
the improvement of mankind, etc. ' ' This phraseology warrants the inference 
that some portion of the funds of the institution are to be devoted to applied 
science, and if this should be done this committee respectfully urges that the 
Board of Trustees name an Advisory Committee on Pharmaceutical Research 
and appropriate such funds as may be required to carry out certain lines of 
co-operative research with the advice and under the direction of such Advisory 
Committee, and also appropriate funds for individual research work in this field. 

It is respectfully suggested to the Board of Trustees that it is not only im- 
portant to determine as to what work should be done in the domain of science, 
but also to determine what work is not being done and not likely to be done 
through other agencies already interested. 

There are many broad problems awaiting solution in pharmacy which can 
only be solved either by a widespread and comprehensive co-operation on the 
part of individual workers or by long continued and careful research on the 
part of specialists. The results to be achieved by such researches, while of the 
first importance in applied science, offer no prospect of any financial returns 
whatever, and unless their study is undertaken through some central agency of 
broad scope and ample means, such as the Carnegie Institution, these problems 
will remain untouched. 

At the International Conference for the Unification of Potent Remedies, held 
at Brussels on September 15-30, 1902, a motion made by the Swiss delegates 
that the conference determine the methods of alkaloidal assay was defeated 
on the ground that in the whole field of alkaloidal assay there was no one alka- 
loid of which it could be definitely stated that any certain method was the best 
to be used in making the assay. Much good has been done by individuals in 
this direction, but until this work is taken in hand in a broad and generous 
manner there can be no reasonable hope that any definite results can be 
obtained. In his annual address the chairman of the New York Section of the 
Society of Chemical Industry has pointed out the serious character of the errors 
arising from differences in methods in alkaloidal assay and the importance of 
standardization in this field. 

In the correspondence which has appeared in the columns of Science during 
the past few months touching on the most profitable field for the research work 
of the institution, several contributors have emphasized the need for some cen- 
tral body to aid and undertake the direction of co-operative investigations such 
as would be required to settle the above questions. This is but one of the many 
and important problems awaiting solution in pharmacy, and which can only be 
solved through co-operative research work on a large scale. 

Researches of this character can be carried out in pharmacy at a compara- 
tively slight expense, since competent workers can be found who will make 
experiments along certain lines at little or no expense to the general fund, pro- 
vided that the direction of the work and the codification and publication of the 
results obtained can be carried out at the expense of the institution. 



424 American Pharmaceutical Association. {i^ptemberfim" 

There is also great need in pharmacy for fellowships for advanced students. 
In the whole of the United States there are only two pharmaceutical fellow- 
ships in existence which are maintained from year to year at private expense. 
There are teachers in pharmacy who have marked ability in the field of research, 
but whose pedagogical duties and modest salaries make it impossible for them 
to prosecute lines of research already begun. Should the Carnegie Institution 
see fit to appoint an Advisory Committee on Pharmaceutical Research, such 
committee would find no difficulty in finding men who, if given comparatively 
small stipends, would be enabled to carr}^ on advanced research work with but 
slight expenditure of the funds of the institution, thus carrying out the instruc- 
tions of the donor to find the " exceptional man in every department of study 
. . and enable him to make the work for which he seems specially designed 
his life work." 

Should the Board of Trustees desire any further information or suggestions 
this committee would be pleased to carry out their wishes and to do everything 
that lies in its power to further the ends for which it has been appointed by the 
American Pharmaceutical Association. 

The Committee on Weights and Measures, Frank G. Ryan, chair- 
man, reported that the bill providing for the adoption of the metric 
system was withdrawn at the last session of Congress, but that it 
would be presented to both houses at the next session. He also 
stated that the most active opposition to this measure had come 
from mechanical engineers, and that while no positive progress had 
been made the discussions had been valuable. 

Various other committees presented reports as follows : The Com- 
mittee on National Legislation, F. C. Henry, chairman ; Delegates 
to the National Association of Retail Druggists, Wm. Mclntyre, 
chairman ; Delegates to the National Association of Wholesale 
Druggists, C. A. Mayo, chairman; and Delegates to the American 
Medical Association, C. S. N. Hallberg, chairman. 

The subject of the standardization of antidiphtheritic serum was 
brought up by L. E. Sayre, who offered a resolution requesting the 
U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service to establish and 
maintain a standard antidiphtheritic serum for the use of investi- 
gators, manufacturers and individuals who may have need for such. 
This was adopted. 

The place of meeting for next year selected by the Association is 
Kansas City and at the last general session it was decided to hold 
the meeting the first week in September. A total of 199 applicants 
for membership in the Association were reported at the last general 
session.. The report of the treasurer, S. A. D. Sheppard, was read. 
On motion of Edward Kremers and A. E. Ebert, the treasurer was 



A s D ept J eTb'e^ h i a 9 r o3!'} American Pharmaceutical Association. 425 

instructed to present a more detailed report of the finances of the 
Association for the information of the members at the next annual 
meeting. The report of " the committee on advancing the status of 
pharmacists in the public service," was read by the chairman, George 
F. Payne. A resolution was offered by C. S. N. Hallberg, asking 
the council to arrange the work of the Association so as to take the 
least number of days, and was unanimously adopted. 

A paper on " Procter Memorial," by John F. Hancock, was 
presented by the secretary, Chas. Caspari, Jr. C. Lewis Diehl moved 
that the paper be printed in the Proceedings, and that it be referred 
to council to present a report at the next annual meeting. 

With the installation of the new officers, the work of the annual 
meeting was brought to a close. 

SCIENTIFIC SECTION. 

The Scientific Section was convened on Wednesday morning 
with J. O. Schlotterbeck in the chair. Owing to the absence of 
the Secretary and the associate member of the committee, Edward 
Kremers and W. A. Puckner were selected to the respective offices. 
The chairman's address was devoted to the consideration of the 
investigations upon the mydriatic alkaloids, atropine and hyoscy- 
amine, and will be published in a later issue of this Journal. 

The Committee on Ebert Prize, Julius A. Koch, chairman, recom- 
mended the award of the prize to Frederick G. Power, London, for 
his paper on "The Chemistry of the Stem of Derris Uliginosa Benth. 
(An Eastern Fish Poison)." 

The Committee on Drug Market reported through E. H. Gane 
variations in the drugs and chemicals examined by them. The 
report will be printed in full in a later issue. 

The committee also moved the adoption of the following resolu- 
tions which were favorably acted upon by the section, but apparently 
not considered by the Association : 

Resolved, That it is the sense of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association that great good would be accomplished if the Secretary 
of the Treasury would confer with the Secretary of Agriculture for 
the purpose of making suitable arrangements with all the United 
States port chemists to place at the disposal of the Bureau of Chem- 
istry all their analytical methods bearing on drugs and chemicals 
and the data they obtain in the examination of imported goods from 
time to time. 



426 American Pharmaceutical Association. { s^ptimbe^im' 

Resolved, That the interests of medicine and pharmacy would be 
advanced by the appointment, under the direction of the Associa- 
tion of Official Agricultural Chemists, of a referee on medicinal 
plants and chemicals. 

At the third session ot the section the following officers were 
elected: William A. Puckner, chairman; E. H. Gane, secretary. 

The following papers were presented and are here given in 
abstract : 

Pilocarpus Leaves of Commerce. 

By Henry H. Rusby. 

The author called attention to the large proportion of spurious drug 
upon the market and said that a large number of drugs in tropical 
America are called " Jaborandi " which are not products of Pilocarpus. 
He recommended the use of the term " Pilocarpus " in place of Jabor- 
andi as this would tend toward excluding the spurious drug. He 
also described the principal commercial varieties, viz., Pilocarpus 
Jaborandi and P. microphyllus. 

East Tennessee Pink Root. 

By Rodney H. True. 

In considering the question of the cultivation of medicinal plants 
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Spigelia marilandica was 
selected as one of the plants which it would be desirable to cultivate. 
The specimens received by the Department proved to be Ruellia ciliosa 
(Fam. Acanthaceae) and it is supposed that the use of this material 
has led to the elimination of true " pink root " from the market. 

Tests for Phenacetin and Acetanilid. 

By George M. Beringer. 

The author reviewed the published statements in regard to the 
physical properties, reactions and tests for phenacetin and acetanilid. 
He has not found the indophenol reaction or Schwartz's test (the so- 
called isonitrile reaction) satisfactory, nor are some of the color 
reactions reliable. The author has devised the following test which 
he recommends as distinguishing phenacetin from acetanilid : -500 
gramme of either acetanilid or phenacetin with 20 c.c. solu- 
tion of sodium hydroxide (1 to 2 of water) are boiled in a flask, con- 
nected with a reflux condenser, for half an hour. After cooling this 



^pt J emb*er, h i9of '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 427 

is extracted with 25 c.c. of petroleum ether or ether; the ethereal 
solution is separated and filtered and the separating funnel and 
filter washed with sufficient ether or petroleum ether to yield 25 c.c. 
of solution. 1 c.c. of this solution is then tested with the following 
reagents : solution of chlorinated soda, filtered saturated solution o'f 
chlorinated lime, chromic acid solution (1 per cent.), solution of potas- 
sium bichromate (1 per cent.), solution of potassium permanganate 
(1 per cent.), solution of potassium ferricyanide (1 per cent.), solution 
of ferric chlorid (1 per cent.), cold saturated solution of ammonium 
vanadate and sulphuric acid, potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, 
solution of mercuric nitrate, and bromine test solution. 

The author claimed that by these tests, especially with the use of 
solutions of chlorinated lime, he can detect as little as 3 per cent, of 
acetanilid in phenacetin, the phenacetin solution being yellowish 
while the solution containing acetanilid is colored purplish. 

Mr. Beringer recommends for adoption in the pharmacopoeia the 
following test : " 1 gramme of phenacetin boiled for one minute with 
3 c.c. solution of sodium hydroxide (1 : 2), the solution cooled and 
then agitated with 5 c.c solution of chlorinated soda should remain 
a clear yellow liquid. The production of purple red or brown red 
cloudy liquid or precipitate indicates the presence of acetanilid." 
The author claims that " with the official description of melting 
point, Hirschsohn's bromide water test and each of the color tests 
with sodium hypochlorite, the pharmacist can test phenacetin for 
acetanilid." 

An Examination of Samples of Commercial Phenacetin. 

By George M. Beringer. 

The results of the author's examination of commercial samples 
showed that 148 were pure, 27 grossly adulterated and 7 slightly 
contaminated. 

Phenacetin. 

By Lyman F. Kebler. 

The history of the development of this chemical was traced from 
the researches of Cahours to the filing of a patent in this country. 
The patent was reviewed, and while it does seem to be an unjust 
grant of a monopoly, our present laws allow such a privilege, con- 
sequently the patent should be respected. Every possible effort 



428 American Pharmaceutical Association. {^^l^S^m: 

should be made to have the patent laws allowing monopolies of this 
character to be modified. The constitutions of phenacetin and acet- 
anilid were compared with a view of showing how difficult it is to 
detect the latter in the former by chemical means. The physical 
and chemical tests were reviewed and their utility ascertained. 
There are numerous misleading statements in literature relative to 
the efficacy of some of the chemical tests. It is virtually impos- 
sible to secure an ounce of the illegitimate product from the drug- 
gist, but the source of supply is usually well known to most of them. 
Very little phenacetin appears to be smuggled into this country at 
present. It is said to be regularly imported, duty paid, as phena- 
cetin and paracetphenetidin. 

Nux Vomica Assay. 

By W. A. Puckner. 

The results obtained by the author show that the aliquot part 
method in the assay of nux vomica gives correct results, apparently 
through a compensation of errors ; that an hour's maceration and 
subsequent percolation may well be substituted, and that alcohol 
should here be added to the light chloroform-ether mixture usually 
used in the Keller method, since its addition facilitates the extrac- 
tion of the alkaloids, and also prevents the formation of emulsions 
in subsequent steps of the determination. 

Mesouite. 

By E. G. Eberle. 

The author described the plant and mentioned the uses of the 
various parts. In regard to the gum, he said that one tree yields 
about five pounds. The dried sap with some of the gum is known 
as " black-gum." 

Contribution to the Pharmacology of Narcotine (A Correc- 
tion). 

By Albert E. Ebert. 

In previous papers (this Journal, 1867, p. 196, and 1902, p. 157) 
the author states that it is " a mistake to remove the narcotine from 
any of the preparations of opium." In a recent paper A. C. Craw- 
ford and A. R. L. Dohme (Proc. A. Ph. A., 1902, p. 478 ; also this 



^p/ember^igos '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 429 

Journal, 1902, p. 507) confirm these statements by experimental 
evidence. They further state, however, that they have found no 
evidence of the toxic effects as stated by Ebert, whereupon Mr. 
Ebert questions what this statement means, as his claim has been all 
along that narcotine is non-toxic. 

Acetic Acid as a Menstruum for Making Fluid Extracts. 

By J. Percy Remington. 

In this paper the author-summarized the results of experiments 
during the past few years in the manufacture of this class of prepa- 
rations and their medical properties. Dr. Kremers asked if experi- 
ments had been made to determine if there was a hydrolyzing 
action of the acetic acid menstruums on the principles of such drugs 
as hyoscyamus, etc. 

A New Metric Medicine Glass. 

By M. I. Wilbert. 

The author has devised a conical glass, which is graduated, in such 
a way that a teaspoonful is equivalent to 5 c.c; a dessertspoonful to 
10 c.c. and a tablespoon to 15 c.c. In reply to the statement that 
physicians should write their prescriptions in the metric system, as 
contended by one of the speakers discussing this paper, Mr. Smith 
said that while physicians may write their prescriptions in the metric 
system, they will order the dose in teaspoons. 

On the Crystalline Substances of Prickly Ash Bark. 
By H. M. Gordin. 

The author has isolated the crystalline substances from both 
northern and southern prickly ash barks. The method of isolating 
the crystalline principle (xanthoxylin, designated very happily by the 
author as xanthoxylin N) from northern prickly ash is as follows : 

44 Exhaust the powdered northern prickly ash with benzine, distill 
the latter off and take up the oily residue with a mixture of alcohol, 
water and potassium hydroxide (for ico grams oil take 20 grams 
KOH, 20 c.c. water and 70 c.c. alcohol). Warm the mixture 
gently about 10 minutes, dilute with water to about ten times 
the amount of oil taken and pass C0 2 into the mixture till the 
latter commences to become thick and change color from green to 



430 American Pharmaceutical Association. (^S^S 1 

yellow. The xanthoxylin N falls out at first amorphous, but on 
standing over night it becomes crystalline. The crystals are col- 
lected on a strainer, washed with water and recrystallized a couple 
of times from alcohol." 

The crystalline principle (xanthoxylin S) in southern prickly ash 
does not behave toward KOH and C0 2 like xanthoxylin N, and the 
following method has been devised for its isolation : 

" The powdered southern prickly ash was exhausted with ben- 
zine, the latter distilled off completely, and the oily residue mixed 
with twice its volume of petroleum ether. On standing over night 
a considerable amount of a crystalline sediment separated out. The 
crystals were taken up with cold ether, the ethereal solution filtered, 
the ether distilled off, and the residue recrystallized repeatedly from 
hot alcohol." 

The results thus far tend to show that xanthoxylin S is possibly 
an alcohol or a phenol of which xanthoxylin N is the methyl ether. 
The formula of xanthoxylin S could then be written C 14 H n (OH)0 3 , 
and that of xanthoxylin N, C 14 H n (O.CH 3 )0 3 

Measurement of the Wires and Meshes of Sieves. 
By Raymond H. Pond. 
The French Codex directs not only the fineness but the kind of 
material to be used for the sieves. The author examined the commer- 
cial sieves on the market and found that most of them are true in 
one direction, but in the other the number of wires varies considerably. 
He also found, as was to be expected, that the powders in the 
market varied considerably. One of the interesting things brought 
out in this discussion was the statement by Mr. Kebler that of a 
sample of so-called "No. 20" cinchona powder 53 per cent, 
would not pass through a No. 20 sieve. A powder of nux vomica 
had a similar large residue. 

Cod-Liver Oil and Its Adulterants. 
By E. H. Gane. 

The present scarcity of Norwegian cod-liver oil, coupled with the 
extraordinary advance in the market price, has resulted in especial 
attention being drawn to this article. The Jact that the present 
year's crop of oil is totally inadequate to supply the normal demand 
has led to the offering of numerous substitutes and to considerable 



^pTimbe^o™'} American Pharmaceutical Association. 431 

adulteration. The author submitted the following sample tests for 
the benefit of retail pharmacists. 

(1) Place half an ounce of the oil in a test tube and allow to stand 
in shaved ice for two hours. A pure non-freezing oil should remain 
perfectly clear. 

(2) Boil one fluid drachm of the oil with half an ounce of a 5 per 
cent, solution of caustic potash in alcohol until the solution is clear. 
Dilute with two ounces of water and heat until the alcohol is expelled. 
Then add an excess of hydrochloric acid and note the odor of the fatty 
acids. A strong herring-like odor or a bad smelling liquid indicates 
adulteration with seal or other oils. A faint herring odor may be 
disregarded. Pure cod-liver oil usually yields a soap and fatty acids 
of a fishy smell, with no bad odor. 

(3) Place twenty drops of the oil on a watch glass and add five 
drops of strong nitric acid. Stir well and note the color. Pure cod- 
liver oil gives a beautiful rose red color which changes in about halt 
an hour to lemon yellow. A dirty brown or blackish mixture 
indicates adulteration with other oils. 

A large number of analytical data and important bibliographical 
references accompanied the paper. 

The Physiological Assay of Cannabis Indica. 

By L. W. Famulener and A. B. Lyons. 

The authors contend that cannabis indica preparations can be 
standardized by physiological assay but not by chemical methods. 
They also found that the official fluid extract, extract and tincture 
alone retained their medicinal activity, while all preparations of the 
drug in the form of powders soon became inactive. 

Descriptions of Crude Drugs. 
By L. E. Sayre. 

The author illustrated the inaccuracy in the description of drugs 
depending upon gross characteristics as size, color, etc., and 
hoped that the information obtained from a histological study of 
drugs would be utilized in the identification of crude drugs. H. 
H. Rusby said that there were greater differences between the 
cellular elements of the different drugs than their external character- 
istics. 



432 American Pharmaceutical Association. { ^p^embef.'i™ 

An Improved Method for the Assay of Alkaloidal Drugs. 

By A. B. Lyons. 

In the method proposed by the author he avoids the use of ali- 
quot parts as in Keller's method. The elimination of aliquot parts 
from routine assay methods has been advocated by Puckner (Pharm. 
Review, xvi, p. 180 and xx, p. 457) and seems to be gaining ground 
in this country. 

The Lost Arts. Plasters. 
By C. S. N. Hallberg. 
The author gives the following formulae: 

Lead oleate — (emplastrum plumbi): soap, granular and dried, 
gm. 100; lead acetate, 60; distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 
Dissolve the soap in 350 c.c. hot distilled water and strain the solu- 
tion. Dissolve the lead acetate in 250 c.c. hot distilled water and 
filter the solution while hot into the warm soap solution, stirring 
constantly. When the precipitate which has formed has separated 
decant the liquid and wash the precipitate thoroughly with hot 
water. Remove the precipitate, let it drain, free from water completely 
by kneading it on a warm slab, form it into rolls, wrap in paraffin 
paper and preserve in tightly closed containers. 

Emplastrum adhesivum : rubber, cut in small pieces, gm. 20 ; 
petrolatum, 20 ; lead plaster, 960. Melt the rubber at a tempera- 
ture not exceeding I50°C, add the petrolatum and continue the heat 
until the rubber is dissolved. Add the lead plaster to the hot mix- 
ture, continue the heat until it becomes liquid, then let it cool and 
stir it until it stiffens. 

" The desirability of a formula which will produce a plaster hav- 
ing the adhesive and stable qualities of commercial rubber-plasters 
is generally recognized. To admit rubber plasters into the U. S. Ph., 
without giving a formula by which they can be made by the retail 
pharmacist, would be a decided innovation ; something which has 
not been done in any other class of galenic or pharmaceutic prepar- 
ations. Besides the vehicle for plasters intended for endermatic and 
diadermatic uses is of as much importance as is the medicinal agent. 
The rubber vehicle serves admirably for adhesive or purely epider- 
matic purposes, but its use for the plasters of the more important 
groups is certainly, to say the least, of questionable propriety. This 



Vl\nimber, h i903?'} American Pharmaceutical Association. 433 

is evident from the fact that the two most important pharmacopoeias 
of recent issue, the British of 1898 and the German of 1900, have 
not made any attempt in that direction. 

To recognize or describe medicated plasters such as belladonna 
and opium by denning the alkaloidal strength without reference to 
the particular vehicle employed would be a therapeutic negation. 
Their value depends not alone upon the amount of medicinally ac- 
tive agents they represent, but upon the character of the vehicle and 
the appropriateness for the purpose in view." 

The Benzin of the Pharmacopoeia. 

By E. H. Gane. 

The author presented results which show that " cracking " occurs 
with the lighter petroleum hydrocarbons almost as readily as in the 
case of the heavier American oils, and said that this explains the 
difficulty of procuring petroleum ether boiling within narrow limits. 

Heavy Oil of Wine. 

By I. W. Brandel. 

The author obtained 18 per cent, of heavy oil of wine from one 
liter of alcohol and the statement was made that the composition of 
the heavy oil of wine has not been fully determined. 

The Estimation of Sulphides. 

By Rolland H. French. 

The author has devised a method for estimating the amount of 
calcium monosulphide in sulphurated lime, based on the test of the 
U. S. P. 

The Chemical Analysis of Methyl and Ethyl Alcoholic 

Mixtures. 

By L. D. Haigh. Reported by A. B. Prescott. 

The author has devised the following test for detecting methyl 
alcohol in ethyl alcohol : 

After oxidation (by the use of red hot and superficially oxidized 
copper coil) of the 10 c.c. of diluted alcohol the filtered liquid is 
boiled in an open test tube until its volume is 5 or 6 c.c. The tube is 



434 American Pharmaceutical Association. { A s ^pt J e mbef, h i903?' 

cooled and its contents poured into a porcelain crucible or small 
evaporating dish. Five drops of phloroglucinol reagent are 
added from a pipette, when if methyl alcohol is present in the 
alcohol tested, even if but one part in twenty, the liquid acquires a 
bright red color, which persists for two or three minutes. If ethyl 
alcohol is present a faint reddish color at once appears, but fades 
away rapidly. 

The distinction is more clearly seen if the two cases are carried 
through the operation side by side, one with the mixed alcohols 
(i : io or i : 20), the other with pure ethyl alcohol. After a few 
trials the operator can tell at once if methyl alcohol be present 
when the reagent is added. On allowing the two dishes to stand 
after adding the phloroglucinol, from one-half to one hour, the liquid 
in the dish which contained formaldehyde fades to a faint and dirty 
red or orange color. The liquid in the other dish, which contained 
only acetaldehyde, changes to a blue color. 

Inferior Drugs and Insiduous Methods of Deception. 
By Lyman F. Kebler. 

The author divided adulterations into four classes : 

(a) Conventional adulterations are artificial coloring, the coating 
of ginger, the weighing of cochineal with various products, etc. A 
method of determining the tinctorial value of cochineal was given. 

(b) Accidental adulterations are widespread. Crude drugs usu- 
ally contain mixtures of foreign matter, such as dirt, stems, twigs, 
pods, foreign leaves, deteriorated and exhausted material to the ex- 
tent of 25 per cent. Examples were cited of cocoa leaves, cubeb 
berries, belladonna leaves, potassium iodide and potassium bisul- 
phate. 

(c) Arbitrary adulterations. In order to deal effectively with 
adulterations it is necessary to adopt some standard. In certain 
cases it is a minimum one and some manufacturers dilute a superior 
product so as to comply with such an adopted standard. 

(d) Intentional adulterations. The underlying motive for deal- 
ings of this character is monetary gain. Examples of this class are 
mixtures of potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide delivered as 
potassium cyanide, prime quality drugs mixed with inferior goods 
and beeswax adulterated with starch. 



A s™pt J e mbe?, h i9o^"} American Pharmaceutical Association. 435 

Geranium Oil and its Subst